logo image

International Marketing Exam 1

Which of the following is a dynamic trend that is affecting the current global business strategies?

A. The trend toward buying American cars in Europe.
B. The trend toward the acceptance of the free market system among developing countries.
C. The trend toward using English as the global language.
D. The trend toward establishing a world currency.
E. The trend toward worldwide instant communication.

The trend toward the acceptance of the free market system among developing countries

Companies from _____ lead in foreign investment in the United States.

A. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
B. Russia
C. China
D. United Kingdom
E. Canada

United Kingdom

Which of the following is true regarding the impact of globalization on domestic markets in the United States?

A. Companies with only domestic markets have been able to sustain their customary rates of growth.
B. Multinational companies are making more profits from their domestic operations compared to their earnings from the foreign markets.
C. Only multinational companies with large production facilities have succeeded in the international markets.
D. The domestic companies have reduced their manufacturing employment more than the US multinationals.
E. Multinational manufacturing companies in all industries and sizes have outperformed their domestic counterparts.

Multinational manufacturing companies in all industries and sizes have outperformed their domestic counterparts.

Which of the following is an essential requirement for companies to succeed in international markets?

A. Binding strictly to their traditional methods of operations to succeed in international markets.
B. Focusing primarily on their production to meet the demands at home.
C. Venturing into multiple markets at once.
D. Committing themselves completely to foreign markets.
E. Focusing on improving the domestic market to invest the returns in international markets.

Committing themselves completely to foreign markets.

_____ is the performance of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and direct the flow of a company’s goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit.

A. Internal marketing
B. Importing
C. Corporate management
D. International marketing
E. Domestic trade

International marketing

Which of the following is the most critical difference between domestic marketing and international marketing?

A. The difference in marketing principles being followed.
B. The different concepts of marketing.
C. The change in marketing goals.
D. The environment in which marketing plans must be implemented.
E. The basic processes used to market products and services.

The environment in which marketing plans must be implemented

Which of the following elements in the marketing environment poses a challenge to both domestic and international marketers due to its uncontrollable nature?

A. Price
B. Promotion
C. Research activities
D. Political/legal forces
E. Channels of distribution

Political/legal forces

Which of the following is a controllable element for an international marketer?

A. Level of technology
B. Geography and infrastructure
C. Channels of distribution
D. Cultural forces
E. Structure of distribution

Channels of distribution

Which of the following is an uncontrollable element for an international marketer?

A. Firm characteristics
B. Promotion
C. Price
D. Research
E. Level of technology

Level of technology

For an international marketer, the _____ can be altered in the long run and, usually, in the short run to adjust to changing market conditions, consumer tastes, or corporate objectives.

A. competitive structure
B. economic climate
C. structure of distribution
D. environmental factors
E. controllable elements

controllable elements

Which of the following is an uncontrollable factor for a marketer in a domestic environment?

A. Firm characteristics
B. Competitive structure
C. Channels of distribution
D. Price of the product
E. Promotional measures

Competitive structure

Which of the following political actions is likely to favor international marketing?

A. Placing trade embargo on Cuba owing to widespread political instability in the country.
B. U.S. government placing a trade ban on Libya for rampant terrorism.
C. Paraguay imposing low tariffs and tax rates for manufacturing industries.
D. Tariff hike for imports established by China.
E. U.S. government coupling human rights issues with foreign trade policy.

Paraguay imposing low tariffs and tax rates for manufacturing industries.

Which of the following reflects the relationship between international business and domestic business?

A. Domestic businesses find it relatively easy to manage profits in the current scenario.
B. Domestic businesses find it relatively easy to manage profits in the current scenario.
C. Most domestic businesses are the result of customization efforts of international businesses.
D. The ability to invest abroad is to a large extent a function of domestic economic vitality.
E. Domestic businesses are more viable as capital tends to move toward minimum use.

The ability to invest abroad is to a large extent a function of domestic economic vitality.

Which of the following is a possible outcome of the “alien status” of a company?

A. An increase in protectionist federal policies.
B. A positive balance of trade.
C. A sharp rise in domestic and international demand.
D. A huge trade deficit.
E. An economic situation of the magnitude of the Great Depression.

An increase in protectionist federal policies.

With respect to the environment in which a business operates, factors such as competition, political and legal forces, economic climate, would all be classified as:

A. controllable elements.
B. uncontrollable elements.
C. predictable elements.
D. demographic elements.
E. cultural elements.

uncontrollable elements

_____ is a controllable element in both domestic and international marketing environments.

A. Economic climate
B. Competition within the home country
C. Price of products
D. Political forces
E. Foreign policies

Price of products

The marketing tasks of an international marketer differs from that of a domestic marketer as:

A. the international marketer has fewer uncontrollable elements to deal with compared to a domestic marketer.
B. the level of technology and cultural forces are controllable elements for the domestic marketer.
C. the structure of distribution is an uncontrollable element for the international marketer.
D. the competitive structure is one of the controllable factors for an international marketer.
E. the international marketer is less concerned about geography and infrastructure than the domestic marketer.

the structure of distribution is an uncontrollable element for the international marketer.

Robert Jonas is in charge of a new marketing effort directed toward Peru. In order for his company to effectively market and distribute to all of Peru’s major cities, Mr. Jonas must devise a logistics plan for crossing the Andes Mountains on a daily basis. Which of the following foreign environment uncontrollable variables would be a chief concern as Mr. Jonas devises his plan?

A. Competitive forces
B. Cultural forces
C. Geography and infrastructure
D. Economic forces
E. Political/legal forces

Geography and infrastructure

Compared to the foreign environment uncontrollable variables, which of the following elements is excluded from the domestic marketer’s list of uncontrollable variables?

A. Political forces
B. Competitive structure
C. Economic climate
D. Cultural forces
E. Legal forces

Cultural forces

Amy Sims has been assigned the task of preparing a marketing plan for her company for the next year’s business activities. She knows that she should begin her plan by examining the variables that she has some control over. These controllable variables would include price, product, channels-of-distribution, and _____.

A. demand
B. political forces
C. competition
D. economic climate
E. promotion

promotion

M&M, a company producing musical instruments, had dominated its home market for several years before venturing into international markets. The company was focusing more on international operations until a German company in the same business entered its home market. The German company started selling good quality products at prices much lower than M&M’s and affected its sales adversely. Which of the following elements in the marketing environment has affected the business of M&M in the above scenario?

A. Level of technology
B. Structure of distribution
C. Competition in the domestic market
D. Cultural forces
E.Promotion of the product

Competition in the domestic market

Ralph Waite is a marketing manager at a video game console manufacturing firm. Ralph has been asked to review the marketing opportunities of his company in a foreign market. Ralph is aware that he can modify certain elements of the marketing environment to suit the foreign market needs. He is primarily focusing his attention on the factors that are not under his control and might affect their business prospects. Which of the following uncontrollable elements is most likely to affect the company’s business prospects in the foreign market?

A. The pricing policies in the foreign market.
B. The trade policies in the home country.
C. The promotional activities required to market the product.
D. The level of technology in the targeted market.
E. The product distribution channels adopted by his company.

The level of technology in the targeted market.

The _____ issues faced by a company are often amplified by the “alien status” of the company, which increases the difficulty of properly assessing and forecasting the dynamic international business climate.

A. product research
B. pricing
C. product specification
D. political/legal
E. promotional

political/legal

Which of the following best illustrates the political and legal issues faced by companies because of their “alien status” when they attempt to do business in foreign countries?

A. A company doing moderate business in international markets because of violent history of its home country.
B. A company being forced by the local government to share its core competencies in order to continue doing business.
C. A product not being widely accepted in the foreign market because of its irrelevance to the customers.
D. A company utilizing an identical promotional campaign it used in the domestic country.
E. A company not succeeding in a foreign market because its product pricing is above the purchasing power of the local customers.

A company being forced by the local government to share its core competencies in order to continue doing business.

_____ is the conscious effort on the part of the international marketer to anticipate the influences of both the foreign and domestic uncontrollable factors on a marketing mix and then to adjust the marketing mix to minimize the effects.

A. Standardization
B. Adaptation
C. Segregation
D. Segmentation
E. Projection

Adaptation

The primary obstacles to success in international marketing are a person’s _____ and an associated ethnocentrism.

A. regionalism
B. holism
C. self-reference criterion
D. effort at adaptation
E. effort at integration

self-reference criterion

_____ is an unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, and knowledge as a basis for decisions.

A. Nativism
B. Holism
C. Self-reference criterion
D. Segregation
E. Xenophobia

self-reference criterion

In the United States, unrelated individuals keep a certain physical distance between themselves and others when talking or in groups. Americans do not consciously think about that distance; they just know what feels right without thinking. Someone from another culture would not necessarily understand this and would apply their rules for contact when speaking. The preceding is an illustration of what is called applying a _____ when reviewing the mentioned social custom of contact.

A. self-space principle
B. segregation principle
C. integration criterion
D. space command criterion
E. self-reference criterion

self-reference criterion

Which of the following is closely related to the self-reference criterion?

