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Information Systems Chapter 8

stakeholders
People who, either themselves or through the organization they represent, ultimately benefit from the systems development project.
users
People who will regularly interact with the system.
systems analyst
A professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems.
programmer
A specialist responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements.
end-user systems development
Any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users.
information systems planning
Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives.
systems investigation
The system development phase during which problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business.
systems analysis
The systems development phase involving the study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement.
systems design
The systems development phase that defines how the information system will do what it must do an obtain a solution.
systems implementation
The systems development phase involving the creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation.
systems maintenance and review
The systems development phase that ensures the system operates and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs.
prototyping
An iterative approach to the systems development process in which at each iteration requirements and alternative solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, and a portion of the system is implemented.
rapid application development (RAD)
A systems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.
project scheudle
A detailed description of what has to be done
project milestone
A critical date for the completion of a major part of the project.
project deadline
The date the entire project is to be completed and operational.
critical path
Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
A formalized approach that creates three times estimates for an activity to determine a single time estimate.
Gantt chart
A graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects.
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Tools that automate many of the tasks required in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to the SDLC.
object-oriented systems development (OOSD)
An approach to systems development that combines the logic of systems development life cycle with the power of object-oriented modeling and programming.
systems request form
A document filled out by someone who wants the IS department to initiate systems investigation.
feasibility analysis
Assessment of the technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility of a project.
technical feasibility
Assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other system components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem.
economic feasibility
The determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether the predicted benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them.
legal feasibility
The determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a system development project.
operational feasibility
The measure of whether the project can be put into action or operation.
schedule feasibility
The determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time.
systems investigation report
A summary of the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis and recommendation of a course of action.
steering committee
An advisory group consisting of senior management and user from the IS department and other functional areas.
structured interview
An interview in which the questions are written in advance.
unstructured interview
An interview in which the questions are not written in advance.
direct observation
Directly observing the existing system in action by one or more members of the analysis team.
questionnaires
A method of gathering data when the data sources are spread over a wide geographic area.
data analysis
The manipulation of collected data so that the development team members who are participating in systems analysis can use the data.
data-flow diagram (DFD)
A model of objects, associations, and activities that describes how data can flow between and around various objects.
data-flow line
A line with arrows that show the direction of data element movement.
process symbol
Representation of a function that is performed.
entity symbol
Representation either a source or destination of a data element.
data store
Representation of a storage location for data.
requirements analysis
The determination of user, stakeholder, and organizational needs.
asking directly
An approach to gather data that asks users, stakeholders and other managers about what they want and expect from the new or modified system.
systems design
The stage of the systems development that answers the question “How will the information system solve a problem?”
logical design
A description of functional requirements of a system.
physical design
The specification of the characteristics of the system of components necessary to put the logical design into action.
environmental design
Also called green design, it involves systems development efforts that slash power consumption, require less physical space, and result in systems that can be disposed of in a way that doesn’t negatively affect the environment.
request for proposal (RFP)
A document that specifies in detail required resources such as hardware and software.
preliminary evaluation
An initial assessment whose purpose is to dismiss the unwanted proposals; begins after all proposals have been submitted.
final evaluation
A detailed investigation of the proposals offered by the vendors remaining after the preliminary evaluation.
design report
The primary result of systems design, reflecting the decisions made for systems design and preparing the way for systems implementation.
systems implementation
A stage of system development that includes, hardware acquisition, programming and software acquisition or development, user preparation, hiring and training of personnel, site and data preparation, installation, testing, start-up and user acceptance.
make-or-buy decision
The decision regarding whether to obtain the necessary software form internal or external sources.
user preparation
The process of readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for the new systems.
site preparation
Preparation of the location of a new system.
data preparation, or data conversion
Making sure that all files and database are ready to be used with new computer software and systems.
installation
The process of physically placing the computer equipment on the site and making it operational.
unit testing
Testing of individual programs
system testing
Testing the entire system of programs.
volume testing
Testing the application with a large amount of data.
integration testing
Testing all related systems together.
acceptance testing
Conducting any tests required by the user.
start-up
The process of making the final tested information system fully operational.
direct conversion
Stopping the old system and starting the new system on a given date; also called plunge or direct cutover.
parallel start-up
Running both the old and new systems for a period of time and comparing the output of the old system; any differences are reconciled. When users are comfortable that the new system is working correctly, the old system is eliminated.
user acceptance document
A formal agreement that the user signs stating that phase of the installation or the complete system is approved.
systems operation
Use of a new or modified system in all kinds of operating conditions.
systems maintenance
A stage of systems development that involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals.
systems review
The final step of systems development, involving analyzing systems to make sure that they are operating as intended.
system performance measurement
Monitoring the system – the number of errors encountered, the amount of memory required, the amount of processing or CPU time needed, and other problems.
system performance products
Software that measures all components of the information system, including hardware, software, database, telecommunications, and network systems.

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