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Introduction to Business DSST

absolute advantage
A monopoly on producing a product at a lesser price.
absolute liability
Responsibility of a producer of any harm that is caused by s product (regardless if it was foreseeable).
Accepting consequences of actions.
The occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business and the interpretation thereof.
accounting system
Computer program for accounting.
accounts payable
Bills due as part of a normal course of a business.
accounts receivable
Debts owed to a business.
accrual-based accounting
Business accounting, assuming accounts payable.
accumulated depreciation
Reduces the accounting value of assets.
acquisition costs
Incremental costs involved in a new customer.
activity based costing
An accounting framework based on determining the cost of activities and allocating these costs to products using activity rates.
Mathematicians predicting future losses based on history.
adaptive firm
Ability to respond to and address changes in their market, environment, and history.
adventure capital
Money needed at the earliest stages of the creation before a product or service is available.
Paid communication in selling a product.
affirmative action
Favored employment for minorities.
agency shop agreement
Employee must pay union dues.
One who negotiates, purchases, an/or sells, but no title to goods.
alternative dispute resolution
Resolving disputes through mediation and arbitration.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers.
Process of making decisions based on evidence.
area of job freedom
area of discretion over job
A neutral third party chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue.
articles of incorporation
Legal document with name and address of corporation and purpose of company.
artificial intelligence
Computers mimicking human thought.
asset turnover
Sales divided by total assets.
Property owned by a business.
Minority members must learn ways of majority.
assumed similarity
The assumption that others are like oneself.
at-risk pay
Pay not received if employee does not meet targets.
A frame of mind that predisposes a reaction. (three components: thoughts, feelings, behavior)
attribution theory
The theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.
Judgments on behavior.
Gradual and natural reductions.
augmented skills
Skills helpful to expatriate managers.
Power and status exist in an organization.
The right to tell people what to do.
authorization card
Statement signed by employee empowering union to negotiate on their behalf.
Degree to which a job gives freedom, independence, scheduling and procedures.
balance of payments
Difference of value in exports/imports.
balance sheet
Reports financial position at specific date.
baseline information
Existing operation levels used to compare.
bases of power
Sources of power leaders use (personal, legitimate, expert, reward, and coercive)
back end
Development section of website.
Measures products/services/practices against competitors.
Online journal.
blue chip stocks
High quality company stock.
boiled frog phenomenon
Small changes that are unnoticed.
Indebtedness contract issued by a corporation or government that promises future payment.
boundary spanners
Employees with strong communication skills within and outside their group.
bounded rationality
People only have time to process a certain amount of information.
Group encouraging creative and quick thinking without judgment or evaluation of ideas.
A name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of these that identifies the products or services of one seller or group of sellers and differentiates them from those of competitors
brand equity
Benefit a brand name brings.
breach of contract
Failing to follow the terms of a contract.
break-even analysis
A method of determining what sales volume must be reached before total revenue equals total costs.
break-even point
How many sales must occur to reach the point when revenues equaling expenditures.
Go-between for buyer and seller.
brokerage firm
Organization that buys and sells securities.
Marketing two or more items in a single package.
bureaucratic control
Control based on rules and hierarchy.
bureaucratic organization
Classical management of authority, records, and separation of management and ownership.
burden rate
Sum of employer costs over and above salaries.
Profit seeking by providing goods/services.
business law
Legal code that governs business.
business mission
Brief description of an organization’s purpose.
business plan
Written document explaining a venture (nature of business, market, advantages, and resources).
buy-sell agreement
Agreement where one or more of the of the entrepreneurs wants to sell their interest.
buying on margin
Buying stocks with borrowed broker money.
C Corporation
Classic legal entity of a business, shields personal liability and provides non-tax benefits.
cafeteria-style fringe benefits
Allows employers to choose benefits they want up to a certain amount of money.
call provision
Gives bond owner right to retire before maturity.
Sales of a new product or service decrease sales from existing products or services.
capital assets
Long-term assets (e.g. equipment)
capital budget
Long-term spending plan for returns that are expected to cover more than one year.
capital expenditure
Spending on capital assets.
capital input
Money being invested into business (not loans).
Economic system where businesses are private.
Wholesaler services mostly smaller retailers with limited products, sell for cash.