A. Differentiation
B. Marketing myopia
C. Ethnocentrism
D. Multiculturalism
E. Pluralism

Ethnocentrism

_____ impedes the ability of a person to assess a foreign market in its true light.

A. Nativism
B. Pluralism
C. Xenocentrism
D. Ethnocentrism
E.Relativism

Ethnocentrism

Which of the following is true of ethnocentrism?

A. It is the cultural binding force among a diverse employee population in an organization.
B. It is a problem that arises when managers from affluent countries work with managers and markets in less affluent countries.
C. American managers have generally been uninfluenced by it, especially in the beginning of the 21st century.
D. It is the cornerstone of effective adaptation in the field of international marketing.
E. Self-reference criterion is universally considered the technique to reduce or eliminate ethnocentrism.

It is a problem that arises when managers from affluent countries work with managers and markets in less affluent countries.

The most effective way to control the influence of ethnocentrism and the SRC is to:

A. reduce interaction with culturally diverse audience.
B. ask for feedback on every possible occasion.
C. recognize their effects on our behavior.
D. learn at least two foreign languages to understand the cultural differences.
E. ask for second opinion in a decision-making scenario.

recognize their effects on our behavior.

To avoid errors in business decisions, it is necessary to conduct a cross-cultural analysis that isolates the self-reference criterion influences. Which of the following should be the first-step to avoid the aforementioned errors?

A. Redefining the problem without the SRC influence.
B. Solving the problem for the optimum business goal situation.
C. Isolating the SRC influence in the problem and examining it carefully to see how it complicates the problem.
D. Defining the business problem or goal in home-country cultural traits, habits, or norms.
E. Defining the business problem or goal in foreign-country cultural traits, habits, or norms through consultation with natives of the target country.

Defining the business problem or goal in home-country cultural traits, habits, or norms

Understanding one’s own culture requires additional study as:

A. self-criticism is not easy to build when studying one’s own culture.
B. much of the cultural influence on market behavior is at the subconscious level.
C. the cultural traits in one’s own country are complex and not internalized.
D. international trade treaties mandate that managers have extensive cultural knowledge of their own country.
E. cultural influence on one’s own market behavior is generally minimal and insignificant in the long run.

much of the cultural influence on market behavior is at the subconscious level

Which of the following types of nontariff barriers strictly falls under the category of specific limitations on trade?

A. Import credit discriminations
B. Export subsidies
C. Voluntary export restraints
D. Embargoes
E. Packaging, labeling, or marking standards

Embargoes

Which of the following characterizes a globally aware manager?

A. Using one’s home culture’s values alone to market one’s products in foreign countries.
B. Accepting the cultural ways of another individual as their own.
C. Allowing others to be different and equal.
D. Discarding one’s home culture’s standards to adopt the global cultural standards
E. Controlling any influences that the global cultural standards may have on the marketing process.

Allowing others to be different and equal.

Which of the following will aid a manager in understanding the way people of different countries think and act?

A. A better understanding of global economic trends.
B. A deeper understanding of world market potential.
C. An understanding of foreign investment opportunities.
D. An understanding of microeconomics.
E. A historical perspective.

A historical perspective.

Which of the following is the most effective way to achieve organizational global awareness?

A. Hiring employees based on the sole criterion of global awareness.
B. Organizing employee trips to foreign cultures to increase their sensitivity.
C. Increasing the diversity mix of the front-level employee profile.
D. Having a culturally diverse senior executive staff or board of directors.
E. Promoting social networking as a means to improve inter-cultural communication.

Having a culturally diverse senior executive staff or board of directors

Which of the following organizations seems better equipped for internationalization?

A. A firm that sells its products only to those foreign customers who directly contact the firm
B. A firm that has a production capacity that is much greater than home market demand.
C. A firm that focuses its production activities on meeting the demands in the home market.
D. A firm that has a culturally diverse employee profile but few competitive offerings at the global level.
E. A firm that has little intention of maintaining a continuous market representation.

A firm that has a production capacity that is much greater than home market demand.

Which of the following firms has a better chance of accelerating the internationalization process?

A. International regulatory bodies set export/import limits.
B. The importing country can levy heavier import tariffs to override the VERs.
C. The exporting country sets the limits on the quantity it will export.
D. It is a mandatory tax imposed by a government on goods entering at its borders.
E. It is an absolute restriction against the importation of certain goods.

International regulatory bodies set export/import limits.

Which of the following is true regarding the stages of international marketing involvement?

A. A firm essentially progresses through the stages in a linear order.
B. The international marketing stage represents the highest level of international involvement.
C. A firm begins its international involvement at the second stage.
D. A firm may be in more than one stage simultaneously.
E. The final stage of the process is involves no direct foreign marketing.

A firm may be in more than one stage simultaneously.

Which of the following best describes the stage of development where the company’s products reach a foreign market without any conscious effort on the part of the marketer?

A. Infrequent foreign marketing
B. Regular foreign marketing
C. No direct foreign marketing
D. International marketing
E. Global marketing

No direct foreign marketing

Jefferson’s is a firm that specializes in dog food and grooming products. The company has a very well-established domestic market. The company does not actively sell its products outside national borders but provides goods to customers who contact them directly or place orders with them through the Internet. Jefferson’s is currently in the _____ stage of international marketing involvement.

A. frequent foreign marketing
B. active foreign marketing
C. global marketing
D. regular foreign marketing
E. no direct foreign marketing

no direct foreign marketing

If a marketer is motivated to initiate an international marketing effort mainly because of temporary surpluses in the domestic market, which of the following stages best characterizes the stage of international marketing involvement for this marketer?

A.Infrequent foreign marketing
B. Regular foreign marketing
C. No direct foreign marketing
D.International marketing
E. Global marketing

Infrequent foreign marketing

James Bright’s company seeks markets all over the world and attempts to sell products that are a result of planned production for markets in various countries. Which of the following stages best characterizes the stage of international marketing involvement for Mr. Bright’s company?

A. Infrequent foreign marketing
B. Regular foreign marketing
C. No direct foreign marketing
D. International marketing
E. Internal marketing

International marketing

Maria Peron’s company treats the world, including the home market in Spain, as one market. Market segmentation decisions no longer focus on national borders. Instead, market segments are defined by income levels, usage patterns, and other factors that span countries and regions. Which of the following stages best characterizes the stage of international marketing involvement for Ms. Peron’s company?

A. Infrequent foreign marketing
B. Test marketing
C. No direct foreign marketing
D. Internal marketing
E. Global marketing

Global marketing

Ajax Corporation has decided to enter the international marketing arena by marketing its products on a country-by-country basis, with separate marketing strategies for each country. The company is using which of the following concepts to formulate its international policies and strategies?

A. Domestic market extension concept
B. Multidomestic market concept
C.Mass marketing concept
D. Universal marketing concept
E.Standardized marketing concept

Multidomestic market concept

Regular foreign marketing stage differs from the international marketing stage as companies at the regular foreign marketing stage:

A. fail to actively seek customers in international markets.
B. market their products in international markets only when there is a surplus in production.
C. fail to represent careful strategic thinking about international expansion.
D. lack permanent productive capacity that is devoted for production of goods and services to be marketed in international markets.
E. focus all their operations and production to service the domestic market needs even though they are interested in foreign markets.

focus all their operations and production to service the domestic market needs even though they are interested in foreign markets.

Which of the following is true of firms in the first two stages of international marketing involvement—no direct foreign marketing and infrequent foreign marketing?

A. They do not begin internationalization at these stages.
B. They take a strategic approach to decision making regarding international expansion.
C. They are more reactive in nature and embark on internationalization without planning.
D. They intend to maintain a continuous market representation in foreign markets.
E. They are a result of dedicated production capacity maintained for foreign markets.

They are more reactive in nature and embark on internationalization without planning.

In which of the following stages of international marketing involvement, companies primarily focus all their operations and production to service domestic market needs, even though they have a permanent productive capacity devoted to the production of goods to be marketed in foreign markets?

A. No direct foreign marketing
B. Infrequent foreign marketing
C. Regular foreign marketing
D. International marketing
E. Global marketing

Regular foreign marketing

The firms at the stage of regular foreign marketing of international marketing involvement:

A. sell products that are a result of planned production in markets in various countries.
B. primarily focus all their operations and production to service domestic market needs.
C. have a global perspective and view the entire world as one market devoid of any segments based on nationality.
D. have half their sales revenues coming from international markets.
E. have no intention of maintaining continuous market representation in foreign markets.

primarily focus all their operations and production to service domestic market needs.

Which of the following is true of firms at the international marketing stage of marketing involvement?

A. The primary focus of operations and production is to service domestic market needs.
B. As domestic demand increases and absorbs surpluses, foreign sales activity is reduced or even withdrawn.
C. Profit expectations from foreign markets are seen primarily as a bonus in addition to regular domestic profits.
D. Planning generally entails production of goods outside the home market.
E. The firm treats the world, including the home market, as one market.

Planning generally entails production of goods outside the home market.

What is the most profound change for firms at the global marketing stage of internationalization?

A. Planning involves production of goods outside the home market.
B. Sales to foreign markets are made as and when goods become available.
C. Temporary surpluses marketed in foreign markets is the only element of internationalization.
D. Companies treat the world, along with home market, as one market.
E. Production capacity exceeds domestic demand.

Companies treat the world, along with home market, as one market.

