Indian Economic Crisis Essay
Indian Economic Crisis 2013 BY appalling Economic Crisis In India As we are in an economic crisis although in its early stages. A situation where economic growth has collapsed, industrial output has stagnated for two years, Jobs are being shacked, consumer inflation is close to 10 per cent, the current account deficit (CAD) in the balance of payments is nearly five per cent of GAP at last count, investment is escaping abroad and high fiscal deficit are supposedly indicator of future casualty.
It was all avoidable, if our policy-makers had been more competent ND effective. It is useful to briefly outline the five biggest economic policy mistakes (out of a long list), apart from the persistent nine-year long drought of productivity- enhancing economic reforms. The fiscal blowout of 2008-090 In fact, the great bulk of the overshooting occurred before the Lehman crisis of September 2008, mainly in the form of pay increases, subsidy hikes and ENRAGE roll. This exceptional stretch of fiscal recklessness may indeed have cushioned the fallout from the global crisis for a year or two. But the composition of the huge expenditure hikes (mainly government pay, subsidies and entitlement programmers) made subsequent denial politically difficult. As a result,
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O Exchange rate mismanagement since 2009 The CAD has been consistently above the prime minister’s “safe benchmark” of 2. 5 per cent of GAP since 2009-10. That means we are in the fifth year of a dangerously high CAD. A significant contributory factor has been the authorities (government plus RIB) shift since spring 2009 to a relatively “hands off’ policy towards the rupee’s exchange rate. So, when capital inflows recovered since 2009, the rupee was allowed to appreciate sharply in 2009 and 2010, despite a clearly rising CAD.
As pointed out then, the authorities should have instead followed the well-tested, pre-2008 policy of limiting appreciation and building reserves through dollar purchases by the RIB. The failure to do this led to an overvalued rupee, which weakened Indian’s international competitiveness and helped fuel the pattern of rising external deficits that now haunt the economy. The supply shocks of 2010-12 these were multiple, all-reflecting policy and governance weaknesses.
They include * The sudden and damaging tightening of environmental regulations in 2010; * The eruption of serious scams in 26 telecoms spectrum allocation * Coal-block allocations scam * Land scams (all with roots in earlier years) and their debilitating aftermaths in the impacted sectors * The sweeping Judicial restraints on iron ore mining in Karakas and Ago; * The availability of coal has become a major concern, which is hurting supply for many thousand megawatts of freshly completed power projects * The anti-investment tax measures of the 2012 Budget * The generalized “policy paralysis” in regard to activation * Delays of environmental clearances of major projects All these supply problems reduced production, investment and growth and some also directly hurt the external balance, as in the case of coal and iron ore. Awhile each of these supply-side problems had distinct characteristics and policy histories, together they constituted a major (and persisting) supply shock to the Indian economy. 0 the neglect of manufacturing In marked contrast to the great majority of emerging nations, the share of manufacturing in GAP has stagnated at around 15-17 per cent for decades in India. While the problem is long-standing, the failure to enhance the share during the past decade was a significant contributory factor in the current economic crisis.
In the high growth period, 2003-11 , services (including construction) accounted for well over 70 per cent of all growth, while industry (essentially manufacturing and mining) accounted for less than 20 per cent. This lopsided pattern could not sustain high growth for long, and hasn’t once services expansion started to flag. The major policy obstacles to industrial growth have been unchanged rigidities in the labor market, growing obstacles to land acquisition and the continuing weaknesses in infrastructure, especially power, roads, railways and ports. Slow industrial growth has led to limited growth of Jobs for low-skilled labor and a steady widening of the merchandise trade deficit, which, in turn, widened the CAD. 0 Faulty monetary policies of 20130 As everyone knows, the RIB announced draconian monetary measures, which effectively increased the short-term policy rates by 300 basis points and sharply reduced liquidity. The measures were taken allegedly to defend the falling rupee by restricting “speculation”. The diagnosis was fundamentally incorrect. The rupee was not weakening due to short-run “speculation” but because of a persisting high CAD, mounting short-term, external debt obligations and changes in the global environment for capital flows. So the cure had little connection with the disease. As predicted, the measures did not solve the rupee’s weakness; the rupee was trading at a lower value by end July compared to July 14.
Instead, these measures significantly increased interest rates across the entire term structure, curtailed credit Roth for productive purposes, made government borrowing more difficult and costly, weakened the health of banks (especially government banks) and, above all, further dampened the outlook for recovery in output and investment. In the process, the policy steps may have inadvertently increased the incentives for withdrawal of equity investments by Falls in the Indian stock market, thus adding to the rupee’s weakness. Though described as “temporary”, there is little prospect of reversal. The damage has been done and will continue. Even a quick perusal of the above list of ajar policy errors suggests that it will take of lot of time and work to repair the damage to the economy; even more if further unsound policies are adopted, such as tighter import restrictions. Timely implementation of goods and services tax (SST) would be a major landmark reform that could alter the dynamics of Indian economy. * The inflation problem in India is more of supply side problem and to deal with this type of inflation monetary tools may not be the right approach. * Reframing of land acquisition bill as the bill restricts the use of irrigated multi-cropped land for infrastructure velveteen. As it is difficult to achieve the targets that we have set for ourselves for investments in infrastructure and manufacturing. * Repatriation of black money immediately could help in mitigating the balance of payment situation. * The government must also consider introduction of commercial mining with participation of private coal production/coal mining companies. Setting up of a coal swapping as a tool to optimize physical movement of coal in the country * A graduated and controlled break up of coal India limited will both create competition and ease the fiscal situation. Strengthening the framework for raising funds for infrastructure financing in the economy and pursue the objective of food security through productivity increase and agricultural marketing reforms. * Bringing in Foreign direct investment (FED) will prove positive for economy as it brings latest technology and enhance production capabilities of the economy and has a positive spillover effect. * Promoting Exports is helpful in mitigating CAD although it’s already been in government’s priority order but regress practice will also play its part.
Precisely it can be said that crisis is approaching if the dysfunctional government elicits are not replaced by better and long-term policies. Politics in India has been playing a major part in worsening the economic growth as on many issues where nation could have gone miles ahead its held down in irrelevant debates in parliament under the name of so-called party agendas. For instance, FED regulation has been a long debated topic in Parliament. Inflation has been prolong issue haunting Indian economy but curbing it seems impossible because the monetary policy tools used by RIB cannot cure the supply side inflation of India. Black money forms the prominent distressing element in present scenario.