Bank account balance and other liquid assets.
cash basis
Accounting system that records only cash receipts and spending, no assumption of sales credit.
cash flow
Difference between cash receipts and disbursements.
cash flow budget
Cash flow during a specified period.
cash flow statement
Shows actual cash inflow and outflow over period; one of three main financial statements.
central driving forces (CDF) model
Entrepreneurial-based model model that considers positives/negatives of three areas of the venture; founders, opportunities, and resources.
Authority in a central location.
centralized network
Team communication where team members communication through a spokesperson.
Degree that all outcomes are known.
certificate of deposit (CD)
Notes issued by a bank that earns a set amount of interest; cannot be withdrawn before maturity date without incurring penalty.
Process of NLRB recognizing union.
certified public accountant (CPA)
Accountant that passes a series of exams in order to practice accounting for public.
channels of distribution
Middlemen that transport goods.
charismatic leader
Leader with ability to motivate.
click-through rate
Divides number of users who clicked an ad by the number of times the ad was delivered. Measures success of an online advertising campaign.
closed-shop agreement
Employees have to be members of a union before hired.
Pairing of two brand names on single item/service.
coinsurance clause
Requires businesses to carry insurance equal to a certain percent of the buildings actual value.
collection days
Average number of days between invoicing and payment.
collective bargaining
Union and business agreements.
commercial and consumer finance companies
Organizations that offer short-term loans at higher interest rates.
commercial bank
Profit-making organization that takes deposits and loans money for interest making profit.
commercial paper
Short-term corporate IOU.
Percent paid to salesperson for sale of product.
commodity exchange
Exchanges specific goods.
common law
Unwritten body of law based on judge decisions.
common market
Regional country group with no tariffs.
common stock
Basic ownership in a company.
communist system
Economic system of resource allocation government control.
comparable worth
Like jobs and skills like pay.
comparative advantage theory
Countries should buy from places that can produce a product/service more efficiently and focus on what they can do more efficiently.
competition-oriented pricing
Pricing based on competitors.
competitive advantage
Aspects of a product that makes it better than competitors.
competitive entry wedges
Strategic reasons to pursue an idea, four wedges: new product, parallel competition, franchise entry or twists.
completed store transactions
Total number of transactions on a website.
compressed workweek
Working more hours in a day (10), but less days a week (4).
computer-aided design (CAD)
Computer use to help design products.
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Computer help with the manufacturing of products.
computer-aided engineering
Computer use to help design robots, machine tools, and other items.
computer hardware
All tangible equipment that stores data.
computer software
Instructions for computer.
concentrated target marketing
Marketing that focuses on key target market segment.
conceptual skills
Ability to see organization with big picture.
conglomerate merger
Joining of unrelated firms.
Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
Unskilled worker union who broke away from AFL in 1935 (rejoined 1955).
Something of value in a legal contract.
Social movement to increase rights of consumers.
consumer price index (CPI)
Monthly statistic measuring change in price of about 400 commonly brought goods.
Process of packing and sealing number of items into easily moved unit.
contingency planning
Preparing for alternatives actions.
Legal agreement.
contract law
Laws that pertain to legal agreements.
contractual distribution system
Binding of members to cooperate with contract.
conversion rate
Percent of unique visitors on a website that take a desired action (e.g., purchase a product).
convertible bond
Bond that can be converted into stock.
Organization owned by the members/customers who pay annual members ship and share profits.
Exclusive rights to intellectual material.
core marketing strategy
Reason to buy to a target market.
corporate distribution system
One firm owns all companies in a distribution system.
corporate philanthropy
Public good that firm is involved in.
corporate policy
Positions corporations the both within the company and within society.
corporate responsibility
Social responsibilities of a corporation (e.g. fair employment, minimize pollution)
Two types (S or C); C is large and S is small and entity is separate from owners.
corridor principal
Entrepreneurial venture may find it has changed focus from initial concept by continually responding and adapting to market.
cost of goods sold (COGS)
Costs of material and production of goods a business sells.
cost of sales
Costs associated with producing sales.
cost-push inflation
Inflation caused by rising firm costs.
Bartering among countries.
craft union
Labor organization skilled in a trade.
credit unions
Nonprofit member-owned banks.
criminal loss protection
Insurance against theft.
critical path
Longest path
cross elasticity of demand
Change in the demand of one product impacts the demand of another.
cumulative preferred stock
Preferred stock accumulating unpaid dividends.
Coin and paper money….
cyclical unemployment
Unemployment caused by recession….
Monetary settlement for a court case….