Which of the following firms/products reflects a global marketing orientation?

A. A skin-lightening cream aimed at African American women.
B. A company promoting Latino jazz musicals.
C. A firm producing highly cost-effective and durable computers.
D. A famous restaurant in Singapore that specializes in Oriental food.
E. A Japanese to English translation software.

A firm producing highly cost-effective and durable computers.

For a company at the _____ stage of internationalization, market segments are defined by income levels, usage patterns, or other factors that frequently span countries and regions.

A. domestic market extension
B. no direct foreign marketing
C. global marketing
D. internal marketing
E. infrequent foreign marketing

global marketing

After World War II, the United States led efforts like the Marshall Plan to assist in rebuilding Europe, financial and industrial development assistance to rebuild Japan, and funds channeled to foster economic growth in the underdeveloped world. These efforts were primarily aimed at:

A. halting the growth of Nazi Germany.
B. dampening the spread of communism.
C. dissolving the colonial powers.
D. building a stronger defense force.
E. creating a worldwide trade bloc to counter the OPEC countries’ clout.

dampening the spread of communism.

After World War II, the United States set out to infuse the ideal of capitalism throughout as much of the world as possible. The _____, aimed at assisting in rebuilding Europe, is the plan most closely associated with this endeavor.

A. Eisenhower Plan
B. Marshall Plan
C. Bradley Plan
D. Roosevelt Plan
E. Truman Plan

Marshall Plan

What was the most apparent reciprocal impact of the foreign economic assistance given by the United States?

A. European countries formed an alliance to counter the OPEC countries’ clout.
B. European countries formed an alliance to counter the OPEC countries’ clout.
C. All recipient countries appointed Americans to manage their central banks.
D. Purchases of U.S. agricultural products, manufactured goods, and services by the recipient countries increased.
E. Distribution of economic power and potential became more uneven.

Purchases of U.S. agricultural products, manufactured goods, and services by the recipient countries increased.

Which of the following factors was primarily responsible for the excess production capacity in the U.S. in the first half of the twentieth century?

A. Technological innovation revolutionized production during this time.
B. Many firms from other nations shifted their production facilities to the U.S.
C. Domestic demand was at a historic low and resulted in excess capacity.
D. Swelling labor supply of returning military after World War II.
E. Influx of migrant laborers from Europe and Japan.

Swelling labor supply of returning military after World War II.

Which of the following was the most significant move of the 1980s that contributed toward international cooperation among trading nations?

A. Formation of the United Nations Development Programme
B. Creation of the United Nations.
C. Establishment of the World Trade Organization.
D. Signing of the Montreal Protocol.
E. Negotiation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Negotiation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Which of the following acronyms refers to the international forum that was created for member countries to engage in the negotiation of tariffs and other barriers to trade?

A. UNHCR
B. GATT
C. WMO
D. NPT
E. UNDP

GATT

What was the outcome for the GATT after the ratification of the Uruguay Round agreements?

A. With the ratification of the Uruguay Round agreements, the GATT became part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, and its 117 original members moved into a new era of free trade.
B. It became part of the World Trade Organization.
C. It led to the uneven distribution of economic power and potential.
D. The European Union decided to stay away from the treaty.
E. The original purpose was sidelined in favor of political and military intervention between member states.

It became part of the World Trade Organization.

The rapid growth of war-torn economies and previously underdeveloped countries, coupled with large-scale economic cooperation and assistance that followed World War II led to:

A. the rise of new global marketing opportunities.
B. the uneven distribution of economic power.
C. the dissolution of GATT.
D. the spread of Communism.
E. the sharp reduction of the production capacity in the U.S.

the rise of new global marketing opportunities.

Which were the two major challenges faced by U.S. multinational corporations at the close of the 1960s?

A. The creation of the Soviet Union and the higher tariffs on imports.
B. Growing jingoistic nationalism and a negative population growth rate in major international markets.
C. Resistance to direct investment and increasing competition in export markets.
D. Increasing Chinese domination in the manufacturing sector and the falling dollar in global markets.
E. Political intervention in free trade movement and growing influence of consumer rights advocacy in the home market.

Resistance to direct investment and increasing competition in export markets.

Post World War II, it was noticed that there was worldwide economic growth and countries once classified as less developed were reclassified as _____.

A. capitalist countries
B. free trade economies
C. tier-II countries
D. developed countries
E. newly industrialized countries

newly industrialized countries

Which of the following presents the correct picture of the outcome of increased world trade after the 1950s, contrary to Servan-Schreiber’s prediction?

A. Third World countries were excluded from this economic growth leading to stark imbalances in wealth.
B. The European Union became the center of world trade, taking the position away from the U.S.
C. The U.S. attained a positive balance of trade scenario in the 1950s and maintained it continuously till the Great Recession.
D. Economic power and potential became more evenly distributed among the countries of the world.
E. SDRs and gold lost their utility as the basic medium of financial exchange and most monetary statistics started relating to the U.S dollar.

Economic power and potential became more evenly distributed among the countries of the world.

Which of the following is the major reason behind the failure of American MNCs to completely dominate the European markets as predicted by Servan-Schreiber?

A. The resurgence of competition worldwide.
B. The uneven distribution of economic power.
C. The restructuring of U.S industries.
D. The decadence of Communism.
E. The dissolution of colonial powers.

The resurgence of competition worldwide.

Which of the following strategies was employed by the US to regain its lost market share for capital goods by the late 1990s?

A. Funding the Communist nations.
B. Restructuring its industries to be more lean and mean.
C. Providing financial assistance to the under-developed countries.
D. Raising average U.S. tariffs on more than 20,000 imported goods.
E. Outsourcing its production activities to other countries.

Restructuring its industries to be more lean and mean.

By the year 1971, the United States was witnessing: By the year 1971, the United States was witnessing:

A. an increase in protectionist federal policies.
B. a positive balance of trade.
C. a sharp rise in domestic and international demand.
D. a huge trade deficit.
E. an economic situation of the magnitude of the Great Depression.

a huge trade deficit.

In the late 1990s, most of the countries of the world saw a slow down in the unprecedented and precipitous growth of their economies. However, _____ remained unaffected by this trend.

A. the United States
B. Germany
C. China
D. Japan
E. France

China

The World Bank estimates that five countries whose share of world trade is barely one-third that of the European Union will, by 2020, have a 50 percent higher share than that of the European Union. _____ is one of the countries included in this list.

A. Canada
B. Nigeria
C. Netherlands
D. Indonesia
E. Rhodesia

Indonesia

The system of accounts that records a nation’s international financial transactions is most accurately called its:

A. supply chain management system.
B. gross domestic product system.
C. net domestic product payments.
D. balance of payments.
E. net national product systems.

balance of payments.

Which of the following ensures that balance-of-payments records are always in balance?

A. The sum of squares recording system.
B. The ledger entry model.
C. The double-entry bookkeeping system.
D. The archival records system.
E. The multifactor recording system.

The double-entry bookkeeping system.

Which of the following is true regarding the balance-of-payments records?

A. The balance-of-payments accounts do not consider income brought in by non-resident citizens of a country.
B. The fact that assets and liabilities balance does not essentially mean that a nation is in a particularly good financial condition.
C. A balance of payments is not a record of condition.
D. A balance of payments is a determinant of condition.
E. A balance of payments records all the financial transactions of a country since 1980.

The fact that assets and liabilities balance does not essentially mean that a nation is in a particularly good financial condition.

Which of the following is a defining characteristic of a balance-of-payments statement?

A. It is a record of the transactions between the government of a country and the private companies.
B. It records all financial transactions between the residents of a country and those of the rest of the world.
C. It records the trade policies of the member nations of the WTO.
D. It is an annual record of the profitable foreign transactions made by a particular country.
E. It is a localfirm’s financial statement, where the credits and debits must offset each other.

It records all financial transactions between the residents of a country and those of the rest of the world.

Which of the following falls on the plus side of the U.S. balance of payments?

A. Payments to the United States for insurance.
B. The costs of goods imported.
C. Spending by American tourists overseas.
D. New overseas investments.
E. The cost of foreign military.

Which of the following falls on the minus side of the U.S. balance of payments?

A. Payments to the United States for insurance.
B. Payments of dividends and interest on investments abroad.
C. Return on capital invested abroad.
D. New foreign investments in the United States.
E. Spending by American tourists overseas.

Payments to the United States for insurance.Spending by American tourists overseas.

A balance-of-payments statement includes three accounts. Two of those accounts are the current account and the capital account. What is the third account found on the balance-of-payments statement?

A. Investment account
B. Receivables account
C. Services account
D. Credit account
E. Reserves account

Reserves account

The _____ of the balance-of-payments statement is most likely to record all merchandise exports, imports, and services plus unilateral transfers of funds.

A. current account
B. capital account
C. credit account
D. receivables account
E. reserves account

current account

Which of the following sections of the balance-of-payments statement is a record of the direct investment, portfolio investment, and short-term movement of cash and technology to and from countries?

A. Current account
B. Capital account
C. Credit account
D. Receivables account
E. Reserves account

Capital account

The _____ account of the balance-of-payments statement is most likely to record all exports and imports of gold, increases or decreases in foreign exchange, and increases or decreases in liabilities to foreign central banks.

