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Information Security Chapter 4

A(n) disaster recovery plan dictates the actions an organization can and perhaps should take while an incident is in progress.
Internal benchmarking can provide the foundation for baselining.
Each of the threats faced by an organization must be examined to assess its potential to endanger the organization and this examination is known as a threat profile.
Some argue that it is virtually impossible to determine the true value of information and information-bearing assets.
Protocols are activities performed within the organization to improve security.
Security efforts that seek to provide a superior level of performance in the protection of information are referred to as best business practices.
Best business practices are often called recommended practices.
Risk evaluation assigns a risk rating or score to each information asset.
Major risk is a combined function of (1) a threat less the effect of threat-reducing safeguards, (2) a vulnerability less the effect of vulnerability reducing safeguards, and (3) an asset less the effect of asset value-reducing safeguards.
Qualitative-based measures are comparisons based on numerical standards, such as numbers of successful attacks.
Eliminating a threat is an impossible proposition.
A(n) exposure factor is the expected percentage of loss that would occur from a particular attack.
One problem with benchmarking is that there are many organizations that are identical.
When determining the relative importance of each asset, refer to the organization’s mission statement or statement of objectives to determine which elements are essential, which are supportive, and which are merely adjuncts.
CBAs cannot be calculated after controls have been functioning for a time.
Once the organizational threats have been identified, an assets identification process is undertaken.
Benefit is the value that an organization realizes by using controls to prevent losses associated with a specific vulnerability.
The results from risk assessment activities can be delivered in a number of ways: a report on a systematic approach to risk control, a project-based risk assessment, or a topic-specific risk assessment.
When the organization is pursuing an overall risk management program, it requires a(n) systematic report that enumerates the opportunities for controlling risk.
The general management of an organization must structure the IT and information security functions to defend the organization’s information assets.
A(n) qualitative assessment is based on characteristics that do not use numerical measures.
You should adopt naming standards that do not convey information to potential system attackers.
The most common of the mitigation procedures is the disaster recovery plan.
Likelihood risk is the risk to the information asset that remains even after the application of controls.
Risk measure defines the quantity and nature of risk that organizations are willing to accept as they evaluate the tradeoffs between perfect security and unlimited accessibility.
Risk control is the application of controls to reduce the risks to an organization’s data and information systems.
Within best practices, the optimum standard is a subcategory of practices that are typically viewed as “the best of the best.”
Mutually exclusive means that all information assets must fit in the list somewhere.
If every vulnerability identified in the organization is handled through mitigation, it may reflect an inability to conduct proactive security activities and an apathetic approach to security in general.
A best practice proposed for a small home office setting is appropriate to help design control strategies for a multinational company.
Know yourself means identifying, examining, and understanding the threats facing the organization.
Program-specific policies address the specific implementations or applications of which users should be aware.
You cannot use qualitative measures to rank values.
Policies are documents that specify an organization’s approach to security.
Every organization should have the collective will and budget to manage every threat by applying controls.
Risk control is the examination and documenting of the security posture of an organization’s information technology and the risks it faces.
The mitigate control strategy attempts to reduce the impact caused by the exploitation of vulnerability through planning and preparation.
In information security, benchmarking is the comparison of security activities and events against the organization’s future performance.
The value of intellectual property influences asset valuation.
ALE determines whether or not a particular control alternative is worth its cost.
Comprehensive means that an information asset should fit in only one category.
Establishing a competitive business model, method, or technique enabled an organization to provide a product or service that was superior and created a(n) competitive advantage.
One way to determine which information assets are critical is by evaluating how much of the organization’s revenue depends on a particular asset.
Information security managers and technicians are the creators of information.
Examples of exceptionally grave damage include armed hostilities against the United States or its allies and disruption of foreign relations vitally affecting the national security.
Within organizations, technical feasibility defines what can and cannot occur based on the consensus and relationships between the communities of interest.
“If you realize you do not know the enemy, you will gain an advantage in every battle.” (Sun Tzu)
Leaving unattended computers on is one of the top information security mistakes made by individuals.
The amount of money spent to protect an asset is based in part on the value of the asset.
To determine if the risk is acceptable or not, you estimate the expected loss the organization will incur if the risk is exploited.
A certificate authority should actually be categorized as a software security component.
Metrics-based measures are generally less focused on numbers and more strategic than process-based measures.
Identifying human resources, documentation, and data information assets of an organization is less difficult than identifying hardware and software assets.
In the U.S. military classification scheme, ____ data is any information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security.
____________________ is the process of seeking out and studying the practices used in other organizations that produce results you would like to duplicate in your organization.
