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INFO Test #2

digital Darwinism
implies that organizations that cannot adapt to the new demands placed on them for surviving in the information age are doomed to extinction.
disruptive technologies
is a new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers.

Disruptive technologies tend to open new markets and destroy old ones.

typically enter the low end of the marketplace and eventually evolve to displace high-end competitors and their reigning technologies.

sustaining technology
produces an improved product customers are eager to buy, such as a faster car or larger hard drive.

Sustaining technologies tend to provide us with better, faster, and cheaper products in established markets.

Incumbent companies most often lead sustaining technology to market, but they virtually never lead in markets opened by disruptive technologies.

internet
is a massive network that connects computers all over the world and allows them to communicate with one another.
World Wide Web WWW
provides access to Internet information through documents including text, graphics, audio, and video files that use a special formatting language called HTML.
Hypertext markup language (HTML)
links documents, allowing users to move from one to another simply by clicking on a hot spot or link.
Web browsers
such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla’s Firefox, allow users to access the WWW.

used to correlate and disseminate info.

Hypertext transport protocol (HTTP)
is the Internet protocol Web browsers use to request and display Web pages using universal resource locators.
domain name
identifies the URL address

apple.com

universal resource locator (URL)
The address of a file or resource on the Web such as www.apple.com.
Web 1.0
Refers to the World Wide Web during its first few years of operation between 1991 and 2003.
Ecommerce
The buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet.
Ecommerce refers only to online transactions.
Ebusiness
Includes ecommerce along with all activities related to internal and external business operations such as servicing customer accounts, collaborating with partners, and exchanging real-time information.

During Web 1.0, entrepreneurs began creating the first forms of ebusiness.

ebusiness advantages (5)
1.) expanding global reach
2.) opening new markets
3.) reducing costs
4.) improving operations
5.) improving effectiveness
paradgim shift
occurs when a new radical form of business enters the market that reshapes the way companies and organizations behave.

Ebusiness created a paradigm shift, transforming entire industries and changing enterprisewide business processes that fundamentally rewrote traditional business rules.

information richness
refers to the depth and breadth of details contained in a piece of textual, graphic, audio, or video information.
information reach
measures the number of people a firm can communicate with all over the world.

Buyers need information richness to make informed purchases, and sellers need information reach to properly market and differentiate themselves from the competition.

mass communication
is the ability of an organization to tailor its products or services to the customers’ specifications.

For example, customers can order M&M’s in special colors or with customized sayings such as “Marry Me.”

personalization
occurs when a company knows enough about a customer’s likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person, say by tailoring its website to individuals or groups based on profile information, demographics, or prior transactions.

Amazon uses personalization to create a unique portal for each of its customers.

long tail
referring to the tail of a typical sales curve.

This strategy demonstrates how niche products can have viable and profitable business models when selling via ebusiness.

In traditional sales models, a store is limited by shelf space when selecting products to sell.

intermediaries
are agents, software, or businesses that provide a trading infrastructure to bring buyers and sellers together.
disintermediation
the introduction of ebusiness brought about disintermediation

Occurs when a business sells direct to the customer online and cuts out the intermediary.

This business strategy lets the company shorten the order process and add value with reduced costs or a more responsive and efficient service.

reintermediation
steps are added to the value chain as new players find ways to add value to the business process.

Levi Strauss originally thought it was a good business strategy to limit all online sales to its own website. A few years later, the company realized it could gain a far larger market share by allowing all retailers to sell its products directly to customers.

As ebusiness matures it has become evident that to serve certain markets in volume, some reintermediation may be desirable.

cybermediation
refers to the creation of new kinds of intermediaries that simply could not have existed before the advent of ebusiness,

including comparison-shopping sites such as Kelkoo

and bank account aggregation services such as Citibank.12

interactivity
measures advertising effectiveness by counting visitor interactions with the target ad,

including time spent viewing the ad, number of pages viewed, and number of repeat visits to the advertisement.

Interactivity measures are a giant step forward for advertisers, since traditional advertising methods—newspapers, magazines, radio, and television—provide few ways to track effectiveness.