A. current
B. capital
C. credit
D. receivables
E. reserves

reserves

Which of the following arguments regarding the need for protectionism is recognized by economists as valid?

A. Need to keep money at home.
B. Encouragement of capital accumulation.
C. Protection of an infant industry.
D. Conservation of natural resources.
E. Maintenance of employment and reduction of unemployment.

Protection of an infant industry.

Randall Smithe-Jones believes that protectionism is the only way to save the United Kingdom from outside competitors. He has seen small businesses go bankrupt because cheaper foreign goods have been more popular. The cell-phone manufacturing industry has just started in U.K and Smithe-Jones’ company is one of the first to try its hand at cell-phone manufacturing. Which of the following would probably be the argument that Smithe-Jones would use to persuade his government representatives that protectionism is still needed in the U.K.?

A. Protection of an infant industry.
B. The need to keep money at home.
C. Conservation of natural resources.
D. National defense
E. Maintenance of standard of living.

Protection of an infant industry.

A tax imposed by a government on goods entering at its borders is most accurately termed as a(n) _____.

A. boycott
B. asterisk bill
C.tariff
D. quota
E. writ

tariff

In general, tariffs weaken:

A. inflationary pressures.
B. special interests’ privileges.
C. balance-of-payments positions.
D. government control in economic matters.
E.reciprocal tariffs by other countries.

balance-of-payments positions.

Which of the following is true of tariffs?

A. They strengthen balance-of-payments positions.
B. They strengthen supply-and-demand patterns.
C. They increase special interests’ privileges.
D. They strengthen international relations.
E. They promote competition.

They increase special interests’ privileges.

In general, tariffs restrict:

A. inflationary pressures.
B. special interests’ privileges.
C. government control in economic matters.
D. the number of reciprocal tariffs.
E. manufacturers’ supply sources.

manufacturers’ supply sources.

A specific unit or dollar limit applied to a particular type of good is called a(n):

A. trade license.
B. quota.
C. asterisk bill.
D. predatory price.
E. exchange rate.

quota.

Which of the following is an example of a nontariff trade barrier?

A. Compound duties
B. Revenue tariffs
C. Administrative fees
D. Specific duties
E. Duties

Administrative fees

Which of the following types of nontariff barriers strictly falls under the category of specific limitations on trade?

A. Import credit discriminations
B. Export subsidies
C. Voluntary export restraints
D. Embargoes
E. Packaging, labeling, or marking standards

Embargoes

In the context of nontariff barriers, antidumping practices fall under the category of:

A. specific limitations on trade.
B. customs and administrative entry procedures.
C. standards.
D. governmental participation in trade.
E. charges on imports.

customs and administrative entry procedures.

The fundamental difference between quotas and import licenses is that:

A. import licenses have greater flexibility than quotas.
B. quotas impose specific limitations on trade and import licenses take care of standards.
C. quotas are imposed on export goods and import licenses are imposed on import goods.
D. for quotas the exporting country sets the limits but licenses are issued by the importing country.
E. unlike licenses, quotas limit quantities on a case-by-case basis.

import licenses have greater flexibility than quotas.

Exporting countries primarily agree to voluntary export restraints (VERs) to:

A. gain greater exposure in the home country.
B. reduce market competitiveness.
C. avoid the chances of stiffer quotas and tariffs.
D. take over local industries.
E. avoid criminal prosecution.

avoid the chances of stiffer quotas and tariffs

An agreement signed willingly between the importing country and the exporting country for a restriction on the volume of exports is called a:

A. None of these.
B. tariff.
C. voluntary export restraint.
D. special interests’ privilege.
E. balance-of-payment.

voluntary export restraint.

Which of the following is a defining characteristic of VERs?

A. International regulatory bodies set export/import limits.
B. The importing country can levy heavier import tariffs to override the VERs.
C. The exporting country sets the limits on the quantity it will export.
D. It is a mandatory tax imposed by a government on goods entering at its borders.
E. It is an absolute restriction against the importation of certain goods.

The exporting country sets the limits on the quantity it will export.

The marketing manager for Grand Products wants to export the company’s range of beer products to a Gulf country. However, he discovers that there is a complete restriction on the import of any form of liquor into that country. This is an accurate example of _____.

A. OMAs
B. quotas
C. tarrifs
D. VERs
E. boycotts

boycotts

When the United States refuses to sell goods to Iran because of the perception that the country harbors radicals and terrorists, the refusal is most accurately referred to as a(n):

A. antidumping penalty.
B. embargo.
C. tariff.
D. orderly market agreement.
E. voluntary export restraint.

embargo.

Blockage is ideally accomplished:

A. when a country refuses to allow an importer to exchange its national currency for the seller’s currency.
B. when two countries enter into a voluntary agreement to restrict volume of exports.
C. when a country applies specific unit or dollar limit to a particular type of good.
D. when countries limit the export of certain goods on a case-by-case basis.
E. when the government imposes a mandatory tax on goods entering at its borders.

when a country refuses to allow an importer to exchange its national currency for the seller’s currency.

In order to effectively secure foreign exchange, which of the following is most likely to be used by countries experiencing severe shortages of foreign exchange?

A. Import quota
B. Government approval
C. Tariff
D. VERs
E. Embargo

Government approval

Which of the following trade policy tools makes it mandatory for its importers who want to buy a foreign good to apply for an exchange permit?

A. Tariff
B. Import quota
C. Blocked currency
D. Government approval
E. Export levies

Government approval

The exchange permit can stipulate:

A. the quantity of goods that can be exchanged for a particular sum of foreign currency.
B. the number of parties that can be involved in an exchange transaction.
C. the amount to be exchanged to be deposited in a local bank for a set period.
D. the parties involved to declare collaterals to avail of exchange permits.
E. the number of times one party can avail of exchange permits.

the number of times one party can avail of exchange permits.

Tall Pine Plywood Company has just received a notice that a shipment of plywood (2 metric tons) has been rejected by Japanese customs because the knotholes commonly found on a plywood sheet are too large. Which of the following categories of nontariff barriers primarily checks such quality issues?

A. Quotas
B. Licenses
C. Embargoes
D. Boycotts
E. Standards

Standards

The United States and other countries require some products (automobiles in particular) to contain a percentage of “local content” to gain admission to their markets. This is an example of the stringent usage of _____ to restrict trade.

A. exchange permits
B. embargoes
C.blocked currencies
D. standards
E. antidumping penalties

standards

_____ is the practice whereby a foreign producer intentionally sells their products in the United States for less than the cost of production to undermine the competition and take control of the market.

A. Basing point pricing
B.Offensive pricing
C. Defensive pricing
D. Counterpoint pricing
E. Predatory pricing

Predatory pricing

____ is a new nontariff barrier that was designed to prevent foreign producers from using predatory pricing.

A. Quota
B. Embargo
C. Import license
D. Antidumping law
E. License

Antidumping law

Which of the following trading partners of the U.S. became its topmost “trade problem” at the beginning of the 21st century?

A. United Kingdom
B. Japan
C. Germany
D. Canada
E. China

China

Which of the following was designed to primarily deal with trade deficits, protectionism, and the overall fairness of the U.S. trading partners?

A. The Neutrality Pact of 1941.
B. The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988
C. The League of Nations Act of 1920.
D. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act of 1930.
E. The International Monetary Fund Act.

The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988

Which of the following is an area that is considered critical in improving U.S. trade in the context of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act?

A. Market access
B. Market availability
C. Exchange stability
D. Export restriction
E. Sustainability in trade

Market access

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is specifically addressed in the _____ section of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness act.

A. market access
B. export expansion
C. import relief
D. foreign exchange regulation
E. trade deficit

export expansion

Which section of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act recognizes that foreign penetration of U.S. markets can cause serious competitive pressure, loss of market share, and, occasionally, severe financial harm?

A. The market access section.
B. The export expansion section.
C.The import relief section.
D. The foreign exchange regulation section.
E. The trade deficit section.

The import relief section.

Which of the following is one of the four ongoing forces supporting the growth of international trade?

A. Warsaw Pact
B. Kyoto Protocol
C. International Monetary Fund
D. World summit on sustainable development
E. Treaty of Waitangi

International Monetary Fund

Which of the following is true of the GATT?

A. The U.S, U.K, and Germany were the original signatories of the GATT.
B. The original agreement provided a process to increase the required tariffs.
C. Member nations seek to resolve their trade disputes unilaterally.
D. The GATT panels have enforcement powers apart from advisory powers.
E. It created an agency to serve as watchdog over world trade.

It created an agency to serve as watchdog over world trade.

As an outcome of the Uruguay Round of intergovernmental tariff negotiations on the GATT platform, the first multilateral, legally enforceable agreement covering trade and investment in the services sector was formulated, termed the _____.

A. Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs)
B. Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)
C. General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
D. Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)
E. Trade in Services and Investment Obligations Act

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

Which of the following agreements makes it possible for firms to challenge the restrictions in Indonesia that prohibit foreign firms from opening their own wholesale or retail distribution?

A. Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs)
B. Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)
C. General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
D. Marrakesh Agreement
E. Stockholm Agreement

Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)

Which of the following emerged as a successor to the GATT following the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations?

