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Information Security Chapter 1

A breach of possession always results in a breach of confidentiality.
During the early years, information security was a straightforward process composed predominantly of ____________________ security and simple document classification schemes.
Which of the following is a valid type of data ownership?
Data Users, Data Owners and Data Custodians
____ is the predecessor to the Internet.
A(n) ____ attack is a hacker using a personal computer to break into a system.
In an organization, the value of ____________________ of information is especially high when it involves personal information about employees, customers, or patients.
The ____ model consists of six general phases.
Key end users should be assigned to a developmental team, known as the united application development team.
A(n) _________________________ is a group of individuals who are united by similar interests or values within an organization and who share a common goal of helping the organization to meet its objectives.
Community of Interest
The primary threats to security during the early years of computers were physical theft of equipment, espionage against the products of the systems, and sabotage.
A data custodian works directly with data owners and is responsible for the storage, maintenance, and protection of the information.
The physical design is the blueprint for the desired solution.
The ____________________ of information is the quality or state of ownership or control of some object or item.
The Internet brought connectivity to virtually all computers that could reach a phone line or an Internet-connected local area ____________________.
The history of information security begins with the history of ____________________ security.
MULTICS stands for Multiple Information and Computing Service.
During the ____________________ War, many mainframes were brought online to accomplish more complex and sophisticated tasks so it became necessary to enable the mainframes to communicate via a less cumbersome process than mailing magnetic tapes between computer centers.
Recently, many states have implemented legislation making certain computer-related activities illegal.
Information security can begin as a grassroots effort in which systems administrators attempt to improve the security of their systems, which is often referred to as a bottom-up approach.
A famous study entitled “Protection Analysis: Final Report” was published in ____.
Risk evaluation is the process of identifying, assessing, and evaluating the levels of risk facing the organization, specifically the threats to the organization’s security and to the information stored and processed by the organization.
The implementation phase is the longest and most expensive phase of the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
Of the two approaches to information security implementation, the top-down approach has a higher probability of success.
____ presents a comprehensive information security model and has become a widely accepted evaluation standard for the security of information systems.
NSTISSI No. 4011
An e-mail virus involves sending an e-mail message with a modified field.
Organizations are moving toward more ____-focused development approaches, seeking to improve not only the functionality of the systems they have in place, but consumer confidence in their product.
____ of information is the quality or state of being genuine or original.
In the ____________________ approach, the project is initiated by upper-level managers who issue policy, procedures and processes, dictate the goals and expected outcomes, and determine accountability for each required action.
Hardware is the physical technology that houses and executes the software, stores and transports the data, and provides interfaces for the entry and removal of information from the system.
The ____________________ component of the IS comprises applications, operating systems, and assorted command utilities.
People with the primary responsibility for administering the systems that house the information used by the organization perform the ____ role.
System Administrator
Information has redundancy when it is free from mistakes or errors and it has the value that the end user expects.
The most successful kind of top-down approach involves a formal development strategy referred to as a ____.
Systems Development life cycle
____ was the first operating system to integrate security as its core functions.
Hardware is often the most valuable asset possessed by an organization and it is the main target of intentional attacks.
____ security addresses the issues necessary to protect the tangible items, objects, or areas of an organization from unauthorized access and misuse.
Part of the logical design phase of the SecSDLC is planning for partial or catastrophic loss. ____ dictates what steps are taken when an attack occurs.
Incidence Response
A frequently overlooked component of an IS, ____________________ are written instructions for accomplishing a specific task.
The investigation phase of the SecSDLC begins with a directive from upper management.
Policies are written instructions for accomplishing a specific task.
____________________ enables authorized users — persons or computer systems — to access information without interference or obstruction and to receive it in the required format.
The ____ is the individual primarily responsible for the assessment, management, and implementation of information security in the organization.
The ____________________ phase consists primarily of assessments of the organization, its current systems, and its capability to support the proposed systems.
____________________ of information is the quality or state of being genuine or original, rather than a reproduction or fabrication.
A computer is the ____________________ of an attack when it is the target entity.
The possession of information is the quality or state of having value for some purpose or end.
In file hashing, a file is read by a special algorithm that uses the value of the bits in the file to compute a single large number called a ____ value.
During the ____ phase, specific technologies are selected to support the alternatives identified and evaluated in the logical design.
Physical Design
Direct attacks originate from a compromised system or resource that is malfunctioning or working under the control of a threat.
The CNSS model of information security evolved from a concept developed by the computer security industry known as the ____________________ triangle.
The roles of information security professionals are aligned with the goals and mission of the information security community of interest.
Using a methodology increases the probability of success.
Confidentiality ensures that only those with the rights and privileges to access information are able to do so.
An information system is the entire set of ____, people, procedures, and networks that make possible the use of information resources in the organization.
Hardware, Software, Data
The senior technology officer is typically the chief ____________________ officer.
A(n) ____________________ is a formal approach to solving a problem by means of a structured sequence of procedures.
A(n) ____________________ information security policy outlines the implementation of a security program within the organization.
Which of the following phases is the longest and most expensive phase of the systems development life cycle?
Maintenance and Change
In general, protection is “the quality or state of being secure—to be free from danger.”
____________________ carries the lifeblood of information through an organization.
To achieve balance — that is, to operate an information system that satisfies the user and the security professional — the security level must allow reasonable access, yet protect against threats.
A champion is a project manager, who may be a departmental line manager or staff unit manager, and understands project management, personnel management, and information security technical requirements.
The Analysis phase of the SecSDLC begins with a directive from upper management.
A computer is the ____ of an attack when it is used to conduct the attack.
Information security can be an absolute.
The ____ is a methodology for the design and implementation of an information system in an organization.
Network security focuses on the protection of the details of a particular operation or series of activities.
Applications systems developed within the framework of the traditional SDLC are designed to anticipate a software attack that requires some degree of application reconstruction.
The value of information comes from the characteristics it possesses.
Information has ____________________ when it is whole, complete, and uncorrupted.
The bottom-up approach to information security has a higher probability of success than the top-down approach.
When a computer is the subject of an attack, it is the entity being attacked.
In information security, salami theft occurs when an employee steals a few pieces of information at a time, knowing that taking more would be noticed — but eventually the employee gets something complete or useable.
The Security Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a methodology for the design and implementation of an information system.
A(n) project team should consist of a number of individuals who are experienced in one or multiple facets of the technical and nontechnical areas.

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