Figure 3.8 displays the ebusiness marketing initiatives allowing companies to expand their reach while measuring effectiveness.14

click stream data
they can observe the exact pattern of a consumer’s navigation through a site.
business model
is a plan that details how a company creates, delivers, and generates revenues.
ebusiness model & 4 categories
is a plan that details how a company creates, delivers, and generates revenues on the Internet.

fall into one of the four categories:
(1) business-to-business,
(2) business-to-consumer,
(3) consumer-to-business, and
(4) consumer-to-consumer

Business-to-business (B2B)
applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the Internet.

Examples include medical billing service, software sales and licensing, and virtual assistant businesses.

represent 80 percent of all online business and are more complex with greater security needs than the other types.

Business to Customer (B2C)
applies to any business that sells its products or services directly to customers online.

Carfax offers car buyers detailed histories of used cars for free.

eshop
sometimes referred to as an estore.

An online version of a retail store where customers can shop at any hour. or etailer.

It can be an extension of an existing store such as The Gap or operate only online such as Amazon.com.

There are three ways to operate as a B2C:
1.)brick-and-mortar,
2.)click-and-mortar, and
3.) pure play

Customer-to-Business (C2B)
applies to any consumer who sells a product or service to a business on the Internet.

One example is customers of Priceline.com, who set their own prices for items such as airline tickets or hotel rooms and wait for a seller to decide whether to supply them.

The demand for C2B ebusiness will increase over the next few years due to customers’ desire for greater convenience and lower prices.

Consumer-to-Consumer
applies to customers offering goods and services to each other on the Internet.

A good example of a C2C is an auction where buyers and sellers solicit consecutive bids from each other and prices are determined dynamically.

eBay, the Internet’s most successful C2C online auction website, links like-minded buyers and sellers for a small commission.

Other types of online auctions include forward auctions where sellers market to many buyers and the highest bid wins, and reverse auctions where buyers select goods and services from the seller with the lowest bid.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee.

Major ISPs in the United States include AOL, AT&T, Comcast, Earthlink, and Netzero, as well as thousands of local ISPs including regional telephone companies.

real time communication
occurs when a system updates information at the same rate it receives it.

Email was a great advancement over traditional communication methods such as the U.S. mail, but it did not operate in real time.

is a service that enables instant or real-time communication between people.

Businesses immediately saw what they could do:

Instant messaging (Iming)
Answer simple questions quickly and easily.

Resolve questions or problems immediately.

Transmit messages as fast as naturally flowing conversation.

Easily hold simultaneous IM sessions with multiple people.

Eliminate long-distance phone charges.

Quickly identifying which employees are at their computers.

podcasting
converts an audio broadcast to a digital music player.

Podcasts can increase marketing reach and build customer loyalty.

Companies use podcasts as marketing communication channels discussing everything from corporate strategies to detailed product overviews. The senior executive team can share weekly or monthly podcasts featuring important issues or expert briefings on new technical or marketing developments.

web conferencing or webinar
blends videoconferencing with document sharing and allows the user to deliver a presentation over the Web to a group of geographically dispersed participants.

Regardless of the type of hardware or software the attendees are running, every participant can see what is on anyone else’s screen.

Schools use Web conferencing tools such as Illuminate Live to deliver lectures to students, and businesses use tools such as WebEx to demonstrate products.

Web conferencing is not quite like being there, but professionals can accomplish more sitting at their desks than in an airport waiting to make travel connections.

content magement systems (CMS)
help companies manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of their website content.

CMSs are user-friendly; most include Web-based publishing, search, navigation, and indexing to organize information; and they let users with little or no technical expertise make website changes.

taxonomy
is the scientific classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin.

Taxonomies are also used for indexing the content on the website into categories and subcategories of topics. For example, car is a subtype of vehicle. Every car is a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a car; some vehicles are vans, buses, and trucks.

Taxonomy terms are arranged so that narrower/more specific/”child” terms fall under broader/more generic/”parent” terms.

information architecture
is the set of ideas about how all information in a given context should be organized.