The military uses a ____-level classification scheme.
____________________ components account for the management of information in all its states: transmission, processing, and storage.
For hardware devices, the ____________________ number is used by the network operating system to identify a specific network device.
electronic serial, MAC address, or hardware address
____ is simply how often you expect a specific type of attack to occur.
The actions an organization can and perhaps should take while an incident is in progress should be specified in a document called the ____ plan.
A single loss ____________________ is the calculation of the value associated with the most likely loss from an attack.
A(n) ____________________ is a “value or profile of a performance metric against which changes in the performance metric can be usefully compared.”
Behavioral feasibility is also known as _________________________.
Operational Feasibility
____ equals likelihood of vulnerability occurrence times value (or impact) minus percentage risk already controlled plus an element of uncertainty.
Operational ____________________ analysis examines user acceptance and support, management acceptance and support, and the overall requirements of the organization’s stakeholders.
The ____ security policy is a planning document that outlines the process of implementing security in the organization.
The concept of competitive ____ refers to falling behind the competition.
After identifying and performing the preliminary classification of an organization’s information assets, the analysis phase moves on to an examination of the ____________________ facing the organization.
____________________ is the process of identifying risk, as represented by vulnerabilities, to an organization’s information assets and infrastructure, and taking steps to reduce this risk to an acceptable level.
Risk Management
The formal decision making process used when considering the economic feasibility of implementing information security controls and safeguards is called a(n) ____.
The ____ strategy attempts to shift risk to other assets, other processes, or other organizations.
Transfer Control
____ addresses are sometimes called electronic serial numbers or hardware addresses.
Cost ____________________ is the process of preventing the financial impact of an incident by implementing a control.
____________________ is the probability that a specific vulnerability within an organization will be successfully attacked.
When organizations adopt levels of security for a legal defense, they may need to show that they have done what any prudent organization would do in similar circumstances. This is referred to as a(n) ____.
Standard of Due Care
Of the three types of mitigation plans, the _________________________ plan is the most strategic and long term.
Business Continuity or BC
You can assess the relative risk for each of the vulnerabilities by a process called risk ____________________.
Overriding an employee’s security ____________________ requires that the need-to-know standard be met.
Once the inventory and value assessment are complete, you can prioritize each asset using a straightforward process known as ____________________ analysis.
Weighted Factor
Management of classified data includes its storage and ____.
Distribution, Destruction, and Portability
All information that has been approved by management for public release has a(n) ____________________ classification.
In a(n) ____, each information asset is assigned a score for each of a set of assigned critical factor.
Weighted Factor Analysis
____________________ involves three major undertakings: risk identification, risk assessment, and risk control.
Risk Management
____ feasibility analysis examines user acceptance and support, management acceptance and support, and the overall requirements of the organization’s stakeholders.
The ____________________ control strategy attempts to reduce the impact caused by the exploitation of vulnerability through planning and preparation.
A(n) ____________________ desk policy requires that employees secure all information in appropriate storage containers at the end of each day.
____ policies address the particular use of certain systems.
Asset ____________________ is the process of assigning financial value or worth to each information asset.
____________________ are defined as information and the systems that use, store, and transmit information.
A(n) ____ is an authorization issued by an organization for the repair, modification, or update of a piece of equipment.
Due ____________________ is the demonstration that the organization is diligent in ensuring that the implemented standards continue to provide the required level of protection.
The ____ strategy is the choice to do nothing to protect a vulnerability and to accept the outcome of its exploitation.
Accept Control
The ____ strategy attempts to prevent the exploitation of the vulnerability.
Defend Control
Risk ____ is the application of controls to reduce the risks to an organization’s data and information systems.
The first phase of risk management is ____.
Risk Identification
Organizations should communicate with system users throughout the development of the security program, letting them know that change are coming.
The difference between an organization’s measures and those of others is often referred to as a performance ____________________.
Security ____________________ are the technical implementations of the policies defined by the organization.
Many corporations use a ____ to help secure the confidentiality and integrity of information.
Data Classification Scheme
____ plans usually include all preparations for the recovery process, strategies to limit losses during the disaster, and detailed steps to follow when the smoke clears, the dust settles, or the floodwaters recede.
Risk ____ defines the quantity and nature of risk that organizations are willing to accept as they evaluate the tradeoffs between perfect security and unlimited accessibility.
There are individuals who search trash and recycling — a practice known as ____ — to retrieve information that could embarrass a company or compromise information security.
Dumpster Diving
The ____ security policy is an executive-level document that outlines the organization’s approach and attitude towards information security and relates the strategic value of information security within the organization.

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