A. International Monetary Fund
B. World Bank
C. European Services Forum
D. World Trade Organization
E. Association of Southeast Asian Nations

World Trade Organization

One of the basic elements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is that:

A. member nations are exempt from import tariffs to other member nations.
B. all tariffs shall be abolished among member nations at the time of membership.
C. the World Court shall review all claims and make final judgments.
D. trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis.
E. trade in services and investments will be excluded from the purview of the GATT.

trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis.

Which of the following is the most popular way to circumvent WTO guidelines and impose new duties?

A. Antidumping duties
B. Boycotts
C. Orderly market agreements
D. Voluntary export restraints
E. Embargoes

Antidumping duties

Several nations are frustrated with the slow progress of the most recent round of WTO trade negotiations. To vent their frustration, several countries are:

A. negotiating bilateral trade agreements.
B. forming a rival organization.
C. refusing to honor rules and regulations imposed by the WTO.
D. using legal means to sue the WTO.
E. opting out of membership in the WTO.

negotiating bilateral trade agreements.

_____ and the World Bank Group are two global institutions created primarily to assist nations in becoming and remaining economically viable.

A. The United Nations
B. The World Court
C. The International Monetary Fund
D. The International Red Cross
E. The League of Nations

The International Monetary Fund

To overcome the problems of inadequate monetary reserves and unstable currencies that plagued international trading before World War II, the _____ was formed.

A. European Union
B. World Trade Organization
C. Federation of International Trade Associations
D. International Monetary Fund
E. United Nations Development Programme

International Monetary Fund

Developed by the IMF to cope with universally floating exchange rates, _____ represent(s) an average base of value derived from the value of a group of major currencies.

A. exchange permits
B. special drawing rights
C. floating currencies
D. the gold rate
E. dollar parities

special drawing rights

Another term for IMF special drawing rights (SDRs) is:

A. black gold.
B. exchange permits.
C. floating currencies.
D. paper gold.
E.virtual dollars.

paper gold.

Which of the following is a criticism associated with the global financial institutions?

A. They failed to focus on the aim of reducing inequalities between the rich and the poor countries.
B. They failed to help the Asian countries substantially when they underwent a major financial crisis in the 1990s.
C. They failed to respect the autonomy of member nations by deeming any bilateral agreements between members as illegal if made without their approval.
D. They failed to foresee and counter the unintended effects of globalizations like pollution, exploitation, and cultural exploitation.
E. They failed to suppress the terrorists who were responsible for the attack in London that coincided with the G8 summit.

They failed to foresee and counter the unintended effects of globalizations like pollution, exploitation, and cultural exploitation.

Which of the following is an adverse consequence of globalization?

A. Nationalization of private sector holdings.
B. Lower and more competitive oil prices
C. Reduced variety and quality of goods and services.
D. Worker exploitation and domestic job losses.
E. Provision of loans from the World Bank.

Worker exploitation and domestic job losses.

Which of the following statements is true with regard to the status of protests against global financial institutions?

A. Organized protests against global financial institutions began with the establishment of the IMF in 1945.
B. The sole focus of the anticapitalist protestors has been the environmental impact of globalization and the need for stability.
C. The “antisweatshop” campaigns by students in America have translated into changes in policy.
D. The entire gamut of anticapitalist protests have been weak and ineffectual in the face of the tremendous power of the global financial institutions.
E. The protests against the global financial institutions have been organized yet non violent as a rule.

The “antisweatshop” campaigns by students in America have translated into changes in policy.

Which of the following is true of culture?

A. It is a set of texts considered to be sacred.
B. It is a society’s accepted basis for responding to external and internal events.
C. It is a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty and taste.
D. It is the philosophical study of being and knowing.
E. It is a set of rules governing socially acceptable behavior.

It is a society’s accepted basis for responding to external and internal events.

In 1066, William the Conqueror defeated Harold II in the Battle of Hastings, establishing Norman rule in _____.

A. Brazil
B. China
C. England
D. Japan
E. France

England

The _____ was a political protest against the British prohibition of Yankee traders from dealing directly with merchants in Canton.

A. Hong Kong Revolution
B. Boston Tea Party
C. Taiping Rebellion
D. First Opium War
E. Canton Uprising

Boston Tea Party

Which of the following commodities dominated the trade between Britain and China during the early 1800s?

A. Bamboo
B. Mother-of-pearl
C. Silk
D. Tea
E. Porcelain

Tea

Which of the following commodities helped Britain erase the tea-caused trade deficit with China during the 1800s?

A. Watches
B. Betel nuts
C. Diamonds
D. Textiles
E. Opium

Opium

Which of the following events caused the Chinese to cede Hong Kong to the British?

A. The First Opium War
B. The Satsuma Rebellion
C. The Tianjing Rebellion
D. The Taiping War
E. The Hong Kong Revolution

The First Opium War

The opium wars resulted in a loss of confidence in the Chinese government. Which of the following events was caused by the resulting disorder?

A. The Boxer Revolution
B. The Satsuma Rebellion
C. The Nanjing Rebellion
D. The Taiping Rebellion
E. The Hong Kong Revolution

The Taiping Rebellion

Which of the following events is one of the pivotal factors behind the wariness of the Chinese leadership toward foreign influences in general, and religious movements in particular, even today?

A. The Boxer Revolution
B. The Satsuma Rebellion
C. The Nanjing Rebellion
D. The Hong Kong Revolution
E. The Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion

Which of the following events in the history of China has made the country wary of foreign influences?

A. The Boxer Revolution
B. The Satsuma Rebellion
C. The Nanjing Rebellion
D. The Hong Kong Revolution
E. The Opium Wars

The Opium Wars

Which of the following is one of the tallest skyscrapers in Hong Kong today?

A. SunTrust Plaza
B. Jardine-Matheson Trading House
C. Vision Tower
D. Comcast Center
E. Aspire Tower

Jardine-Matheson Trading House

Japan was an isolated country before the arrival of _____ in 1853.

A. Marco Polo
B. Admiral Halsey
C. Commodore Perry
D. Admiral Pennington
E. The East India Company

Commodore Perry

Which of the following may best explain why the Japanese have such strong loyalty toward their companies?

A. Zen philosophy
B. Taoism
C. Confucian philosophy
D. Buddhism
E. Bushido philosophy

Confucian philosophy

Which of the following events occurred during the Mexican Revolution?

A. Overthrowing of dictator Ernesto Zedillo
B. Youth movement against religion
C. Nationalization of the Mexican oil industry
D. Expulsion of North American businessmen
E. Support of French arms for the revolutionaries

Expulsion of North American businessmen

In the context of the Mexican-American War, the president of Mexico, the cabinet, and the diplomatic corps assemble at the Mexico City fortress every September 13 to recall the defeat that led to the _____.

A. “despojo territorial”
B. “la pérdida de comercio”
C. “destrucción de la propiedad”
D. “soldados mutilados”
E. “los niños sin hogar”

“despojo territorial”

Which of the following events, leading to the overthrowing of the dictator Díaz, is particularly remembered for the expulsion of foreigners—most notably North American businessmen who were the most visible of the wealthy and influential entrepreneurs?

A. The Madero Rebellion
B. The Mexican Revolution
C. The Los Niños Rebellion
D. The Mexican-American War
E. The San Patricios Revolution

The Mexican Revolution

In 1450, the _____ was the first book printed with movable type.

A. Illiad
B. Gutenberg Bible
C. Codex Manesse
D. Scriptorium
E. Odyssey

Gutenberg Bible

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the feelings of most Mexicans toward the United States?

A. Mexicans trust and favor the United States above other trading partners.
B. Mexicans prefer Europeans over the United States with respect to trade.
C. Mexico considers the United States as a protector who will help it emerge as a world power.
D. Mexicans see the United States as a threat to their political, economic, and cultural independence.
E. Mexicans see the United States as a land of abundant opportunity and good fortune.

Mexicans see the United States as a threat to their political, economic, and cultural independence.

In 1531, the _____ stock exchange was the first exchange to move into its own building, signifying its importance in financing commercial enterprises throughout Europe.

A. Bruges
B. Amsterdam
C. Frankfurt
D. Antwerp
E. Berliner Borse

D. Antwerp

In 1561, _____ came to Europe from the Near East, via the Dutch traders, for the first time.

A. tulips
B. roses
C. chrysanthemums
D. sunflowers
E. carnations

tulips

In 1425, the Hanseatic city of _____ became the first Atlantic seaport to be a major trading center.

A. Bastogne
B. Lubeck
C. Brugge
D. Mons
E. Cologne

Brugge

What was the overall end result of the Mexican War of 1846-1848?

A. Mexico was forced to cede California to the U.S.
B. The U.S. and Mexico signed a non-aggression pact.
C. Mexico gave up California and the U.S. gave up Baja California.
D. Mexico paid the U.S. $5 million for war damages.
E. The U.S. signed a pledge to not invade Mexico again.

Mexico was forced to cede California to the U.S.

The idea of Manifest Destiny was used to justify the U.S. annexation of _____.

A. Virginia
B. Ohio
C. Pennsylvania
D. California
E. Carolina

California

In 1464, the French royal mail service was established by _____.