Many companies hire information architects to create their website taxonomies.

A well-planned taxonomy ensures search and navigation are easy and user-friendly. If the taxonomy is confusing, the site will soon fail.

challenges facing ebusiness
1.) identifying limited market segments
2.)ensuring consumer protection
3.)managing consumer trust
4.) adhearing to taxation rules
advantages of web 2.0
1.) content sharing through open sourcing
2.) user contributed content
3.) collaboration inside the organization
4.) collaboration outside of the organization
web 2.0
is the next generation of Internet use—a more mature, distinctive communications platform characterized by new qualities such as collaboration, sharing, and free.

Business 2.0 encourages user participation and the formation of communities that contribute to the content.

In Business 2.0, technical skills are no longer required to use and publish information to the World Wide Web, eliminating entry barriers for online business.

open system
consists of nonproprietary hardware and software based on publicly known standards that allows third parties to create add-on products to plug into or interoperate with the system.

Thousands of hardware devices and software applications created and sold by third-party vendors interoperate with computers, such as iPods, drawing software, and mice.

source code
contains instructions written by a programmer specifying the actions to be performed by computer software.
open source
refers to any software whose source code is made available free (not on a fee or licensing basis as in ebusiness) for any third party to review and modify.

Business 2.0 is capitalizing on open source software. Mozilla, for example, offers its Firefox Web browser and Thunderbird email software free. Mozilla believes the Internet is a public resource that must remain open and accessible to all; it continuously develops free products by bringing together thousands of dedicated volunteers from around the world. Mozilla’s Firefox now holds over 20 percent of the browser market and is quickly becoming a threat to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. How do open source software companies

user contributed content or user generated content
is created and updated by many users for many users. Websites such as Flickr, Wikipedia, and YouTube, for example, move control of online media from the hands of leaders to the hands of users. Netflix and Amazon both use user-generated content to drive their recommendation tools, and websites such as Yelp use customer reviews to express opinions on products and services. Companies are embracing user-generated content to help with everything from marketing to product development and quality assurance.
reputation system
where buyers post feedback on sellers. eBay buyers voluntarily comment on the quality of service, their satisfaction with the item traded, and promptness of shipping. Sellers comment about prompt payment from buyers or respond to comments left by the buyer. Companies ranging from Amazon to restaurants are using reputation systems to improve quality and enhance customer satisfaction.
collaboration system
s a set of tools that supports the work of teams or groups by facilitating the sharing and flow of information. Business 2.0’s collaborative mind-set generates more information faster from a wider audience.
collective intellegence
is collaborating and tapping into the core knowledge of all employees, partners, and customers. Knowledge can be a real competitive advantage for an organization. The most common form of collective intelligence found inside the organization is knowledge management (KM)
knowledge management (KM)
supports the capturing, organization, and dissemination of knowledge (i.e., know-how) throughout an organization. KMS can distribute an organization’s knowledge base by interconnecting people and digitally gathering their expertise.
explicit knowledge
consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT. Examples of explicit knowledge are assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, marketing research, and customer lists.
tact knowledge
is the knowledge contained in people’s heads. The challenge inherent in tacit knowledge is figuring out how to recognize, generate, share, and manage knowledge that resides in people’s heads.
crowdsourcing
The most common form of collective intelligence found outside the organization is crowdsourcing

The idea that collective intelligence is greater than the sum of its individual parts has been around for a long time

asnchronous communications
Communication such as email in which the message and the response do not occur at the same time.,
synchronous communications
Communications that occur at the same time such as IM or chat., or communications that occur at the same time such as IM or chat.

Ask a group of college students when they last spoke to their parents. For most the answer is less than hour ago, as opposed to the traditional response of a few days ago. In business too, continuous connections are now expected in today’s collaborative world.

social media
refers to websites that rely on user participation and user-contributed content, such as Facebook, YouTube, and Digg
social network
is an application that connects people by matching profile information. Providing individuals with the ability to network is by far one of the greatest advantages of Business 2.0.
social networking
is the practice of expanding your business and/or social contacts by constructing a personal network

Social networking sites provide two basic functions.

