People who, either themselves or through the organization they represent, ultimately benefit from the systems development project.
People who will regularly interact with the system.
A professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems.
A specialist responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements.
end-user systems development
Any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users.
information systems planning
Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives.
The system development phase during which problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business.
The systems development phase involving the study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement.
The systems development phase that defines how the information system will do what it must do an obtain a solution.
The systems development phase involving the creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation.
systems maintenance and review
The systems development phase that ensures the system operates and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs.
An iterative approach to the systems development process in which at each iteration requirements and alternative solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a portion of the system is implemented.
rapid application development (RAD)
A systems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.
A detailed description of what has to be done
A critical date for the completion of a major part of the project.
The date the entire project is to be completed and operational.
Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
A formalized approach that creates three times estimates for an activity to determine a single time estimate.
A graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Tools that automate many of the tasks required in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to the SDLC.
object-oriented systems development (OOSD)
An approach to systems development that combines the logic of systems development life cycle with the power of object-oriented modeling and programming.
systems request form
A document filled out by someone who wants the IS department to initiate systems investigation.
Assessment of the technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility of a project.
Assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other system components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem.
The determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether the predicted benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them.
The determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a system development project.
The measure of whether the project can be put into action or operation.
The determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time.
systems investigation report
A summary of the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis and recommendation of a course of action.
An advisory group consisting of senior management and user from the IS department and other functional areas.
An interview in which the questions are written in advance.
An interview in which the questions are not written in advance.
Directly observing the existing system in action by one or more members of the analysis team.
A method of gathering data when the data sources are spread over a wide geographic area.
The manipulation of collected data so that the development team members who are participating in systems analysis can use the data.
data-flow diagram (DFD)
A model of objects, associations, and activities that describes how data can flow between and around various objects.
A line with arrows that show the direction of data element movement.
Representation of a function that is performed.
Representation either a source or destination of a data element.
Representation of a storage location for data.
The determination of user, stakeholder, and organizational needs.
An approach to gather data that asks users, stakeholders and other managers about what they want and expect from the new or modified system.
The stage of the systems development that answers the question “How will the information system solve a problem?”
A description of functional requirements of a system.
The specification of the characteristics of the system of components necessary to put the logical design into action.
Also called green design, it involves systems development efforts that slash power consumption, require less physical space, and result in systems that can be disposed of in a way that doesn’t negatively affect the environment.
request for proposal (RFP)
A document that specifies in detail required resources such as hardware and software.
An initial assessment whose purpose is to dismiss the unwanted proposals; begins after all proposals have been submitted.
A detailed investigation of the proposals offered by the vendors remaining after the preliminary evaluation.
The primary result of systems design, reflecting the decisions made for systems design and preparing the way for systems implementation.
A stage of system development that includes, hardware acquisition, programming and software acquisition or development, user preparation, hiring and training of personnel, site and data preparation, installation, testing, start-up and user acceptance.
The decision regarding whether to obtain the necessary software form internal or external sources.
The process of readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for the new systems.
Preparation of the location of a new system.
data preparation, or data conversion
Making sure that all files and database are ready to be used with new computer software and systems.
The process of physically placing the computer equipment on the site and making it operational.
Testing of individual programs
Testing the entire system of programs.
Testing the application with a large amount of data.
Testing all related systems together.
Conducting any tests required by the user.
The process of making the final tested information system fully operational.
Stopping the old system and starting the new system on a given date; also called plunge or direct cutover.
Running both the old and new systems for a period of time and comparing the output of the old system; any differences are reconciled. When users are comfortable that the new system is working correctly, the old system is eliminated.
user acceptance document
A formal agreement that the user signs stating that phase of the installation or the complete system is approved.
Use of a new or modified system in all kinds of operating conditions.
A stage of systems development that involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals.
The final step of systems development, involving analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended.
system performance measurement
Monitoring the system – the number of errors encountered, the amount of memory required, the amount of processing or CPU time needed, and other problems.
system performance products
Software that measures all components of the information system, including hardware, software, database, telecommunications, and network systems.
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