Impact of Socio-Economic and Cultural Changes Essay
Social changes may be defined as the significant alteration of social structures (patterns of action and interaction) including consequences and manifestations of such structures embodied in norms, values, cultural products and symbols. It occurs in families, communities, nations and in all social institutions. More importantly, it is observed with greater concern that these changes are creating an overwhelming and unimaginable gap with unprecedented and increasing velocity within the generations. 2.
The middle aged generations and above is witnessing an abnormal growth of generation gaps being critically influenced by the advent of technology. Mass inception of Internet and cellular technology with its allied inventions in the social system have demonstrated outstanding positive outcome in the corporate and business world. Yet a considerable group of people claims that available social facilities yielding from the technological breakthrough have displayed severe and far reaching potentials in creating significant dent in the age old traditional values and ethics of the social system.
The recent perception of personal and private world, gender roles and gender equality, value disorientation, globalization etcetera seems o have created a new wave of individualism which is deplored by some and favored by others. These developments unfolded newer challenges and created demands for higher
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Adolescence may be defined as a critical period of human developments manifested at the biological, psychological and social levels of integration. It can be identified as a transitional phase in the human life span, linking childhood and adulthood. Typically age 16 to 21 may be categorized as adolescents for Bangladesh. An individual is likely to experience more storm and stress during adolescents than Impact of Socio-Economic and Cultural Changes on the Personality Development of Adolescents By titanic challenges posed by socio-economic, cultural and other related facts of life. 4.
Personality development may be explained as a means of developing a personality cult so as to create a strong positive impression about self within the social strata which are to be maintained and proved in a long run. The major components those influence personality comprises social and psychological elements of an individual. Social personality core factors include social values, communication skill, attitude and economic independence especially in relation to wealth while the psychological personality is in tune with personal values, approach, thinking pattern, emotional management and influenced by knowledge, intelligence and smartness. . The foregoing discussions thus indicate a scope of critical study in order to identify the impact of socio-economic and cultural changes on personality development of the adolescents. In doing so, this paper attempts to study and examine the socio-economic and cultural changes in the society. Following the identified changes a detailed study on the personality development of adolescents would be brought to light. The paper concludes by identifying the impacts of changes on the personality developments of the adolescents. The study, however, will limit its scope to typical Bangladesh socio-economic and cultural environment.
AIM 6. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of socio-economic and cultural changes on the personality developments of adolescents. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL SPECTRUM OF THE SOCIETY Concept of Values and Value System . Values. Value is a concept that describes the beliefs of an individual or culture. Values are considered subjective and vary across people and cultures. Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, aesthetic values etc. 8. Moral Values. Moral values are held to be right or wrong or desirable or undesirable.
Morality is sometimes described as ‘innate’ in humans. But in the scientific view a capacity for morality is genetically determined in us, but the set of moral values is acquired through example, teaching, and imprinting from parents ND society. Different cultures have very different moral values. Moral values, along with traditions, laws, behavior patterns, and beliefs are the defining features of a culture. 9. Cultural Values. Groups or societies have some general values that are largely shared by their members. These values identify those objects, conditions or normally include material comfort, wealth, competition and individualism.
Cultural values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the US, for example, professional athletes are more highly honored than allege professors, because their society values physical activity and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. On the other hand in Bangladesh a school master or an imam receives greater respect in the society than a local athlete. 10. Social Values. Social values are related to the norms off culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms.
Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be Judged as good or bad. Flying the national flag on a national day is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. 1 1 . Value System. A value system refers to how an individual or a group of individuals organize their ethical or ideological values. One or more people can hold a value system. Likewise, a value system can apply to either one person or many. A personal value system is held by and applied to one individual only. A communal value system is held by and applied to a community/group/ society.
There remains a conflict between these two systems because one is based on individualism while the other based on collectivism. A rational value system organized to resolve this conflict between two such value systems takes some form of comprise between them. A rationalized and well-defined value system acts as a moral code. Socio-Economic and Cultural Values Prevailing in Our Society 12. Nationalism – The Core National Value. The functions of culture in broader sense are related to perception, identity, motivation and communication. Culture also infuses nationalistic feeling that ultimately bears a unique identity of that society.