The first is the ability to create and maintain a profile that serves as an online identity within the environment.

The second is the ability to create connections between other people within the network.

social networking analysis (SNA)
maps group contacts (personal and professional) identifying who knows each other and who works together.

In a company it can provide a vision of how employees work together.

It can also identify key experts with specific knowledge such as how to solve a complicated programming problem or launch a new product.

tags
are specific keywords or phrases incorporated into website content for means of classification or taxonomy. An item can have one or more tags associated with it, to allow for multiple browseable paths through the items, and tags can be changed with minimal effort
social tagging
describes the collaborative activity of marking shared online content with keywords or tags as a way to organize it for future navigation, filtering, or search.

The entire user community is invited to tag, and thus essentially defines, the content. Flickr allows users to upload images and tag them with appropriate keywords. After enough people have done so, the resulting tag collection will identify images correctly and without bias.

folksonomy
is similar to taxonomy except that crowdsourcing determines the tags or keyword-based classification system. Using the collective power of a community to identify and classify content significantly lowers content categorization costs, because there is no complicated nomenclature to learn. Users simply create and apply tags as they wish. For example, while cell phone manufacturers often refer to their products as mobile devices, the folksonomy could include mobile phone, wireless phone, smart phone, iPhone, BlackBerry, and so on. All these keywords, if searched, should take a user to the same site. Folksonomies reveal what people truly call things
website bookmark
is a locally stored URL or the address of a file or Internet page saved as a shortcut.
social bookmarking
allows users to share, organize, search, and manage bookmarks. Del.icio.us, a website dedicated to social bookmarking, provides users with a place to store, categorize, annotate, and share favorites. StumbleUpon is another popular social bookmarking website that allows users to locate interesting websites based on their favorite subjects. The more you use the service, the more the system “learns” about your interests and the better it can show you websites that interest you.
blog or web blog
is an online journal that allows users to post their own comments, graphics, and video. Unlike traditional HTML Web pages, blog websites let writers communicate—and reader’s respond—on a regular basis through a simple yet customizable interface that does not require any programming.
microblogging
is the practice of sending brief posts (140 to 200 characters) to a personal blog, either publicly or to a private group of subscribers who can read the posts as IMs or as text messages. The main advantage of microblogging is that posts can be submitted by a variety of means, such as instant messaging, email, or the Web.
Real Simple Syndication (RSS)
is a Web format used to publish frequently updated works, such as blogs, news headlines, audio, and video, in a standardized format. An RSS document or feed includes full or summarized text, plus other information such as publication date and authorship. News websites, blogs, and podcasts use RSS, constantly feeding news to consumers instead of having them search for it. In addition to facilitating syndication, RSS allows a website’s frequent readers to track updates on the site.
wiki
the word is Hawaiian for quick) is a type of collaborative Web page that allows users to add, remove, and change content, which can be easily organized and reorganized as required. While blogs have largely drawn on the creative and personal goals of individual authors, wikis are based on open collaboration with any and everybody. Wikipedia, the open encyclopedia that launched in 2001, has become one of the 10 most popular Web destinations, reaching an estimated 217 million unique visitors a month
network effect
describes how products in a network increase in value to users as the number of users increases. The more users and content managers on a wiki, the greater the network affect because more users attract more contributors, whose work attracts more users, and so on. For example, Wikipedia becomes more valuable to users as the number of its contributors increases.
mashup
is a website or Web application that uses content from more than one source to create a completely new product or service. The term is typically used in the context of music; putting Jay-Z lyrics over a Radiohead song makes something old new. The Web version of a mashup allows users to mix map data, photos, video, news feeds, blog entries, and so on to create content with a new purpose.
application programming interface (API)
Content used in mashups is typically sourced from an application programming interface (API)

which is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A programmer then puts these building blocks together.

mashup editors
are WYSIWYG, or What You See Is What You Get tools. They provide a visual interface to build a mashup, often allowing the user to drag and drop data points into a Web application.
challenges of business 2.0
technology dependence
information vandalism
violations of copyright and plagiarism
semantic web
as a component of Web 3.0 that describes things in a way that computers can understand. The semantic Web is not about links between Web pages; rather it describes the relationships between things (such as A is a part of B and Y is a member of Z) and the properties of things (size, weight, age, price).
egovernment
involves the use of strategies and technologies to transform government(s) by improving the delivery of services and enhancing the quality of interaction between the citizen-consumer within all branches of government.

