In presenting theoretical material, the scientific method must be followed (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Concrete examples must be provided of a phenomenon a theory may describe or predict (Felder & Silverman, 1988). From this, theories may be developed or a model may be formulated (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Then, it must be shown how the theory or model can be applied, validated, and deduced for its consequences (Felder & Silverman, 1988). Another technique could be the use of pictures, schematics, graphs and simple sketches before, during and after presentation of verbal materials (Felder & Silverman, 1988).
Films can also be shown or demonstrations and hands-on activities whenever possible (Felder & Silverman, 1988). The use of computer-assisted instruction is also beneficial (Felder & Silverman, 1988). It will ensure that instructors do not fill every minute of class time lecturing and writing on the board (Felder & Silverman, 1988). In this manner, intervals for learners’ to think about what they have been told will be provided (Felder & Silverman, 1988). As well, opportunities for learners’ to do something active besides transcribing notes will also be provided (Felder & Silverman, 1988).
Another style could be small group brainstorming activities that take no more than five
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Learners must also be applauded for creative solutions even in instances when they give incorrect ones (Felder and Silverman, 1988). Lastly, talk to learners’ about learning styles (Felder and Silverman, 1988). The next consideration may be that the members of the military soldiers and the civilian personnel are adult learners who have special needs and requirements. Malcom Knowles as cited by Stephen Lieb (1991) said: Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They need to be free to direct themselves. Their teachers must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them.
Specially, they must get participants’ perspectives about what to cover and let them work on projects that reflect their interests. They should allow the participants to assume responsibility for presentations and group leadership; Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experience and knowledge that may include work-related activities, family responsibilities and previous education. They need to connect learning to this knowledge which may be experience based. To help them do so, they should draw out participants’ experience and knowledge which is relevant to the topic.
They must relate theories and concepts to the participants and recognize the value of experience in learning; Adults are goal oriented. They know what they want to attain. They therefore appreciate an educational program that is organized and has clearly defined elements. Instructors must show participants how the learners’ will help themselves attain their goals which were done earlier in the course; Adults are relevancy oriented, that they must see reason for learning something. Learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibilities to be of value to them.
Therefore, instructors must identify objectives for adults’ participants prior to giving any lesson. This means also that the theories and concepts must be related to a setting familiar to participants. This need can be fulfilled by letting participants choose projects that reflect their own interest; Adults are practical, focusing on the aspects of a lesson most useful to them in their work. They may not be interested in knowledge for its own sake. Instructors must tell participants explicitly how the lesson will be useful to them on the job; and
Adults need to be shown respect as do all learners’. Instructors must acknowledge the wealth of experiences that adult participants bring to their learning setting. These adult should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to voice their opinions freely in class. In these regard, Hyperstudio mode of teaching maybe employed. With the Hyperstudio multimedia software instructional tool, instructors’ of Tactical Personnel System of the Department of Defense will find ease, effectiveness, efficiency, precision, accuracy, and speed in instruction.
This is highly interactive as agenda-based. Type of Evaluation To evaluate and measure the introduction and usage of Hyperstudio instructional multimedia software program, the formative evaluation style was employed. This includes the use of: 1. ) Job aid checklist; 2. ) a journal documentation sheet; 3. ) a rubric measurement evaluation program survey sheet; 4. ) Instructors observation notes; and 5. ) survey questionnaire. Six copies from each of these materials were prepared for the six 1:1 evaluators.
Another 14 copies from each material were also prepared for 2 small groups of evaluators. All twenty participants were chosen at random. Evaluation Questions These formative evaluation questions were employed during the assessment: Was the instructional goal achieved? Were the steps in each lesson clear and easy to follow? Does the content help the learners meet the learning objectives? Were there any major mistakes or typos on the website or worksheets? Do the lesson plans contain enough information to complete a project? Was the instruction moderate?