Culture integrates nation with identical habits, living style and beliefs of traditional bondage that provides an immense strength against any hostilities. There is some guidance for core national value in the part II of the Constitution of Bangladesh. The overriding core value is nationalism, which is at the very heart of Bangladesh emergence and existence as a nation state. Dedication to a unique culture, commitment to determine its destiny, to strive for economic independence and to uphold the Bengali linguistic identity are all ingrained in this feeling of distinct national identity. 13.
Joint Family Concept. Large family with very strong bondage was the basic element of our society. Since time immemorial this concept was practiced throughout our society irrespective of religion, cast or ethnic identity. With ever increasing population this value is facing tremendous internal challenges since long. With the cultural invasion this concept is gradually fading away being outplayed by individualism. Feature of our social behavior. As such rift among the class and cast have never been violent. A beautiful communal harmony among the different religions has ensured a very congenial atmosphere.
That is why; the UN has recognized Bangladesh as Moderate Muslim democratic country. 15. Religious Customs and Practices. Since the 12th century Islamic customs and practices became the key component of our social values but minorities enjoyed equal rights for practicing their religion. Looking at the list of our festivals it is amply clear that our heritage is endowed with religious customs, practices and rituals. Traditionally the people of this sub continent are religious minded and most of them are believer of God. As such strict adherence to religious customs and practices have marked influence on our socio-cultural values. 16.
Strong Marital Relations. Marriage in our culture is respected as a social and religious institution. Lifelong marital relation is still the most common practice with very few examples of divorce or separation. Polygamy was never very frequent except in lower class of the society. Respect to conjugal relation, mutual trust between partners and sacrificing attitude in built in our socio-cultural values usually foster our marital relation to such a long lasting one. 17. Simplicity and Hospitality. People of Bangladesh are very simple and friendly. Historically Bangles are soft, decent and simple in dress up, behavior, and attitude.
More than 70% of the population lives in rural areas. Arbitration has, however, been rapid in last decades. But still the simplicity of rural life can be felt in their dress up, attitude and behavior. Hospitality was one of the key social traditions which were recognized worldwide. Socio-Economic and Cultural Changes in the Society 18. General. Socio-economic and cultural affairs of any society comprise elements those witness gradual but continuous alteration in minor and major life events. The differences in such affairs grow with the change of generations.
Due to the intricacies involved in ‘Change Management’ the preceding generations at times find it difficult to attain smooth acceptance to the newer definitions of values and life styles. Acceptance gradually becomes critical with the increased generation gaps. Thus understanding of psychological dimension becomes imperative to address adolescents’ society. Comprehension of this understanding leads to identify the socio-economic and cultural changes those have affects adolescents’ life events and seemingly responsible for declining social values which negatively affects personality development of adolescents. 19.
Emergence of Corporate Culture. Since the beginning of 21st century, the term ‘Corporate Culture’ became increasingly popular in Bangladesh. It emerged as a culture by itself and gradually started influencing the socio-cultural and economic enervation and thus influencing to alter some of their social values. It has potentials to bring significant changes in the social structure. This culture has occupied an alleviated position within the social structure. The term ‘Corporate Culture’ has been introduced to identify a relatively well off class of people those seem to be little smarter in their actions than the traditional class of people.
The systems applied to the corporate culture are fast and flexible and thus have the ability to break some of the values of the society. The major changes include mass scale employment of girls o various national and multinational companies, increased Job opportunities, developing a professional aptitude towards social systems etc. 20. Media Invasion. Satellite Channels. Bangladesh introduced satellite channels in the early ass. At the beginning only five to ten channels were shown.
However with the increasing demand this has become a profitable business and as such the service providers are now showing 60 to 100 channels of different nations and different cultures. The network has spread even to the villages and thereby created a big market. The satellite channels are the most preferable sources of entertainment in resent days. At the same time there are several channels that affect the deepest fabric of our society by staging indirect ridicules and showing irrelevance of most important of our values like the institution of marriage, respecting elders, modesty and values of chastity.
Unfortunately, these channels are more popular. Absence of any proper scrutiny of the channels by any legitimate authority has acted as a catalyst to show unethical and immoral displays. By Just scanning the channels one will not only see the good channels like ‘Discovery, ‘National Geographic Channel’ or History channel’, he will also see channels like TV’S’ or ‘BSTJ’ which are nothing better than full of vulgarism. These channels are very attractive to the youths and teenagers that cause moral degradation.
The western movie channels and many of the Hindi channels propagate unhealthy sexual disposition, violence, anti social crimes that influence its viewers to commit the same in reality. Most of the female viewers of satellite channels prefer Hindi serials instead of Bengali programmers shown in the Bangladesh satellite channels. The boys or girls discuss the sequels in the schools or colleges with their friends. They also try to follow the fashions of the Indian heroines. We are also very eager to see the Indian Bengali channels.
Unfortunately on the contrary our satellite channels do not get a free run to be telecast in India. This shows lack of regimentation in our society. B. Offensive Movies. There are as good as 1085 Cinema halls in the country. In many of the cinema halls foreign movies (Hindi, English) are shown. We know in the western culture adultery has been made legalized by law and this has been reflected in their movies too. Plywood has already earned a good name in copying Hollywood ivies and this effort of copying has resulted into inclusion of vulgarism in Hindi movies. Many of these types of films are shown in our cinema halls.
These films are full of sex, violence and thereby attract people particularly teenagers causing moral the Hindi movies incorporating violence and sex. Despite many efforts by the censor board and government instructions, the film producers could not be refrained from making such films. The resultant is the degradation of our moral values and standard of our Bengali films. C. Music and Melodies. The cultural tradition of Bangladesh regarding music and oldies are very rich. Rabin Nathan, Unusual Islam, Allan Fakir and various folk songs reflect our indigenous culture.
However for about a decade and a half a gradual shift is marked in this sector. The people have got an easy and cheap access to foreign music through satellite channels, audio and video cassettes, compact discs etc. The western pop, rock, Jazz and the Hindi music have increasingly become popular to our people especially to the young generation instead of our native music. In the recent days the inclusion of video music has worsened the situation where obscene is the main focus. To keep pace with the changing taste of our people the band music has emerged and earns enormous popularity to the youths in particular.
There are now innumerable band music groups in the country. Even the traditional folk songs are sung again giving a flavor of pop, rock or Jazz, which are also very popular. This shift in the taste from native music is surely a great threat to our indigenous music. 21. Stage and Live Shows. Various stage programmers arranged in the country which are common in western countries or programmers arranged in participation of foreign artists are serious threats to our culture. All such programmers, which do not inform to our culture, are injurious. Few of such programmers are described below: a. Live Concerts.
Recently there are many instances of arranging live concerts by our local sponsors where the foreign artists are the main attractions. The Indian Idol 2005 was flown in Bangladesh to perform in several live concerts where he amused the audience with the Hindi songs. The crowds were bigger than the crowds that usually attend any concert performed by our native performers. It is an indicator of the cultural aggression to our society. B. Fashion Shows. In the recent days fashion shows are arranged regularly. The whole concept of such programmers is new to our culture, though very old in the western countries.
Many of such programmers are arranged to promote local apparels, but the very way of presentation is not decent. Girls displaying apparels make themselves pieces of display by their posture and catwalk. Apart from these many fashion shows are arranged that do not promote any indigenous apparel. C. Beauty Contests. Traditionally the Bangladesh society is conservative. More over majority of the people are Muslims. Neither the societal norms nor the religious tradition support any such beauty contests. But the fact remains; these are being arranged and sponsored by the rich sponsors.
Bangladesh girls have also participated in the ‘Miss World’ competition. These do not conform to our culture. Religious festivals we have traditional festivals also like Nabob’s, Basalts Tutus etc. We find changes in the traditional ways of celebrating such festivals. Young generations seem to be parasitic and invertebrate and are totally devoid of historical facts. They endeavourer to alter the traditional cultural functions and dance in the streets wearing masks of ghosts and animals during Bangle Nebraska. These dances are totally idolatrous. Moreover, they are by no means related to the life style of the people of the nation.
Some foreign festivals like ’31st Night’, ‘English Happy New Year’, Valentine’s Day etc are gradually being saturated within the traditional culture of Bangladesh.. Observing the 31st Night, Valentine’s Day or holding an open air foreign style concert has become a fashion among the younger generation. Some even go to the extent of observing the April fool’s day, a tradition which is not in conformity to the culture of Bangladesh. 23. Various Publications. Our culture is also threatened by various foreign and our own print medias. Some of the affected fields are described below: a.