A. Clovis I
B. Napoleon III
C. Childeric I
D. Childebert I
E. Louis XI

Louis XI

Manifest Destiny and the _____ were accepted as the basis for U.S. foreign policy during much of the 19th and 20th centuries.

A. Roosevelt Corollary
B. North American Security Treaty
C. Monroe Doctrine
D. Grant Mandate
E. Hays Corollary

Monroe Doctrine

In 1600, _____ were brought from South America to Europe, where they quickly spread to the rest of world and become a staple of agricultural production.

A. tomatoes
B. potatoes
C. shallots
D. peanuts
E. eggplants

potatoes

In the context of U.S. foreign policy in the 19th and the 20th centuries, _____, in its broadest interpretation, meant that Americans were a chosen people ordained by God to create a model society.

A. Roosevelt Corollary
B. Monroe Doctrine
C. Hays Corollary
D. Grant Mandate
E. Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny

The Manifest Destiny specifically referred to the:

A. political clout of the United States over European countries.
B. territorial expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
C. focus on investment and infrastructure development in Asia-Pacific.
D. network of intelligence operations across the world, especially the Communist world.
E. “white man’s burden” to develop the underdeveloped parts of the world.

territorial expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

In 1600, Japan began trading _____ for foreign goods.

A. diamonds
B. gold
C. platinum
D. copper
E. silver

silver

Abstention of the United States from European political affairs was one of the three basic dicta of the _____.

A. Monroe Doctrine
B. North American Security Treaty
C. Hays Corollary
D. Grant Mandate
E. Roosevelt Corollary

Monroe Doctrine

Which of the following policies was used in the formation of a provisional government in Cuba in 1906?

A. The Manifest Destiny
B. The Hay Manifesto
C. The Wilson Mandate
D. The Roosevelt Corollary
E. The Gadsden Policy Position

The Roosevelt Corollary

The _____, a cornerstone of early U.S. foreign policy, dictated that no further European colonization in the New World would be accepted.

A. Madison Corollary
B. Monroe Doctrine
C. Hays Corollary
D.Wilson Policy Position
E. Manifest Destiny

Monroe Doctrine

Which of the following U.S. foreign policies was applied in 1905 when the Dominican Republic was forced to accept the appointment of an American economic adviser?

A. The Manifest Destiny
B. The Hay Manifesto
C. The Wilson Mandate
D. The Gadsden Policy Position
E.The Roosevelt Corollary

The Roosevelt Corollary

The manner in which the United States acquired land for the Panama Canal Zone typifies a U.S. foreign policy, _____, —whatever is good for the United States is justifiable.

A. Manifest Destiny
B. Hay Manifesto
C. Roosevelt Corollary
D. Gadsden Policy Position
E. Wilson Mandate

Roosevelt Corollary

_____ is the study of the earth’s surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and resources.

A. Geophysics
B. Geography
C. Cartography
D. Demography
E. Remote sensing

Geography

_____ includes an understanding of how a society’s culture and economy are affected as a nation struggles to supply its people’s needs within the limits imposed by its physical makeup.

A. Remote sensing
B. Geography
C. Cartography
D. Demography
E. Geomatics

Geography

Which of the following best describes the current perception of geographical features such as mountains in the context of economic growth in Europe?

A. They provide natural protection from potentially hostile neighbors.
B. They are impediments to efficient trade and communication.
C. They are natural landmarks that symbolize national treasure.
D. They are fortuitous blessings that provide a wealth of natural resources.
E. They are symbols of national heritage and history.

They are impediments to efficient trade and communication.

In the context of social responsibility and environmental management, which of the following is a byproduct of pollution controls?

A. Corporate environmental responsibility.
B. Higher tariffs against developing countries.
C. The disposal of hazardous waste.
D. Reduced availability of petroleum products.
E. The emission of greenhouse gases

The disposal of hazardous waste.

Which of the following countries is the world’s top polluter, at present, in almost all respects?

A. Brazil
B. China
C. Sudan
D. Afghanistan
E. Zimbabwe

China

Which of the following treaties was revised to include a total ban on the export of hazardous wastes by developed nations?

A. Treaty of Lisbon
B. The Basel Convention
C. The North American Free Trade Agreement
D. ASEAN charter
E. St. Andrews agreement

The Basel Convention

_____ development is a joint approach among those who seek economic growth with “wise resource management, equitable distribution of benefits and reduction of negative effects on people and the environment from the process of economic growth.”

A. Parallel
B. Global
C. Sustainable
D. Unrestricted
E. Holistic

Sustainable

Which of the following sources of energy provides the preponderance of energy in much of the underdeveloped world?

A. Nuclear power
B. Human labor
C. Wind energy
D. Geothermal power
E. Fossil fuel

Human labor

Which of the following sources of energy dominates the world’s energy usage?

A. Hydroelectric power
B. Petroleum products
C. Wind energy
D. Geothermal power
E. Nuclear power

Petroleum products

Which of the following best explains why petroleum-related products continue to dominate energy usage?

A. It is easy to store and transport.
B. Most governments do not favor alternate energy sources.
C. It is still the cheapest form of fuel.
D. Petroleum products remain the most efficient forms of fuel.
E. The reserves of petroleum are unlimited.

It is easy to store and transport.

Which of the following statements is true about the consumption of petroleum products by the United States?

A. The U.S. is the largest producer of petroleum products.
B. The U.S. is likely to stay self-sufficient for the next several decades.
C. The U.S. is the third largest consumer of petroleum products.
D. The U.S. has become a major importer of petroleum products.
E. Petroleum products are no longer the largest source of energy for the U.S.

The U.S. has become a major importer of petroleum products.

Which of the following countries is considered to be the world’s most efficient user of energy?

A. Africa
B. Latin America
C. Japan
D. Western Europe
E. China

Japan

Which of the following countries has an inefficient oil usage pattern chiefly due to outdated technology?

A. Africa
B. Latin America
C. China
D. North America
E. Japan

China

Which of the following sources of energy has a greater emphasis in North America?

A. Animal wastes
B. Natural gas
C. Coal
D. Oil
E. Wood

Oil

Which of the following is true with respect to the dynamics of global population trends?

A. The demand for goods worldwide may have no effect on migration patterns.
B. Changes in the distribution of population among the world’s countries may fail to influence demand.
C. The global financial crisis has caused migration from rural to urban areas within countries.
D. Economic growth forecasts and assumptions about fertility rates are independent of each other.
E. The existence of sheer numbers of people is significant in appraising potential consumer markets.

The existence of sheer numbers of people is significant in appraising potential consumer markets.

Which of the following statements is true with respect to the economic effects of controlling population growth?

A. Fertility rates increase proportionately to the rate of economic growth.
B. A decline in fertility rate is a function of economic prosperity.
C. Lower male-female ratios favor higher fertility rates.
D. Developing nations tend to have lower fertility compared to developed nations.
E. Higher population growth rates have resulted in increased global trade.

A decline in fertility rate is a function of economic prosperity.

Which of the following is true of the industrialized world’s population?

A. It is increasing at an unprecedented pace.
B. It is in decline and rapidly aging.
C. It mainly consists of young adults.
D. It is similar to the populations of developing countries.
E. It has remained constant for a long time.

It is in decline and rapidly aging.

The part of the world with the largest portion of people over 65 years is also the part of the world with the fewest number of people under age 15 years. Which of the following is most likely to be a possible result of this disparity?

A. A conscious effort to slow down rapid urbanization and industrialization.
B. A larger focus on automation and technology in industries.
C. A heavy tax burden on future workers.
D. An increased focus on lower birthrates through incentives.
E. An increase in migration to other nations.

A heavy tax burden on future workers.

Which of the following factors will ameliorate explosive population expansion in less developed countries?

A. Stable worker-to-retiree ratio.
B. Free flow of immigration.
C. Better senior retirement programs.
D. Prenatal sex scanning.
E. Provisions for higher pension.

Free flow of immigration.

Which of the following is the most universal means used by governments to control birthrates?

A. Family planning
B. Universal access to healthcare
C. High literacy levels
D. Education for women
E. Improved nutrition

Family planning

Which of the following is considered to be the most important deterrent to population control?

A. Financial benefits of having large families.
B. Poor enforcement mechanism.
C. Lack of awareness about population trends.
D. Government welfare schemes for orphans.
E. Cultural attitudes that favor large families.

Cultural attitudes that favor large families.

In the context of global population trends, a nation needs a fertility rate of about 2.1 children per woman to be able to:

A. reduce its population.
B. maintain its population.
C. encourage immigration.
D. increase its population.
E. discourage immigration.

maintain its population.

Which of the following regions of the world is most affected by aging and thus by a steadily decreasing worker-to-retiree ratio?

A. Africa
B. America
C. China
D. Asia
E. Europe

Europe

Countries like _____ and the U.S. epitomize the problems caused by an increasing percentage of elderly people who must be supported by a declining number of skilled workers.

A. Brazil
B. China
C. Egypt
D. Chile
E. Japan

Japan

_____ represent(s) the attempts of countries to overcome economic and social imbalances created in part by the influence of geography.

A. Import tariffs
B. Free Trade policies
C. Trade routes
D. Global migration
E. Resource sharing pacts

Trade routes

Which of the following was the earliest trade route?

