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Information Ethics and Social Principles

The two principal catalysts for the Information Age.
Computers and communication networks
Punched card tabulation was invented by Herman Hollerith, who worked for.
IBM
A system that inputs data, performs one or more calculations, and produces output data.
Data-processing system
The first commercial electronic digital computers were produced after this time period.
World War II
Programming languages were developed to
Make programming faster and less error-prone.
These were the early programming languages.
BASIC, COBOL, FLOW-MATIC, and FORTRAN
Software that allows multiple users to edit and run their programs simultaneously on the same computer.
Time-sharing system.
A semiconductor device containing transitors, capacitors, and resistors is called.
Integrated circuit
This company produced the System/360, a family of 19 compatible mainframe computers.
IBM
The company that invented the microprocessor.
Intel
This man wrote, “An Open Letter to Hobbyist,” in which he complained about the software theft.
Bill Gates
A key application that first made personal computers more attractive to business was.
Spreadsheet program
The software company that provided IBM with the operating system for its PC.
Microsoft
ARPA Director J.C.R. Licklider conceived of a Galactic Network that would facilitate
Exchange of programs and data
One of the first and most important applications of ARPANET
email
The term used to describe a high-speed Internet connection.
Broadband
On average, the country that has the fastest broadband connection.
South Korea
A common name for a wireless Internet access point
hotspot
Hypertext is supposed to mimic
Associative memory of human beings
The visionary who invented the computer mouse and demonstrated windows, email, and live network videoconferencing at “the mother of all demos” in 1968.
Douglas Engelbart
The World Wide Web is the created by
Tim Berners-Lee
An association of people organized under a system of rules designed to advance the good of its members over time is called a
Society
Rules of conduct describing what people ought and ought not to do in various situations are called
Morality
Ethics
a rational examination of people’s moral beliefs,
a branch of philosophy, one way to determine which activities are “good” and which are
“bad,” and a field of study more than 2,000 years old.
A relativist claims that there are
no universal moral principles
Objectivism is based on the idea that morality has an
existence outside the human mind
The divine command theory is an example of
objectivism
An argument in favor of the divine command theory.
“God is all-knowing”
Ethical egoism is based on
Determining long-term beneficial consquences
An argument in favour of ethical egoism
“The community can benefit when individuals put their well-being first”
According to Kant, our sense of “ought to” is called
dutifulness
According to Kant, the moral value of an action depends upon the
underlying moral rule
According to the second formulation of the Categorical Imperative
It is wrong for one person to “use” another
The Principle of Utility is also called the
Greatest Happiness Principle
Two philosophers closely associated with utilitarianism are
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
Utilitarianism is an example of the
Consequentialist theory
The problem of moral luck is raised as a criticism of
act utilitarianism
Utilitarianism does not mean “the greatest number,” because
It focuses solely on “the greatest good” and pays no attention to how “the good” is distributed
Thomas Hobbes called life without rules and a means of enforcing them
“the state of nature”
An early proponent of the social contract was
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
A right that another can guarantee by leaving you alone to exercise the right is called
A negative right
A right that is guaranteed without exception is called
An absolute right
The idea that social and economic inequalities must be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society is callled
The difference principle
Modern writers often refer to moral virtues as
Virtues of character
According to Aristotle, moral virtue results from
Repetition of the appropriate acts
According to Aristotle, deriving pleasure from a virtuous act is a sign that
you have developed the virtue

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