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Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM
pest control strategy that uses a combination of techniques to reduce pest pops to economically acceptable levels. Focuses on the long-term prevention or suppression of pest problems. uses cultural, biological, physical, and mechanical methods in site specific combiations. Pesticides only used when careful field moniotring, based on economic threshold levels, indicates they are needed. Main aim is to control only the harmful pest without affecting beneficial and non-target organsism, human health, and the environment.
The IPM Process
offers the pssibility of improving the efficacy of pest control programs while reducing some of the negative effects. reduce energy and pesticide use
1.Proper pest identification and field scouting is the first two most important steps
-correct pest identity
-pest biology and life cycles
-most susceptible stage in the life of the pest
-how the pest grows under specific conditions
-how the pest survives and lives
-how the pest spreads
-what are the effects of environmental factos on the pest
-Insects and disease, what are the damage symptoms
-what are the natural enemies
2. Field scouting is a systematic sampling of the pest populations and recording the pest
-weeds – number per given area (density) and pattern in the field
-Insects – stage or size, symptoms and level of damage on the crop and symptoms and level of damage
-Disease-severity, symptoms and level of damage
IPM Tactics
Prevention and control stategies
1) encouraging natural enemies of the pest
2) monitoring pest populations and other relevant factors
3) using resistant crops before pest numbers increase and cause economic damage.
Control stategies may involve many control combinations.
The Decision-Making Process
control action guidlines help decide whether managment actions are needed to avoid losses from pest damage.
Economic or aesthetic injury levels
establish the amount of pest damage that occurs from given pest densities.
Treatment /action threshold
indicate when managment actions are needed to avoid losses.
Keeping Detailed Field Records
is a must in IPM programs
-any relevent cropping or re-vegetaon histores–variety, seeding date, fertilization, seed treatment, tilage system
-timing and date of any pest control methods, environmenetal conditions before, at, and after treatment
-past, present, and future re-veg practices
-any relative yield results
Evaluating your results
regular evaluation program will help determine the susccess of pest management srateies. what worked and what didnt
BLM
One of the Bureau of Land Managment’s highest propority is to promote ecosystem health.
Noxious weed
any plant designated by a Federal, State or county government as injurious to public health, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, or property.
Weed – Competitive, persistent and destructive
Of all plants (250,000 species) only 3% or 8000 thought to behave as weeds
1) abundant seed production
2)reapid pop establishment
3)seed dormancy
4)long term survival of buried seeds
5) adaptations for rapid spread
6) presence of vegetative reproduction features
7)capacity to occupy sites disturbed by human activity.
Amaranthaceae – Pigweeds
Prolific seed producers. Flowers in dense spikes.
spiny likfe flowers
Asclepidaceae – Milkweeds
milky sap, covered with fine hairs
Asteraceae – thistles, knapweeds, hawkweeds, sagebrush, rush skeletonweed
flowerhead with many small tube-like flowers clustered on a common base, with an outer row of strap-shaped flowers in some species
Caryophyllaceae – chickweeds
round stem and leaves and appear to be in whorls (cicles) around the plant stem
Chenopodiaceae – goosfoot, lambsquarter, kochia, Russian thistle, fourwing saltbush
flowers are tiny and inconspicious, but some species bear showhy masses of fruits.
sometimes reddish coloration
Convolulaceae – dodder, field bindweed
trailing or climbing vines, often have heart shaped leaves and funnel shaped flowers
Brassicaceae- mustards, whitetop
alternate leaves, small four part flower in white, yellow or purple
Cyperaceae – nutsedges
triangle shaped solid stems
Euphorbiaceae – spurges
milky sap
Gramineae (Poaceae) grasses, cheatgrass, jointed goatgrass
slender leaves with parrellel viens
Leguminosae – locoweeds, lupines
compiund leaves and flowers are typical pea blossom shape
Polygonaceae – docks, knotweeds, wild buckwheat, smartweeds
stem has a paper-like collar at the base of each leaf
Rosaceae – cinquefoils, wild rose
rose-like flowers, thorns
Scrophulariaceae – toadflaxes, mullein
snapdragon-lik flowers, petals sometimes joined together, forming the shape of a bell
Solanaceae – nightshades, horsenettle, potatoes, tobacco, eggplant
sometimes creeping, 5 petals and 5 stamen in flowers
Umbelliferae – poison hemlock, water hemlock, queen annes lace, wild carrot
flowers in umbrella-shaped clusters, hollow stems. fern like leaves.
IPM and weed Managment
as long as a wed is not eliminating the min forage crop and is not poisonous to livestock, it may be acceptable to tolerate a certain level of the weed. Must balance the economic loss due to weeds against the cost of controlling the weeds – economic threshold
Insects – Arhtropoda “jointed foot”
have stiff outer shell (exoskeleton, cuticle) composed largely of chitin, a natural carbohydrate polymer
Insect life cycle
many are easy to manage during one or two of their life stages.
Pesticides may not be effective against eggs or adults, while the soft immature insect larvae or instars may be easily killed.
Gradual, incomplete or simple metamorphosis
3 stages- egg, nymph, and adult- wings become fully developed only in the adult stage.
Complete metamorphosis
4 stages – egg, larva, pupa, and adult
Order Orthoptera
Grasshoppers, Crickets, Cockroaches and Cicadas
Order Hymenoptera
Bees, Wasps, Hornets, Ants, Sawflies
Order Hemiptera
True Bugs (big-eyed bugs, plant bugs, assassin bugs)
Order Lepidoptera
Butteflies and moths
Order Diptera
House Flies, Horseflies, Mosquitoes, Fruitflies, Midges, and Gnats
Order Homoptera
Scales, whiteflies, mealybugs, spittlebugs and aphids
Order Coleoptera
beetles and weevils
Mites – Arachnida
spiders, mites, ticks, and scorpions
2 body regions, four pairs of legs, wingless and have no antennae
Insects and IPM
requires understanding of the grwoth habits of the plant and its cropping system, knowledge of the biology, behavior, life history and type of damage caused by potential pests and information regarding the plant growth stage or enviornmental condtitions under which pest damage is most likely to occur.