A. Land routes
B. The Internet
C. Sea routes
D. Underground routes
E. Air routes

Land routes

An underpinning of all commerce is _____—knowledge of where goods and services exist and where they are needed.

A. sustainable development
B. expropriation
C. immigration
D. effective communications
E. political stability

effective communications

The sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society is called _____.

A. sensitivity
B. congruence
C. culture
D. reference groups
E. aesthetics

culture

When designing a product, the style, uses, and other related marketing activities must be made _____ if they are to be operative and meaningful.

A. culturally acceptable
B. politically acceptable
C. technically efficient
D. compatible to the present economy
E. indifferent to societal conditions

culturally acceptable

When marketers first introduced the personal digital assistant (PDA) to the American consumer, they performed the role of being _____ because the cultural impact of the product became widespread.

A. gatekeepers
B.role players
C. creators of supply
D. agents of change
E. promoters

. agents of change

In the context of culture’s pervasive impact, which of the following is true about birthrates?

A. A service economy usually has a higher birthrate than an industrial economy.
B. Government policies and birth control technologies have caused a decline in birthrates.
C. The economic status of a country has minimal impact on the birthrates in that country.
D. Countries that move from agricultural economies to service economies experience increased birthrates.
E. Agricultural economies find it hard to support high birthrates than industrial economies.

Government policies and birth control technologies have caused a decline in birthrates.

Which of the following actions is important for foreign marketers in order to be effective in a foreign market?

A. Learning to appreciate the intricacies of cultures different from their own.
B. Ensuring that the promotions for the product are indifferent to social beliefs.
C. Adhering to the prominent prejudices in the foreign society.
D. Creating product differentiation by being indifferent to the culture of the foreign market.
E. Making the product relate to the most prominent religion in the foreign culture.

Learning to appreciate the intricacies of cultures different from their own.

According to Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede, culture is referred to as the:

A. “software of the mind.”
B. “defining factor of life.”
C. “conflict of civilization versus the masses.”
D. “tool of the elite.”
E. “art’s triumph over banality.”

“software of the mind.”

Which of the following reflects Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede’s perception of culture?

A. It is a weapon that is often used on the poor.
B. It is a problem-solving tool.
C. It is a bias that is used to justify racial inequality.
D. It is a relationship enhancer.
E. It is a reflection of a nation’s evolution.

It is a problem-solving tool.

James Day Hodgson, former U.S. ambassador to Japan, describes culture as a(n) _____, which according to him is tough to get through, but with effort and patience could often lead to success.

A. culturally neutral market
B. maze
C. intelligence test
D. thicket
E. perseverance test

thicket
39.
According to Edward Hall’s comments on culture, which of the following could hurt companies and careers in foreign markets?A. Adherence to the social norms of the foreign market.
B. Being agents of change in the new market.
C. Ignorance of cultural differences in the foreign market.
D. Strict following of the political rules of the foreign society.
E. Consideration of the economic system of the new market

Ignorance of cultural differences in the foreign market.

The process of adjusting to a new culture is known as:

A. diffusion.
B. culture transfer.
C. acculturation.
D. assimilation.
E. transference.

acculturation.

Which of the following is a way individuals learn culture from social institutions?

A. Anarchy
B. Socialization
C. Cultural apathy
D. Etiquette awareness
E. Social rebellion

Socialization

Most traditional definitions of _____ center around the notion that it is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation.

A. congruence
B. sensitivity
C. rituals
D. demography
E. culture

culture

Mike grew up learning a great deal about his culture from his school, the church, the mass media, and his family. This kind of learning of culture is called:

A. acculturation.
B. socialization.
C. naturalization.
D. emancipation.
E. adaptation.

socialization.

Mervin is excited about his new home in the Philippines. Though native of Los Angeles, he has been given the opportunity to learn about a new culture, form new friendships, and capitalize on opportunities that were not available in his previous home or workplace. He will go through what is known as _____ as he adjusts to living in the Philippines.

A. acculturation
B. socialization
C. naturalization
D. emancipation
E. standardization

acculturation

Family, religion, schools, the media, government, and corporations are all examples of a(n):

A. social institution.
B. cultural icon.
C. internal variable.
D. external variable.
E. demographic variable.

social institution.

Which of the following is true with respect to Professor Jared Diamond’s ideas regarding the influence of geography on history and cultural values?

A. People in the plains are more likely to invade than those settled in higher altitudes.
B. Historically, societies in the north are more developed than those in the south.
C. Civilizations near major rivers are more developed than those settled near major oceans.
D. Historically, innovations spread faster east to west than north to south.
E. Historically, invasions from warrior tribes have always happened from the west to the east.

Historically, innovations spread faster east to west than north to south.

Which of the following thinkers is famous for his statement on the deep influence of geography on history, economics, and consumer behavior?

A. Jared Diamond
B. Philip Parker
C. Desmond Morris
D. Noam Chomsky
E. Jacques Derrida

Philip Parker

New cola alternatives (Mecca Cola, Muslim Up, Arab Cola, and ColaTurka) sprang up after the military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003. This is an example that shows how:

A. Coca-Cola played an important role in easing the cultural divide among the warring nations.
B. American beverage companies diversify to cater to various markets.
C. specific events in history can influence consumer behavior.
D. businesses exploit cheap human labor during war-times.
E. cultural aspects influence the development and acceptance of products.

specific events in history can influence consumer behavior.

Which of the following technological innovations has had a great impact on the gender-based determining of responsibilities and roles?

A. Mobile phones
B. Computers
C. Aircraft
D. The Internet
E. Birth control pills

Birth control pills

Which of the following is an unfavorable outcome of the usage of birth control pills?

A. Educational institutions are finding it tougher to fill in seats.
B. Midwifery, as a profession, is soon becoming extinct.
C. More men and women are opting for a “one-child family.”
D. Women are increasingly taking up job roles traditionally reserved for men.
E. Schools are forced to address issues like abstinence and condom distribution.

Schools are forced to address issues like abstinence and condom distribution.

The _____ in India is a social institution that influences the roles and status positions found within Indian society.

A. country club
B. church
C. Taj Mahal
D. hijab
E. caste system

caste system

One of the advantages of the emergence of gender equality is the _____ gap between the sexes being narrowed in many places around the world.

A. intelligence
B. biological
C. identity
D. education
E. language

education

In most cultures, the first social institution infants are exposed to outside the home takes the form of a:

A. day care center.
B. school.
C. religious institution.
D. shopping mall.
E. government agency.

religious institution.

Numerous studies indicate a direct link between the literacy rate of a country and its:

A. ability to conduct foreign trade.
B. capability for rapid economic growth.
C. ability to eradicate social prejudices.
D. capability to promote secular political values.
E. potential to support gender equality.

capability for rapid economic growth.

What has been the impact on American culture, of women joining the workforce in growing numbers for the past thirty years?

A. An increase in the desire for large families in the American population.
B. An increase in the underestimation of women in the American culture.
C. A decrease in economic development.
D. A reduction in the influence of family in the American culture.
E. An increase in divorce rates in the country.

A reduction in the influence of family in the American culture.

Which of the following social institutions is considered to have had a detrimental effect on American culture?

A. School
B. Government
C. Religion
D. Family
E. Media

Media

Which of the following social institutions that influence culture has comparatively the least impact on culture?

A. Media
B. School
C. Government
D. Family
E. Religion

Government

Governments influence thinking and behavior through the:

A. enforcement of a variety of laws affecting consumption and marketing behaviors.
B. increasing of the literacy rate of the country.
C. adopting of a secular government with separation of the church and state.
D. supporting of a selected number of religious sects within the society.
E. promotion of egalitarian principles.

enforcement of a variety of laws affecting consumption and marketing behaviors.

Which of the following social institutions introduce innovations to society?

A. Corporations
B. School
C. Government
D. Family
E. Religion

Corporations

Which of the following is the main reason for corporations being the forerunners of innovations in society?

A. The use of propaganda to form “favorable” public opinions.
B. The access they have to ideas from around the world.
C. The understanding that they have of foreign markets.
D. The religious tolerance that they possess as a requisite for foreign trade.
E. The fact that all merchants and traders are required to be literate.

The access they have to ideas from around the world

The most useful information on how cultural values influence various types of business and market behavior comes from work done by:

A. Sigmund Freud.
B. George Gallup.
C. Geert Hofstede.
D. Ayn Rand.
E. Milton Friedman.

Geert Hofstede

In the context of linguistic distance, which of the following languages is the most distant from English?

A. French
B. German
C. Spanish
D. Arabic
E. Thai

Thai

In the context cultural values, the _____ Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one’s self-interest.

A. Individualism/Collectivism
B. Power Distance
C. Uncertainty Avoidance
D. Masculinity/Feminity
E. Linguistic

Individualism/Collectivism

The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and _____ among members of a society.

A. inequality
B. subjugation
C. ambiguity
D. oppression
E. hierarchy

ambiguity

On the basis of Hofstede’s four dimensions, cultures with high Power Distance Index (PDI) scores tend to be:

A. secular.
B. hierarchical.
C. flat in organization.
D. fragmented.
E. Mexico

hierarchical.