Newspapers/ Magazines/ Journals. Some of our dailies and weeklies are patronizing entities. These often publish semi nude photographs of foreign and our own heroines. This is done deliberately to create market for the films. These seduce people particularly the young generation. Smuggling of obscene and semi nude pictures and pornographic magazines are also encouraged by a group of people to spoil our culture and young generation. Some magazines, which are banned in the country, are also easily available in the market. Apart from this our renowned dailies also patronize alien culture.
For commercial benefit these dailies do not hesitate to promote foreign movies, TV programmers by publishing almost full page advertisement without considering its impact on our culture and society. B. Literatures. Foreign literatures are found in abundance in our country. The Indian literatures are very popular in our country and occupy a good share in the publication market. But the same is not the case for our literatures in Indian market. More over literatures of other countries are also available in our country. The best sellers are available in our markets within days after being published.
These are photocopied and made easily available in the streets of Dacha as the copy right law is not strictly in force. Foreign culture has intruded into our classrooms also. The textbooks of various English medium schools are published outside and mostly reflect their culture. The children thereby receive knowledge about foreign culture. Such children grow in their own country as foreigners having less respect to their own society, culture and tradition. 24. Information and Communication Technology COT) Culture. The 21st century is specially marked for the invention of CIT which started breeding in the sass and has come a long way.
Internet and mobile telephone have made life faster, easier and dynamic. These have become part of life as these are being used for the promotion and easy access to this technology has made it as the global connector of people, societies and nations. Countries are in a competition to achieve superiority in this aspect as CIT directly contributes to prosperity. However CIT is a source of threat to our culture also. The sources and impacts are described below: a. Internet. The Internet has changed our attitude towards media and broadcasting. It is a paradigm shift, perhaps the new way of broadcasting in an interactive manner.
Earlier, radio, television, newspapers and publications were the means for disseminating message to the people. Besides these, now a days Internet has become another tool for broadcasting. Internet has become very popular in the urban areas of Bangladesh. The e-mail and the Internet telephone are very popular means of communication. Besides exploring the unlimited world of Internet, people are making intentional access to its dark side also. People are accessing to the obscene, pornographic and subtle propaganda sites of Internet, which may be acceptable in the western societies but certainly not in our one. B. Mobile Phones.
The vogue of recent days is the mobile phones. The growth in this sector in Bangladesh is also appreciated around the globe. The commercial aspect of this sector is so bright that the mobile phone companies are in a competition amongst themselves to reduce prices in order to attract customers. The customers are replying to their appeal too. Because of cheap and easy availability, students, youths, criminals have got easy access to this, which at times create social problems. The young generation use mobile phones for chatting with girls/ boys or disturbing others at late night taking the facilities of off peak hour low call charge.
The phone companies are also encouraging these by launching suitable packages. Present Trend of Globalization and Increased Job Opportunities. In the early 25. ass, the world saw a trend called globalization, which made the world more open than ever before. There also came up numerous technology based professions and other Jobs in service sector. A huge demand of professionals was created which led to the induction of many private universities in Bangladesh. Furthermore, information technology (IT) and its allied facilities have opened an ocean of opportunity for young people to undertake IT related small businesses.
In this ransomed world, the present young men, particularly with better caliber, find it far more exciting and rewarding to embrace the newer opportunities than those of traditional opportunities. The newer opportunities are basically inducted from the foreign module and thus lack traditional value system of Bangladesh. At times, it conflicts with the traditional socio-economic values of the society. However, this trend influenced the newer generations to higher studies in contemporary discipline. * * 26. Increased Scope of Higher Education.
Until early ass, public universities were the only institution for higher education. In early ass, private universities came up in the country and provided opportunity of higher education to those students who could not get chance in the public universities. Private universities have absorbed around 20 percent of the aspirants of higher education and the rate is 27. Isolation and Individualism. A wide range of survey has been carried out on the impact of globalization with special focus on the use of Internet by the young generations.
Almost all the survey on young generations and their parents concluded that going on the internet too often could result in children growing isolated from the people. The survey also revealed that frequent use of the Internet was seen to cause a decrease in the overall well being of the youngsters and a decrease in the social network sizes. The globalizes environment was also perceived to create an environment whereby youngsters could easily forsake their social or emotional bonds with the local friends because of the relationships they have established with the strangers through various social networks.
The process resulted in an inventive grooming of the youngsters where they are less connected to their own relatives and more connected to the seemingly unknown social networks and thus remains more pen to the unknown friends developed through networks. This phenomenon of the youngsters added a new dimension where young generations tend to operate in smaller group than that of larger community. Furthermore, a degree of imbalance in friends and family relations has also been observed.
This environment has opened a different characteristic of the young generations where they seem to be isolated from the main stream of the original social structures and thus develop a kind of PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS Understanding the Adolescence 28. Adolescence. The Origin of the word Adolescence is from the Latin verb adolescent’, which means, “to grow up. ” It can be defined as the transitional stage of development between childhood and full adulthood, representing the period of time during which a person is biologically adult but emotionally not at full maturity.
It represents the period of time during which a Juvenile matures into adulthood. Major physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral changes take place during this period. During the period of adolescence, biological development and psychosocial development overlap. A person’s body undergoes dramatic changes. Developmental tasks such as evolving an identity, becoming independent are accomplished in adolescence. Sexual maturity is attained during this period. As “Adolescence” is a cultural and social phenomenon, its endpoints are not easily tied to physical milestones. It varies by culture.
In the United States, it is generally considered to begin around age 13, and end around 24. But the World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as the period of life between 10 and 20 years of age. 29. Important Features of Adolescents. A. Rebellion. As part of an overall struggle for independence and freedom the young person rebels against his/her parents. The young person will reject the attitudes, opinions, and advice of parents and may accuse them of being ‘old- fashioned’, ‘stupid’, or ‘out of touch’. This rebellion may be mild or severe depending upon the temperament of the individual. . Concern about ‘Looking Good’. Adolescence is a time when the young person is looking for his/her own identity and preoccupation with appearance and body-image and, as a result, the adolescent will monopolies the bathroom, and spend hours in the bedroom. Although this behavior is more common among girls, boys are becoming more fashion-conscious and concerned about the way they look. . Increased Sex Drive. Because of bodily changes and sexual development young people become more interested in sexual matters. This is one of the major characteristics of adolescence.
During this time they will need to learn how to channel the sexual urges they experience into acceptable sexual behavior. All adolescents need clear information and guidance regarding sexual development, and about forming close relationships. D. Increased Aggressive Drive. Adolescence is a time when young people become more assertive in making demands from adults. When they do not get their own way, they may come more physically resistant and threatening. When this happens parents will need to ‘tread carefully’ which mean being sensitive and tolerant so that the adolescent can learn to gain control of his/her aggressive urges. . Mood Swings. All the physical changes of adolescence mean that the young person’s emotions are in a state of upheaval too. Moods can change rapidly so that one minute the adolescent is feeling ‘on top of the world’ and the next they are ‘down in the dumps’. These moods are usually brief but parents need to keep an eye on things in case they become more serious and persistent. F. Ambivalence. This describes those times when a person has conflicting feelings about something in particular and, as a result, is unable to make a decision or to commit themselves.
They may be ‘in two minds’ as to what to do and instead may do nothing. When asked a question he/she may say ‘I don’t know’, ‘l am not bothered’, or ‘l don’t care’. This can result in adults putting pressure on young people in order to get a decision from them. They want to help them make the ‘right’ decision but it can result in the adolescent becoming withdrawn or angry. It is important for a young person to develop his/her own identity and direction, rather than one imposed by other people. Adolescent Development: Aspects 30.
The many changes experienced by an adolescent can be grouped into five major categories: a. Physical Development. Adolescents experience a growth spurt, which involves rapid growth of bones and muscles. This begins in girls around the ages of 9-12 and in boys around the ages of 11-14. Sexual maturation (puberty) also begins at this time. During puberty, most adolescents will experience: (1) Oilier skin and some acne. (2) Increased sweating especially under arms. (3) Growth of pubic and underarm hair, and facial and chest hair in boys. 4) Changes in body proportions. 5) Masturbation and fantasies about sexual intimacy. (6) In boys, enlargement of testicles, erections, first ejaculation, wet dreams, deepening voice. (7) In girls, breast budding, increased vaginal lubrication and the beginning of the menstrual cycle. B. Cognitive Development. A dramatic shift occurs in thinking from concrete to abstract gives adolescents a whole new set of mental tools. They are now able to analyze situations logically in terms of cause and effect. They can appreciate hypothetical situations. This gives them the ability to