Cultural Methods
involve manipulating the environment to make it less suitable for pest survival.
Selection of Plant materials
choose plant aterials that are well adapted to local soil and environmental condtitions
Crop Rotation
Rotating the location of garden crops will affect the incidence of foliar feeding insects but may reduce damage caused by soil-inhabiting pests such as wireworms
Sanitation
overwinter/ shelter in plant residues, remove debris
cultivation
keep crop areas weed-free
vsriation in time of planting or harvest
growing the crop when th pest is in a growth stage where it can do the least harm or planting the crop so that the most susceptible stage of crop occurs when the pest is least abundant.
Intercropping and Companion Planting
Intercropping refers to planting two or more crops in adjacent plots to slow the spread or pests and to provide habitat for natural enemies.
Mulches
excerise catuion, thick mulches of plant material will encourage the development of potentially damaging pests such as white grubs, millipedes, sowbugs, and cutowrms.
Water and Fertilizer Management
adequate fertilization and watering encourages healthy, vigorous plant growth.
Mechanical/Physical Methods
include hand removal, use of screens, barriers, or trapping devices; freezing, crushing, and grinding.
hand removal
remove large or readily visible insects by hand and destroy, or disloge pests into can containging small amount of water and detergent.
Exclusion Using screens and Barriers
cardboard or metal collars placed around transplants or container plants will reduce the risk of cutworm and millipede damage
sticky bands
trapping
various kinds used to monitor insect adunance
Biological methods
the important IPM stategy uses beneficial organisms including predators, parasites, or insect pathogens to reduce pest populations.
Beneficial insects and mites
natural pops of predators and parasites are valuable in reducing infestations of insect and mite pests.
Birds
attract insect-eating birds and small mammals to areas by planting trees and shrubs that provide cover and furnish berries for food. Water or nesting sites
Disease-causing Microoganisms
Disease causing organsisms or their products also can be used to suppress insect populations
Nematodes
certain species of nematodes that only attatck insects are available commercially.
Chemical methods
attractants, repellents, sterilants, and growth regulators for pest suppression.
Inescticdes
many cases the most practical method of reducing insect populations that have already reached threshold levels. have rapid curative action in preventing pest damage and offer a wide range of properties, uses and application methods. relatively inexpensive and may provide subsantial finacial or aesthetic benefits
Insecticide problems
development of pest resistance
-outbreaks of secondary pests
-adverse effects on non-target organisms including humans and beneficial insects
-hazardous residues in our food suply
-ground water contamination
Bacillus thuringiensis
BT attacts digestive tract
Pyrethrins
refined from natural pyrehtrum which is extracted from a aspecies of chrysanthemum grown primarily in Kenya
Plant Diseases
plant pathogens are microogranisms that cause disease. can be fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas or nematodes.
Disease causing organisms
pathogens
Fungi
most common plant pathogen. sipmple organisms that lack chlorophyll and therefore cannot manufacture their own food through photysnthesis.
Armillaria fungi
typ live on dead plant tissue in soil. have capabiliy of causing a disease or roots and lower stem tissue on many species of woody plants. typ attack trees
Plant pathogenic fungi
penetrate into leaves, stems and roots through wounds and natural openings or by forcing their way directly through the plants protective epidermis.
Mycelium
microscopic thread-like strands
Sclerotia
bb sized structures that allow them to survive in the soil from season to season
Bacteria
microscopic, one-celled orgaisms unable to make their own food. reproduce when food, temperature and moisture conditions are favorable.
Viruses
complex molecules of nucleic acids, cannot reproduce on their own. Rely on incorporating their nucleic acid into the nucleic acid of a plant cell to reproduce.
Mycoplasms
large number of “yellows” diseases are caused by bacteria-like organisms known as mycoplasmas.
primarily transmited by leafhopper insects
Nematodes
very tiny slender somewhat transparent, round worms. very high pops must be present to impair ability of roots to absorb water and nutreints
Nature of plant Disease
infectious plant disease are caused by a wide range of pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and mycoplasmalike organisms or by parasitic plants
systemic infection
invade the entire plant
localized infection
only affect certain plant parts
Abiotic
noninfectious diseases. cannot multiply within the host and cannot be transmitted from plant to plant. result of unfavorable environmental or chemical conditions such as unfavorbable temps, soil compaction, drought, flooding, nutrient imbalances, air pollution or chemical excesses and misapplication
Symptoms
produce characteristic symptoms in response to infectious plant disease that greatly aid in diagnosing the cause of the disease.
they are the plant’s expression of disease
Signs
are the evidence of the actual pathogen itselg
some are visible with an unaided eye, others require the use of a hand lens or microscope
Feild distribution
most common dist for feild crop disease is a radom pattern
disease moving in from edges of the field is often indicative of an insect-vectored disease. another common pattern is areas of high stress, or low or compacted areas
Disease Triangle
Over time plant disease result from three interacting conditions
– a susceptible host
-an environmental favorable for disease development
-a disease-causing agent (virulent pathogen)
Pathogens
most pathogens are host-specific to a particular plant species, genus or family.
Hosts
has a genetic makeup that permits the development of a particular disease
-resistance can be – physical characteristics of the plant, chemical, and growth patterns.
Environment
certain conditions must exist for disease pathogens to cause infection. moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, nutition and soil quality

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