Wayne is working at the overseas branch of his organization. He needs some clarification about a project. He approaches a senior manager thinking he would get a good explanation. However, he is instructed to follow protocol and sent away. Also, he is informed that only team leads are allowed to approach senior managers. This implies that the organization has a ______ score.

A. high Individualism/Collective Index
B. high Power Distance Index
C. low Individualism/Collective Index
D. low Power Distance Index
E. high Uncertainty Avoidance Index

high Power Distance Index

People from which of the following cultures are more likely to have a general distrust of others (not those in their groups) because power is seen to rest with individuals and is coercive rather than legitimate?

A. Cultures with a high Individualism/Collective Index score.
B. Cultures with a high Power Distance Index score.
C. Cultures with a low Individualism/Collective Index score.
D. Cultures with a low Power Distance Index score.
E. Cultures with a high Uncertainty Avoidance Index score.

Cultures with a high Power Distance Index score.

Cultures with high _____ scores tend to have a high level of anxiety and stress and a concern with security and rule following.

A. Power Distance Index
B. Individualism/Collectivism Index
C. Distance from English Index
D. Uncertainty Avoidance Index
E. Masculinity/Femininity Index

Uncertainty Avoidance Index

Cultures which are low in Uncertainty Avoidance index:

A. seek absolute truth.
B. accord a high level of importance to rules as a means of avoiding risk.
C. tend to be distrustful of new ideas or behaviors.
D. dogmatically stick to historically tested patterns of behavior.
E. take a more empirical approach to understanding and knowledge.

take a more empirical approach to understanding and knowledge

For a culture, a low score in the _____ reflects more egalitarian views.

A. Power Distance Index
B. Individualism/Collectivism Index
C. Distance from English Index
D. Uncertainty Avoidance Index E. Masculinity/Femininity Index

Power Distance Index

Which of the following terms pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups?

A. Power distance
B. Individualism
C. Uncertainty
D. Collectivism
E. Masculinity

Collectivism

Cultural values can predict such consumer behaviors as _____ and impulsive buying.

A. ethnocentrism
B. family planning
C. word-of-mouth communications
D. immigration
E. resource-sharing

word-of-mouth communications

Based on the Individualism/Collectivism Index, in which of the following cultures will the “virtual social” activity of online chatting be most acceptable?

A. One in which individualism reigns supreme.
B. One in which collectivism is adopted.
C. One that has a high tolerance for ambiguity.
D. One which has a willingness to take risks.
E. One with no separation between the church and the state.

One in which individualism reigns supreme.

Hofstede’s data on cultural values suggest that:

A. countries that are high on individualism and low on uncertainty avoidance tend to be more innovative.
B. diffusion of innovations will be slower in countries that are low on individualism and high on uncertainty avoidance.
C. individuals from individualistic cultures tend to respond more favorably to other-focused appeals. D. self-focused appeals tend to attract people from collectivistic cultures.
E. collectivistic cultures tend to be more emotionally bent than individualistic cultures.

diffusion of innovations will be slower in countries that are low on individualism and high on uncertainty avoidance.

In the context of the elements of culture, rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are:

A. learned and repeated.
B. scientifically verified for effectiveness.
C. enforced by governments.
D. unique to each individual.
E. universally accepted as proper behavior.

learned and repeated.

The anthropologist, Edward T. Hall tells us that culture is:

A. all-encompassing.
B. relatively minor in the scheme of life.
C. communication.
D. strongly linked to physiology.
E. standard throughout the world.

communication.

In some parts of the world, language is itself thought of as a social institution, often with political importance. Which of the following countries best exemplifies the above statement?

A. Australia
B. United States
C. France
D. Mexico
E. Switzerland

France

In the context of the relationship between language and international marketing, recent studies indicate that a new concept, _____, is proving useful to marketing researchers in market segmentation and strategic entry decisions.

A. paralinguistics
B. linguistic distance
C. language parallels
D. language roots
E. linguistic accents

linguistic distance

Linguistic distance is an important factor that helps in determining differences in values across countries and the amount of trade between countries because:

A. the closer the languages the tougher the interactions.
B. crossing “wider” language
differences increases transaction costs.
C. the more distant a language from the other, the more valuable the brand becomes in the new territory.
D. major languages have “syntactical superiority” over minor languages that help in brand positioning.
E. a ‘neutral’ language is required to address the differences arising out of linguistic distances.

crossing “wider” language
differences increases transaction costs.

The aesthetics of a culture must be taken into account by marketers when:

A. styling the product and its packaging.
B. determining the linguistic distance of a culture.
C. assessing if a culture is individualistic or collectivistic.
D. trying to quantify the influence media has on the culture.
E. trying to comply with the rituals of a culture.

styling the product and its packaging.

Feng shui is a Chinese ____, considered to be the process that links humans and the universe to ch’i, the energy that sustains life and flows through our bodies and surroundings, in and around our homes and workplaces.

A. illusion
B. ritual
C. belief
D. symbol
E. myth

belief

Based on Richard Nisbett’s metaphor involving Confucius’s worthy picture, what is his analysis regarding the thought process or perceptual process of Westerners?

A. Westerners can provide great details about central figures but see relatively little in the background.
B. Westerners observe things sequentially, thus fail to comprehend the larger picture.
C. Westerners are good at observing details but fail to comprehend the central message.
D. Westerners prefer larger than life figures to convey messages.
E. Westerners tend to focus on the brighter colors in the image and fail to see the lines and finer drawings.

Westerners can provide great details about central figures but see relatively little in the background.

_____ refers to being attuned to the nuances of culture so that a new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated, and appreciated.

A. Cultural integration
B. Acculturation
C. Counter culture
D. Cultural sensitivity
E. Culture transfer

Cultural sensitivity

_____ is a responsible effort to learn from others’ cultural ways in the quest for better solutions to a society’s particular problems.

A. Acculturation
B. Cultural borrowing
C. Cultural sensitivity
D. Cultural aestheticism
E. Cultural assimilation

Cultural borrowing

To the foreign marketer, the similar-but-different feature of cultures has important meaning in gaining cultural _____.

A. tolerance
B. acceptance
C. leverage
D. empathy
E. heritage

empathy

Which of the following is the most important factor in determining what kind and how much of an innovation will be accepted by a culture?

A. The time required for the change to occur.
B. The number of people that could be benefited.
C. The degree of interest in the particular subject.
D. The power or authority of the change agent.
E. The financial impact, immediate and long-term, of accepting the change.

The degree of interest in the particular subject.

With regard to resistance to change, observations indicate that those innovations most readily accepted are those that:

A. cater to the values of the predominant religion of the society.
B. propagate faith in a set of beliefs different from the existing beliefs.
C. are apathetic to the existing cultural beliefs.
D. hold the greatest interest within the society and those that are least disruptive.
E. offer some insight into the aesthetics of the existing culture.

hold the greatest interest within the society and those that are least disruptive.

Modern medicine has thrived in the United States together with the use of herbal remedies from South America. This is an example of:

A. cultural ombudsmanship.
B. cultural congruence.
C. cultural hegemony.
D. cultural sensitivity.
E. cultural borrowing.

cultural borrowing.

_____ refers to a strategy that involves marketing products similar to ones already on the market thereby minimizing resistance.

A. Flank attack
B. Cultural congruence
C. Guerilla marketing
D. Lateral marketing
E. Culture equalization

Cultural congruence

The strategy of _____ deliberately sets out to change those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals.

A. planned change
B. top-down change
C. guerilla marketing
D. differentiated marketing
E. disruptive marketing

planned change

Marketing strategy is judged culturally in terms of _____.

A. inclusion or exclusion
B. cultural intensity or cultural sublimity
C. acceptance, resistance, or rejection
D. sensitivity to the hidden aspects of culture in a society
E. speed, intensity, and degree of change required

acceptance, resistance, or rejection

The first step in bringing about planned change in a society is to:

A. determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation.
B. create a resistance to the cultural factor hindering acceptance.
C. wait for eventual cultural changes that prove their innovations of value to the culture.
D. market the products similar to ones already on the market.
E. leave acceptance to a strategy of unplanned change.

determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation.

Morton Foods has decided to introduce a new line of turkey products to the American consumer. Turkey steaks resemble beefsteak in taste but are made from turkey meat, and are leaner and healthier for a variety of reasons. However, the company is concerned that the product will not be accepted in America. If Morton Foods follows a strategy of _____, they are more likely to have a successful introduction of the new product.

A. unplanned change
B. cultural adiaphora
C. cultural syncopation
D. cultural congruence
E. continuous change

cultural congruence

Nexar Energy is advocating the use of solar power to replace all petroleum-based energy sources. The company holds demonstrations to show how solar power could be used in all major petroleum-based products—automobiles, power sources, and heating and cooling. Nexar Energy is employing a strategy of _____, a deliberate attempt to change the way we do things with respect to energy sources.

A. unplanned change
B. planned change
C. parallel change
D. syncopated change
E. synergistic change

planned change

The Westernized diet has caused many Japanese to become overweight. This is an example of _____ change.

A. top-down
B. planned
C. central
D. unplanned
E. bottom-up

unplanned

Need essay sample on "International Marketing Exam 1"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
×
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
|
Complete Buyer Protection
|
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy