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Information Security Chapter 4

A(n) disaster recovery plan dictates the actions an organization can and perhaps should take while an incident is in progress.
False
Internal benchmarking can provide the foundation for baselining.
False
Each of the threats faced by an organization must be examined to assess its potential to endanger the organization and this examination is known as a threat profile.
False
Some argue that it is virtually impossible to determine the true value of information and information-bearing assets.
True
Protocols are activities performed within the organization to improve security.
False
Security efforts that seek to provide a superior level of performance in the protection of information are referred to as best business practices.
True
Best business practices are often called recommended practices.
True
Risk evaluation assigns a risk rating or score to each information asset.
False
Major risk is a combined function of (1) a threat less the effect of threat-reducing safeguards, (2) a vulnerability less the effect of vulnerability reducing safeguards, and (3) an asset less the effect of asset value-reducing safeguards.
False
Qualitative-based measures are comparisons based on numerical standards, such as numbers of successful attacks.
False
Eliminating a threat is an impossible proposition.
False
A(n) exposure factor is the expected percentage of loss that would occur from a particular attack.
True
One problem with benchmarking is that there are many organizations that are identical.
False
When determining the relative importance of each asset, refer to the organization’s mission statement or statement of objectives to determine which elements are essential, which are supportive, and which are merely adjuncts.
True
CBAs cannot be calculated after controls have been functioning for a time.
False
Once the organizational threats have been identified, an assets identification process is undertaken.
False
Benefit is the value that an organization realizes by using controls to prevent losses associated with a specific vulnerability.
True
The results from risk assessment activities can be delivered in a number of ways: a report on a systematic approach to risk control, a project-based risk assessment, or a topic-specific risk assessment.
True
When the organization is pursuing an overall risk management program, it requires a(n) systematic report that enumerates the opportunities for controlling risk.
True
The general management of an organization must structure the IT and information security functions to defend the organization’s information assets.
True
A(n) qualitative assessment is based on characteristics that do not use numerical measures.
True
You should adopt naming standards that do not convey information to potential system attackers.
True
The most common of the mitigation procedures is the disaster recovery plan.
True
Likelihood risk is the risk to the information asset that remains even after the application of controls.
False
Risk measure defines the quantity and nature of risk that organizations are willing to accept as they evaluate the tradeoffs between perfect security and unlimited accessibility.
False
Risk control is the application of controls to reduce the risks to an organization’s data and information systems.
True
Within best practices, the optimum standard is a subcategory of practices that are typically viewed as “the best of the best.”
False
Mutually exclusive means that all information assets must fit in the list somewhere.
False
If every vulnerability identified in the organization is handled through mitigation, it may reflect an inability to conduct proactive security activities and an apathetic approach to security in general.
False
A best practice proposed for a small home office setting is appropriate to help design control strategies for a multinational company.
False
Know yourself means identifying, examining, and understanding the threats facing the organization.
False
Program-specific policies address the specific implementations or applications of which users should be aware.
False
You cannot use qualitative measures to rank values.
False
Policies are documents that specify an organization’s approach to security.
True
Every organization should have the collective will and budget to manage every threat by applying controls.
False
Risk control is the examination and documenting of the security posture of an organization’s information technology and the risks it faces.
False
The mitigate control strategy attempts to reduce the impact caused by the exploitation of vulnerability through planning and preparation.
True
In information security, benchmarking is the comparison of security activities and events against the organization’s future performance.
False
The value of intellectual property influences asset valuation.
True
ALE determines whether or not a particular control alternative is worth its cost.
False
Comprehensive means that an information asset should fit in only one category.
False
Establishing a competitive business model, method, or technique enabled an organization to provide a product or service that was superior and created a(n) competitive advantage.
True
One way to determine which information assets are critical is by evaluating how much of the organization’s revenue depends on a particular asset.
True
Information security managers and technicians are the creators of information.
False
Examples of exceptionally grave damage include armed hostilities against the United States or its allies and disruption of foreign relations vitally affecting the national security.
True
Within organizations, technical feasibility defines what can and cannot occur based on the consensus and relationships between the communities of interest.
False
“If you realize you do not know the enemy, you will gain an advantage in every battle.” (Sun Tzu)
False
Leaving unattended computers on is one of the top information security mistakes made by individuals.
True
The amount of money spent to protect an asset is based in part on the value of the asset.
True
To determine if the risk is acceptable or not, you estimate the expected loss the organization will incur if the risk is exploited.
True
A certificate authority should actually be categorized as a software security component.
True
Metrics-based measures are generally less focused on numbers and more strategic than process-based measures.
False
Identifying human resources, documentation, and data information assets of an organization is less difficult than identifying hardware and software assets.
False
In the U.S. military classification scheme, ____ data is any information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security.
Confidential
____________________ is the process of seeking out and studying the practices used in other organizations that produce results you would like to duplicate in your organization.
Benchmarking
The military uses a ____-level classification scheme.
Five
____________________ components account for the management of information in all its states: transmission, processing, and storage.
Data
For hardware devices, the ____________________ number is used by the network operating system to identify a specific network device.
electronic serial, MAC address, or hardware address
____ is simply how often you expect a specific type of attack to occur.
ARO
The actions an organization can and perhaps should take while an incident is in progress should be specified in a document called the ____ plan.
IR
A single loss ____________________ is the calculation of the value associated with the most likely loss from an attack.
Expectancy
A(n) ____________________ is a “value or profile of a performance metric against which changes in the performance metric can be usefully compared.”
Baseline
Behavioral feasibility is also known as _________________________.
Operational Feasibility
____ equals likelihood of vulnerability occurrence times value (or impact) minus percentage risk already controlled plus an element of uncertainty.
Risk
Operational ____________________ analysis examines user acceptance and support, management acceptance and support, and the overall requirements of the organization’s stakeholders.
Feasibility
The ____ security policy is a planning document that outlines the process of implementing security in the organization.
Program
The concept of competitive ____ refers to falling behind the competition.
Disadvantage
After identifying and performing the preliminary classification of an organization’s information assets, the analysis phase moves on to an examination of the ____________________ facing the organization.
Threats
____________________ is the process of identifying risk, as represented by vulnerabilities, to an organization’s information assets and infrastructure, and taking steps to reduce this risk to an acceptable level.
Risk Management
The formal decision making process used when considering the economic feasibility of implementing information security controls and safeguards is called a(n) ____.
CBA
The ____ strategy attempts to shift risk to other assets, other processes, or other organizations.
Transfer Control
____ addresses are sometimes called electronic serial numbers or hardware addresses.
MAC
Cost ____________________ is the process of preventing the financial impact of an incident by implementing a control.
Avoidance
____________________ is the probability that a specific vulnerability within an organization will be successfully attacked.
Likelihood
When organizations adopt levels of security for a legal defense, they may need to show that they have done what any prudent organization would do in similar circumstances. This is referred to as a(n) ____.
Standard of Due Care
Of the three types of mitigation plans, the _________________________ plan is the most strategic and long term.
Business Continuity or BC
You can assess the relative risk for each of the vulnerabilities by a process called risk ____________________.
Assessment
Overriding an employee’s security ____________________ requires that the need-to-know standard be met.
Clearance
Once the inventory and value assessment are complete, you can prioritize each asset using a straightforward process known as ____________________ analysis.
Weighted Factor
Management of classified data includes its storage and ____.
Distribution, Destruction, and Portability
All information that has been approved by management for public release has a(n) ____________________ classification.
External
In a(n) ____, each information asset is assigned a score for each of a set of assigned critical factor.
Weighted Factor Analysis
____________________ involves three major undertakings: risk identification, risk assessment, and risk control.
Risk Management
____ feasibility analysis examines user acceptance and support, management acceptance and support, and the overall requirements of the organization’s stakeholders.
Operational
The ____________________ control strategy attempts to reduce the impact caused by the exploitation of vulnerability through planning and preparation.
Mitigation
A(n) ____________________ desk policy requires that employees secure all information in appropriate storage containers at the end of each day.
Clean
____ policies address the particular use of certain systems.
Systems-specific
Asset ____________________ is the process of assigning financial value or worth to each information asset.
Valuation
____________________ are defined as information and the systems that use, store, and transmit information.
Assets
A(n) ____ is an authorization issued by an organization for the repair, modification, or update of a piece of equipment.
FCO
Due ____________________ is the demonstration that the organization is diligent in ensuring that the implemented standards continue to provide the required level of protection.
Diligence
The ____ strategy is the choice to do nothing to protect a vulnerability and to accept the outcome of its exploitation.
Accept Control
The ____ strategy attempts to prevent the exploitation of the vulnerability.
Defend Control
Risk ____ is the application of controls to reduce the risks to an organization’s data and information systems.
Control
The first phase of risk management is ____.
Risk Identification
Organizations should communicate with system users throughout the development of the security program, letting them know that change are coming.
True
The difference between an organization’s measures and those of others is often referred to as a performance ____________________.
Gap
Security ____________________ are the technical implementations of the policies defined by the organization.
Technologies
Many corporations use a ____ to help secure the confidentiality and integrity of information.
Data Classification Scheme
____ plans usually include all preparations for the recovery process, strategies to limit losses during the disaster, and detailed steps to follow when the smoke clears, the dust settles, or the floodwaters recede.
DR
Risk ____ defines the quantity and nature of risk that organizations are willing to accept as they evaluate the tradeoffs between perfect security and unlimited accessibility.
Appetite
There are individuals who search trash and recycling — a practice known as ____ — to retrieve information that could embarrass a company or compromise information security.
Dumpster Diving
The ____ security policy is an executive-level document that outlines the organization’s approach and attitude towards information security and relates the strategic value of information security within the organization.
General

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