One example of an egovernment portal, FirstGov.gov, the official U.S. gateway to all government information, is the catalyst for a growing electronic government. Its powerful search engine and ever-growing collection of topical and customer-focused links connect users to millions of Web pages, from the federal government, to local and tribal governments,

mobile business
The ability to purchase goods and services through a wireless Internet-enabled device.
(or mbusiness, mcommerce .
pirated software
is the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software.
counterfeit software
is software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.
information management
examines the organizational resource of information and regulates its definitions, uses, value, and distribution ensuring it has the types of data/information required to function and grow effectively.
information governance
is a method or system of government for information management or control
information compliance
is the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding information.
ediscovery
or electronic discovery

refers to the ability of a company to identify, search, gather, seize, or export digital information in responding to a litigation, audit, investigation, or information inquiry.

epolicies
are policies and procedures that address information management along with the ethical use of computers and the Internet in the business environment.
name the epolicies (6)
1.) ethical computer use policy
2.) information privacy policy
3.) acceptable use policy
4.) email privacy policy
5.) social media policy
6.) workplace monitoring policy
ethical computer use policy
contains general principles to guide computer user behavior.

For example, it might explicitly state that users should refrain from playing computer games during working hours. This policy ensures the users know how to behave at work and the organization has a published standard to deal with infractions.

For example, after appropriate warnings, the company may terminate an employee who spends significant amounts of time playing computer games at work.

information privacy policy
which contains general principles regarding information privacy.

Visa created Inovant to handle all its information systems including its coveted customer information, which details how people are spending their money, in which stores, on which days, and even at what time of day.

acceptable use policy (AUP)
requires a user to agree to follow it to be provided access to corporate email, information systems, and the Internet.

Not using the service as part of violating any law.

Not attempting to break the security of any computer network or user.

Not posting commercial messages to groups without prior permission.

Not performing any nonrepudiation.

—-nonrepudiation

nonrepudiation
is a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants do not deny (repudiate) their online actions. A

nonrepudiation clause is typically contained in an acceptable use policy.

internet use policy
contains general principles to guide the proper use of the Internet. Because of the large amounts of computing resources that Internet users can expend, it is essential that such use be legitimate.

Describes the Internet services available to users.

Defines the organization’s position on the purpose of Internet access and what restrictions, if any, are placed on that access.

Describes user responsibility for citing sources, properly handling offensive material, and protecting the organization’s good name.

States the ramifications if the policy is violated.

email privacy policy
details the extent to which email messages may be read by others.

Email is so pervasive in organizations that it requires its own specific policy. Most working professionals use email as their preferred means of corporate communications.

Defines legitimate email users and explains what happens to accounts after a person leaves the organization.

Explains backup procedure so users will know that at some point, even if a message is deleted from their computer, it is still stored by the company.

Describes the legitimate grounds for reading email and the process required before such action is performed.

Discourages sending junk email or spam to anyone who does not want to receive it.

Prohibits attempting to mail bomb a site.

Informs users that the organization has no control over email once it has been transmitted outside the organization.

social media policy
outlining the corporate guidelines or principles governing employee online communications.

Employee online communication policy detailing brand communication.

Employee blog and personal blog policies.

Employee social network and personal social network policies.

Employee Twitter, corporate Twitter, and personal Twitter policies.

Employee LinkedIn policy.

Employee Facebook usage and brand usage policy.

Corporate YouTube policy.

information technology monitoring
racks people’s activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed
employee monitoring policy
stating explicitly how, when, and where the company monitors its employees. Several common stipulations an organization can follow when creating an employee monitoring policy include:
information security
a broad term encompassing the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization. Information security is the primary tool an organization can use to combat the threats associated with downtime.
black hat hackers
break into other people’s computer systems and may just look around or may steal and destroy information
crackers
have criminal intent when hacking
cyberterrorists
seeks to cause harm to people or destroy critical systems or information and use the internet as a weapon of mass destruction
hactivists
have philosophical and political reasons
script kiddies or script bunnies
find hacking code on the internet and click-and-point their way into systems to cause damage or spread viruses
white hat hackers
work at the request of the system owners to find system vulnerabilities and plug the holes
virus
s software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage.
adware
s software that, while purporting to serve some useful function and often fulfilling that function, also allows Internet advertisers to display advertisements without the consent of the computer user.
spyware
is a special class of adware that collects data about the user and transmits it over the Internet without the user’s knowledge or permission.

collect specific data about the user, ranging from general demographics such as name, address, and browsing habits to credit card numbers, Social Security numbers, and user names and passwords.

insiders
are legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident.

For example, many individuals freely give up their passwords or write them on sticky notes next to their computers, leaving the door wide open for hackers.

social engineering
hackers use their social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other valuable information
information security policies
identify the rules required to maintain information security,

such as requiring users to log off before leaving for lunch or meetings, never sharing passwords with anyone, and changing passwords every 30 days.

information security plan
details how an organization will implement the information security policies. The best way a company can safeguard itself from people is by implementing and communicating its information security plan.

Applications allowed to be placed on the corporate network, especially various file sharing applications (Kazaz), IM software, and entertainment or freeware created by unknown sources (iPhone applications).

Corporate computer equipment used for personal reason on personal networks.

Password creation and maintenance including minimum password length, characters to be included while choosing passwords, and frequency for password changes.

Personal computer equipment allowed to connect to the corporate network.

Virus protection including how often the system should be scanned and how frequently the software should be updated. This could also include if downloading attachments is allowed and practices for safe downloading from trusted and untrustworthy sources.

phishing
is a technique to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, usually by means of fraudulent emails that look as though they came from legitimate businesses.
pharming
reroutes requests for legitimate websites to false websites. For example, if you were to type in the URL to your bank, pharming could redirect to a fake site that collects your information.
authentication
is a method for confirming users’ identities. Once a system determines the authentication of a user, it can then determine the access privileges (or authorization) for that user.
authorization
the process of providing a user with permission including access levels and abilities such as file access, hours of access, and amount of allocated storage space.

Authentication and authorization techniques fall into three categories; the most secure procedures combine all three:

1.Something the user knows, such as a user ID and password.

2.Something the user has, such as a smart card or token.

3.Something that is part of the user, such as a fingerprint or voice signature.

tokens
are small electronic devices that change user passwords automatically. The user enters his or her user ID and token-displayed password to gain access to the network.
smart cards
is a device about the size of a credit card, containing embedded technologies that can store information and small amounts of software to perform some limited processing.

Smart cards can act as identification instruments, a form of digital cash, or a data storage device with the ability to store an entire medical record.

biometrics
(narrowly defined) is the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or handwriting. Unfortunately, biometric authentication can be costly and intrusive
three areas of information security
1.) People– authentication and authorization

2.) Data– prevention and resistance

3.) Attacks– detection and response

data prevention and resistance
content filtering
encryption
public key encription
certificate authority
digital certificate
firewall
antivirus software
attack: detection and response
intrusion detection software
content filtering
occurs when organizations use software that filters content, such as emails, to prevent the accidental or malicious transmission of unauthorized information.

Organizations can use content filtering technologies to filter email and prevent emails containing sensitive information from transmitting, whether the transmission was malicious or accidental.

It can also filter emails and prevent any suspicious files from transmitting such as potential virus-infected files.

Email content filtering can also filter for spam, a form of unsolicited email.

encryption
scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt.

If there were a security breach and the stolen information were encrypted, the thief would be unable to read it.

Encryption can switch the order of characters, replace characters with other characters, insert or remove characters, or use a mathematical formula to convert the information into a code.

public key encryption (PKE)
uses two keys: a public key that everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient

The organization provides the public key to all customers, whether end consumers or other businesses, who use that key to encrypt their information and send it via the Internet. When it arrives at its destination, the organization uses the private key to unscramble it.

certificate authority
is a trusted third party, such as VeriSign, that validates user identities by means of digital certificates.
digital certificate
is a data file that identifies individuals or organizations online and is comparable to a digital signature.
firewall
is hardware and/or software that guard a private network by analyzing incoming and outgoing information for the correct markings. If they are missing, the firewall prevents the information from entering the network. Firewalls can even detect computers communicating with the Internet without approval.
antivirus software
scans and searches hard drives to prevent, detect, and remove known viruses, adware, and spyware. Antivirus software must be frequently updated to protect against newly created viruses.
intrusion detection software (IDS)
eatures full-time monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders. IDS protects against suspicious network traffic and attempts to access files and data.

If a suspicious event or unauthorized traffic is identified, the IDS will generate an alarm and can even be customized to shut down a particularly sensitive part of a network.

After identifying an attack, an MIS department can implement response tactics to mitigate the damage.

MIS infrastructure
which includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets. A solid MIS infrastructure can increase reduce costs, improve productivity, optimize business operations, generate growth, and increase profitability.
hardware
consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
software
is the set of instructions the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks. In today’s business environment, most hardware and software is run via a network.
network
is a communications system created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate. As more companies need to share more information, the network takes on greater importance in the infrastructure. Most companies use a specific form of network infrastructure called a client and server network.
client
is a computer designed to request information from a server.
server
is a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests. A good way to understand this is when someone uses a Web browser (this would be the client) to access a website (this would be a server that would respond with the Web page being requested by the client).
enterprise architect
is a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business. Firms employ enterprise architects to help manage change and dynamically update MIS infrastructure.
MIS infrastructure components
Information MIS infrastructure (Support Opperations)
Agile MIS Infrastructure (Support change)
Sustainable MIS Infrastructure (supports sustainability)
Supporting Operations: information MIS infrastructure
identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured.

1.) backup
2.) recovery
3.) disaster recovery
4.) business continuity planning

Supporting the environment: sustainable MIS infrastructure
identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption.

1.) accessibility
2.) availability
3.) maintainability
4.) portability
5.) reliability
6.) scalability
7.) usability

Supporting change: Agile MIS infrastructure
includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals.

1.) grid computing
2.) cloud computing
3.) virtualization

backup
is an exact copy of a system’s information.
recovery
is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup.
fault tolerence
is the ability for a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service.

For example, fault tolerance enables a business to support continuous business operations if there is a power failure or flood.

Fault tolerance is an expensive form of backup, and only mission-critical applications and operations use it.

failover
a specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server.

This is a high-speed and high-cost method of backup and recovery.

failback
occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server.
backup and recovery plan
backup
recovery
fault tolerence
failover
failback
disaster recovery
able to recover information or systems in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood
business continuity planning
creates a way for a company to recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical functions within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruptions
disaster recovery plan
which is a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster. This plan includes such factors as which files and systems need to have backups and their corresponding frequency and methods along with the strategic location of the storage in a separate physical site that is geographically dispersed. A company might strategically maintain operations in New York and San Francisco, ensuring that a natural disaster would not impact both locations. A disaster recovery plan also foresees the possibility that not only the computer equipment but also the building where employees work may be destroyed
hot site
is a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business.
cold site
is a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster.
warm site
is a separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration.
disaster recovery cost curve
charts

(1) the cost to the company of the unavailability of information and technology and

(2) the cost to the company of recovering from a disaster over time.

the best recovery plan in terms of cost and time is where the two lines intersect. Creating such a curve is no small task. Managers must consider the cost of losing information and technology within each department or functional area, and across the whole company.

business continuity planning (BCP)
which details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption.

This plan includes such factors such as identifying critical systems, business processes, departments, and the maximum amount of time the business can continue to operate without functioning systems.

The plan will even detail the order in which functional areas should be restored, ensuring the most critical are focused on first.

accessibility
refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system. Imagine the people at your college accessing the main student information system. Each person that accesses the system will have different needs and requirements;

for example, a payroll employee will need to access vacation information and salary information, or a student will need to access course information and billing information.

administrator access
or unrestricted access to the entire system. Administrator access can perform functions such as resetting passwords, deleting accounts, and shutting down entire systems.
availability
high availability
maintainability or flexability
efers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes. For example, when starting a small business you might not consider that you will have global customers, a common mistake. When building your systems, you might not design them to handle multiple currencies and different languages, which might make sense if the company is not currently performing international business. Unfortunately, when the first international order arrives, which happens easily with ebusiness, the system will be unable to handle the request because it does not have the flexibility to be easily reconfigured for a new language or currency. When the company does start growing and operating overseas, the system will need to be redeveloped, which is not an easy or cheap task, to handle multiple currencies and different languages.
portability
refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems. Apple’s iTunes is readily available to users of Mac computers and also users of PC computers, smart phones, iPods, iPhones, iPads, and so on. It is also a portable application.
reliability (or accuracy)
ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information. Inaccuracy can occur for many reasons, from the incorrect entry of information to the corruption of information during transmissions. Many argue that the information contained in Wikipedia is unreliable.
scalability
describes how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demands of growth. If a company grows faster than anticipated, it might experience a variety of problems, from running out of storage space to taking more time to complete transactions. Anticipating expected, and unexpected, growth is key to building scalable systems that can support that development.
performance
measures how quickly a system performs a process or transaction. Performance is a key component of scalability as systems that can’t scale suffer from performance issues. Just imagine your college’s content management system suddenly taking five minutes to return a page after a button is pushed.
capacity planning
determines future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance. If a company purchases connectivity software that is outdated or too slow to meet demand, its employees will waste a great deal of time waiting for systems to respond to user requests.
usability
is the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use. Providing hints, tips, shortcuts, and instructions for any system, regardless of its ease of use, is recommended.
Moore’s Law
which refers to the computer chip performance per dollar doubles every 18 months. Although Moore originally assumed a two-year period, many sources today refer to the 18-month figure.
three pressures driving sustainable MIS infrastructures
1.) increased electronic waste
2.) increased energy consumption
3.) increased carbon emissons
grid computing
is a collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem. With grid computing a problem is broken into pieces and distributed to many machines, allowing faster processing than could occur with a single system.
smart grid
delivers electricity using two-way digital technology. It is meant to solve the problem of the world’s outdated electrical grid, making it more efficient and reliable by adding the ability to remotely monitor, analyze, and control the transmission of power.
cloud computing
refers to the use of resources and applications hosted remotely on the Internet. The term comes (at least in part) from the image of a cloud to represent the Internet or some large networked environment.
utility computing
offers a pay-per-use revenue model similar to a metered service such as gas or electricity. Many cloud computing service providers use utility computing cloud infrastructures,
infrastructure as a Service (IaaS
is a service that delivers hardware networking capabilities, including the use of servers, networking, and storage over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model. With IaaS the customer rents the hardware and provides its own custom applications or programs. IaaS customers save money by not having to spend a large amount of capital purchasing expensive servers, which is a great business advantage considering some servers cost more than $100,000.
dynamic scaling
which means the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on needed requirements.
software as a Service (SaaS)
delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
supports the deployment of entire systems including hardware, networking, and applications using a pay-per-use revenue model. PaaS is a perfect solution for a business as it passes on to the service provider the headache and challenges of buying, managing, and maintaining Web development software. With PaaS the development, deployment, management, and maintenance is based entirely in the cloud and performed by the PaaS provider, allowing the company to focus resources on its core initiatives.
virtualization
creates multiple “virtual” machines on a single computing device. A good analogy is a computer printer. In the past you had to purchase a fax machine, copy machine, answering machine, and computer printer separately. This was expensive, required enough energy to run four separate machines, not to mention created additional amounts of ewaste.
data center
is a facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Data centers, sometimes referred to as server farms, consume power and require cooling and floor space while working to support business growth without disrupting normal business operations and the quality of service.

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