Unanalyzed facts and figures.
data mining
Process of discovering meaningful data or patterns in a large data set.
debenture bonds
Unsecured bond.
debt and equity
Sum of liabilities and capital.
debt capital
Funds raised through loans and bonds.
debtor nation
Country that owes more money to a nation than nation owes to them.
Structure in which power is dispersed.
When workers take away a union’s right to represent.
decision-making model of leadership
Leadership style to match results with one of five leadership options.
decision support system (DSS)
Computer program that helps with decision making process.
decision tree
Graphical decision of decision-making.
Techniques for reducing labor supply within organization.
deductible clause
Insurance company will only pay after a certain of money is met by the insured.
Transferring authority to lower tiers in an organization.
Delphi decision group
Questionnaires used and group members do not meet in person.
Quantity of products that public is willing to but at different times at different prices.
demand curve
Graph of demand of product for price.
demand deposit
Checking account.
demand-oriented pricing
Pricing based on demand.
demand-pull inflation
Increasing price based on demand.
democratic leader
A leader that delegates and encourages participation, relies on expert and referent power to manage.
demographic segmentation
Divides market into like traits.
Basis of which groups are divided into departments in an organization.
Estimation of the loss of value in assets over time.
Severe recession.
Removing laws that oversee organizations.
dialectic decision model (DOM)
Examining two or more proposals by subgroups for whole-group decision (debate).
differentiated target marketing
Pursuing different market segments typically with different strategies.
Creating competitive advantage.
direct marketing
Supplying product/service without intermediaries.
Guiding and motivating others to achieve goals.
Disk storage space divided into categories.
disabled individual
Physical or mental impairment, record of the impairment, and is regarded as having the impairment.
Separation of employee from company for a clause.
Punishment or the orderly behavior in an organization or training that molds or strengthens.
discount bonds
Bonds selling below face value.
discount rate
Interest rate that Federal Reserve Bank charges other banks for loans.
discretionary income
Income that can be used for things other than essentials.
disposable income
Income after taxes available for essentials.
Biased treatment based on criteria not relevant.
disparate treatment
Protected class has a different evaluation system than a non-protected class.
distinctive competency
Competitive advantage.
Harmful stress characterized by feelings of inadequacy.
New offerings or introduction of new markets.
Opposite of investment; selling.
division of work
Levels of authority and functional units.
Money divided into owners of business for profit.
Doing Business As (DBA)
Fictitious name to establish legal ownership of a company.
double-loop learning
Using current information about change to better prepare employees for future changes.
Dow Jones Industrial Averages
Average cost of 30 industrial stocks.
Planned elimination of jobs.
drop shippers
Wholesalers that solicit orders from retailers and other wholesalers and have the merchandise shipped directly from a producer to a buyer.
dual distribution
Distributing products/services via more than one marketing channel that may compete for target market.
Selling products for less than production costs to a foreign country.
Running an entire business online.
early majority
Individuals who buy new technology after proven performance.
ecological control
Altering environment to influence others.
Study of how society produces and distributes goods and services.
economies of scale
Benefits of larger production, fixed costs spread over more volume and items are cheaper to make.
effective demand
Buyers have willingness and means to buy.
effective tax rate
Percent of taxes on profits after all deduction, credits, etc. are taken.
electronic monitoring
Technological surveillance of behavior.
electronic funds transfer system (EFTS)
Allows banks to transfer funds among accounts quickly and accurately without the exchange of checks.
Complete ban on import or export.
employee assistance programs (EAP)
Company sponsored programs that deliver a variety of health-related services, which are provided by licensed professional or organizations and offer employees a high degree of confidentiality.
employee involvement groups
Group of employees that meet in an attempt to resolve problems.
employee ownership
Program where employees provide capital to purchase control over an operation.
employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
Plans where employees can buy ownership in a company.
employment at will principle
The right of an employer an employee without reason.
Delegation of power to subordinates.
enacted values
Values exhibited by employees.
encounter phase
Employees come to terms with expectations and what organization is really like.
enriched sociotechnical work system
Most of organization is built into a balanced human-technical system.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Integration of financial, manufacturing, and human resources on a single system.
Individual who starts a new business.
entrepreneur in heat (EIH)
Entrepreneur who develops new products and services beyond what venture can support.
environmental scanning
Assessing outside environment and what effects it may have on the organization.
equal employment opportunity (EEO)
Treatment of individuals is fair.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, this act requires equal pay for men and women doing equal work.
equilibrium point
Point where supply and demand are equal.
Business ownership.
equity capital
Funds raised from selling ownership.
equity financing
Sales of ownership to gain additional capital.
escalating commitment
Continuing to invest time and resources in a failing decision.
espoused values
Values and norms preferred by organization.
ethical dilemma
Situation where all choices are undesirable.
ethical imperative
Belief that participation is needed in decisions for moral reasons.
ethical leadership
Leadership based on moral integrity (e.g. social responsibility, open communication, and cost-benefit)
Moral values.
Belief that one culture is better than the other.
Belief that culture groups are equal.
Good stress that motivates someone to do better.
exchange rate
Value of one currency in relation to another.
exclusive distribution
Producer sells its products or services in only one retail outlet in a specific geographical area.
Persons who live in one country and are employed by an organization based in another country; also called international assignees.
Costs incurred in business operation (e.g. rent).
expert power
Power that comes from knowledge.
expert system
Decision support system storing heuristics about decisions and data.
experiential learning
Learning by experience in training environment the kinds of problems faced on the job.
explicit knowledge
Information that is easily put into words.
export trading companies
Companies who match buyers and sellers from different countries.
Selling goods to different countries.
express warranties
Specific guarantee by seller.
external factors
Environmental characteristics that influence.
external locus of control
Person’s belief that outcomes are beyond their control (e.g. fate).
external organizational environment
Factors that exist outside the organization that impact it.
Eliminating behavior by ignoring or not reinforcing.
Company communications that gives access to organizations they do business with.
extrinsic reward
Reward given by another.
fact premises
Views based on research and experience.
Selling accounts for cash.
factors of production
Basic inputs of society (land resources, human labor, capital, entrepreneurship).
failure rate
Percentage of expatriates who are unsatisfactory.
failure rule/common causes
Entrepreneur failures are from inadequate sales, competitive weakness, excessive operating expenses, and uncollected receivables.
failure rule exceptions
High potential ventures, threshold concept, promise of growth, and venture capital backing.
fair employment practices
State and local laws governing equal employment opportunity.
fast-track program
Quick promotions to young managers with high potential.
fatal 2% rule
Concept that 2% of total market share is success.
Features, Advantages, and Benefits analysis (FAB)
Marketing plans tailor to features and benefits for selling a product.
federal deficit
Difference between federal spending/revenue.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Insuring individuals against bank failure at $100,000 per account.
federal funds
Short term loans among federal entities.
federal funds rate
Interest rate charged for overnight loans between Fed member banks.
Federal Reserve System
Twelve district banks that serve as a deposit for excess bank funds.
Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC)
A federal corporation/independent government agency that insures accounts in savings and loans (S&L) for up to $100,000.
Objective information about performance.
Decision making that focuses on life-quality.
fidelity bond
Insurance protects employer from financial loss about employee dishonesty.
field study
Evaluation of real-life variables.
Accounting technique for cost of inventory based in first in/first out.
fighting brand strategy
New brand in an established category.
Reducing communication to basics to be passed on.
financial statements
Includes income statement/balance sheet.
first mover
A firm that takes an initial competitive action in order to build or defend its competitive advantages or to improve its market position. Advantages include reputation effect, experience curve, and customer commitment and loyalty.
first mover disadvantages
Resolution of technological uncertainty, free-rider, resolution of strategic uncertainty and complementary assets.
first-line managers
Lowest level managers.
fiscal policy
Government efforts to stabilize economy.
Shipping cargo-carrying part of the truck overseas to save on transportation.
five forces model
A method of evaluating the external environment in which a company operates. Involves assessing five forces that drive competition: threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products or services, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and rivalry among existing firms.
fixed cost
Costs paid over the course of years.
fixed assets
Longer than five-year term assets.
fixed liabilities
Debts longer than five years.
flat structure
Few hierarchies of power.
flexible benefits
Employees choose benefits: modular (needs of a specific group), core plus (essential benefits with a menu selection of options), and flexible spending (childcare and healthcare)
A plan that allows employees to set their own work schedules within a wide range of hours.
Days between check given and cashed.
flexible manufacturing systems (FMS)
Automated production centers (e.g. robotics).
floating liabilities
Debts that change in value (short-term).
focus group
Small group representing target audience to offer product insight.
foreign subsidiary
Company owned by a foreign company.
form utility
Changing raw materials to finished product.
four P’s of marketing
Product, price, place, promotion.
A business established or operated under an authorization to sell or distribute a company’s goods or services in a particular area.
free market system
An economic system based on the idea that government should interfere with economic transactions as little as possible. Free enterprise and self-reliance are the collective and individual principles that underpin free markets.
free rider
Person that does less work in a team, but receives the same benefits.
frictional unemployment
People that have quit work and are looking for a job and are new entrants.
fringe benefits
Nonsalary compensation (e.g. sick leave)
front end (websites)
The user interface portion of a website.
full-cost price strategies
Variable and fixed cost in prices of product.
full-service wholesalers
A wholesaler produces all distribution functions.
functional structure
Grouping based on skills and experience.
future value projection
Projecting future value based on expected rates of return and inflation .
futures markets
Purchase and sales for delivery of future.
gain sharing plans
Programs that share the financial gains based on a formula that reflects productivity.
Gantt chart
Bar graph illustrating production.
garbage can model
Belief that decision making is sloppy.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Stress cycle: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Twenty-three country agreement of mutual reduction in trade restrictions.
general merchandise wholesaler
Wholesaler carrying variety of merchandise.
general partner
Owner with unlimited liability; actively manages firm.
generic goods
Nonbranded products.
geocentric organizations
Ignore nationality when integrating community of interest.
geographic segmentation
Dividing market by location.
glass ceiling
Invisible barriers for minorities and women.
global outsourcing
Using foreign labor to save money.
global team
Culturally diverse work team.
Desired future state.
goods producing sector
Part of society making tangible goods.
Company buys another for a value above assets.
grand strategy
Plan to achieve long term goals.
Informal communication channel (gossip).
gross margin
The amount of money the retailer makes as a percentage of sales after the cost of goods sold is subtracted.
gross national product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country.
group decision support system
group life policy
group support systems (GSS)
growth need
growth stocks
guerrilla marketing investment strategy
guerrilla marketing
halo effect
Hawthorne effect
A change in a subject’s behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied.
Hay profile method
hidden agendas
hierarchy culture
hierarchy of needs theory
high context culture
higher-order needs
honesty tests
horizontal communication
horizontal communication
horizontal merger
host country
host country nationals
hostile takeover
hot stove rule
human capital
human resource approach
human skill
humanistic perspective
hygiene factors
idea champion
idea incubator
illusory correlation
immediate corrective action
implied warranties
import quota
imposter phenomenon
impression management
income statements
indenture terms
independent audit
individualism approach
individualistic culture
industrial democracy
industrial unions
informal leaders
informal organization
in-group exchange
initial public offering (IPO)
insider trading
insurable risk
insurance adjuster
intensive distribution
interactional justice
interactive leadership
interest expense
intermittent reinforcement
internal factors
internal locus of control
internal marketing
international corporation
international dimension
international monetary fund
intrinsic reward
inventory financing
inventory turnover
ISO 9000
ISO 14000
ISO 19011
job analysis
job breadth
job characteristics model
job classification system
job content
job context
job description
job depth
job design
job diagnostics survey
job enlargement
job enrichment
job family
job involvement
job rotation
job satisfaction
job scope
job simplification
job specification
joint venture
judgmental heuristics
justice approach
just-in-time training
just-in-time (JIT) inventory
Knights of Labor
knockoff brands
knowledge management
knowledge workers
laissez-fair style
lateral communication
law of diminishing returns
law of effect
law of large numbers
law of individual differences
layoff survivor’s sickness
leader-member exchange model
leader-member relations
leader-position power
leadership style
learned helplessness
learning capabilities
learning organziation
legal/political dimension
legitimate power
leveraged buy-out
life cycle
life position
limit order
limited function wholesaler
limited liability company (LLC)
limited partner
line authority
line of credit
linking pin
local area networks (LAN)
long-term assets
long-term interest rates
long-term orientation
low context culture
lower-order needs
loyalty programs
lump-sum merit program
management by objectives (MBO)
management by walking around (MBWA)
management information system
managerial grid
managing diversity
market culture
market development funds (MDF)
market sales potential
market segmentation
market share
matrix organization
maturity date
mechanistic organization
melting pot
middle-management committees
mixed economy
monopolistic competition
moral-rights approach
moving weighted average
motivating potential score (MPS)
motivational factors
multinational organization
mutual funds
mutual insurance company
mutuality of interest
National Credit Union Administration
national debt
neighborhood of offices
Net Present Value (NPV)
net profit
net worth
new visitors
newsletter subscriptions
niche market
nominal group technique (NGT)
nonperformance loss protection
nonprogrammed decision
nonrational models
nonverbal communication
normative commitment
obligations incurred
omnipotent view of management
on-the-job training (OJT)
open-book management
open-door policy
open-end questions
open market operations
open shop agreement
open system
operant behavior
operating expenses
organic organization
organization analysis
organization-based self-esteem
organization chart
organizational behavior
organizational citizenship
organizational commitment
organizational control
organizational development (OD)
organizational learning curve for change
organizational politics organizational socialization
out-group exchange
output restriction
parent ego state
partial reinforcement schedule
participative counseling
participative leaders
participative management
par value
path-goal theory
pay equity
pay for performance
payback period
payment days
payroll burden
penetration pricing strategy
penny stock
pension funds
perfect competition
performance gap
performance-satisfaction-effort loop
personal barriers
personal power
personal selling
personal wellness
physical distribution
physical withdrawal
place utility
plant and equipment
Point of Purchase (POP) advertising
political power
Political, Economic, and Social Trends (PEST) analysis
possession utility
preferred stock
price elasticity of demand
prime rate
private brand
privately owned
pro forma income statement
producer price index
product differentiation
product life cycle
product mix
profit center
profit sharing
programmed conflict
programmed decision
progressive discipline
promotional mix
protective tariff
psychographic segmentation
psychological contract
psychological distance
publicly traded
push strategy
quality circle
quality control
quality of life
quantity of life
questionable costs
quick fixes
rack jobber
range of variation
rate setting
rational model
reactive change
realistic job preview (RPJ)
reasonable accommodation
reasonable prudence
recency error
reference group
referent power
reinforcement schedule
reserve requirement
respondent behavior
retained earnings
return on investment (ROI)
return on sales
reverse culture shock
reverse discrimination
right to work law
rights of privacy
risk propensity
risky shift
round lot
rule of indemnity
S Corporation (S Corp)
sabbatical leave
safety needs
sales forecast
savings and loans association
sample survey
scenario technique
scenario technique
scrambled merchandising
secondary needs
secondary boycott
secondary outcomes
secured bonds
secured loan
seed capital
selective distribution
selective perception
self-fulfilling prophecy
self-management teams
self-serving bias
semantic barriers
sense of choice
sense of competence
sense of meaningfulness
sense of progress
servant leader
service corps of retired executives (SCORE)
sexual harassment
shopping agents
short-term liabilities
single-loop learning
sinking fund
situation analysis
situational theories
skill-based pay
skill inventories
skimming pricing strategy
slotting allowances
social audit
social capital
social cues
social desirability bias
social equilibrium
social facilitation
social forces
social information processing
social leader
social learning theory
social loafing
social responsibility
sociocultural dimension
socioeconomic model of decision making
socioemotional role
sole proprietorship
stock market
span of management
spillover effect
spot bonus
spot market
staff authority
stages of team development
standard hour plan
status anxiety
status deprivation
status symbols
step review system
stock insurance company
stock splits
straight commission plan
straight piecework
strategic constituency
strategic plans
stress-performance model
stress threshold
strict liability
structural unemployment
subfranchising agreement
subordinate appraisal
substitutes for leadership
succession planning
sunk cost
superordinate goal
superregional bank
supply curve
supply-side economics
supportive approach to OB
supportive model
surety bond
surface acting
surface agenda
surplus or deficit
switching costs
SWOT analysis
symbolic view of management
tacit knowledge
tactical planning
tall structure
target market
task analysis
task conflict
task environment
task identity
taxes incurred
team incentive plan
telecommuting (telework)
tender offer
Theory X
Theory Y
Theory Z
thrift institution
time deposit
time utility
total quality management
trade margin
trading up
trading down
training multiplier effect
transactional leader
transfer of training
transformational leader
triple-reward system
truck jobber
tunnel vision
two-factor model of motivation
two-way communication process
Type A personality
Type B personality
unfair labor practices (ULPs)
Uniform Commercial Code
union security clause
union shop agreement
uninsurable risk
unit variable cost
units break even
unlimited liability
unsecured loan
user interface (UI)
user registrations
venture capital
variable cost
vertical merger
Two firms in two different stages of related business join.
volume segmentation
Divide market into user categories (heavy, medium, light, none)
voluntary bankruptcy
Bankruptcy filed by the debtor.
Virtual location on the internet.
website traffic
Number of visitors in a website.
whistle blowing
The disclosure by an employee of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices by the organization.
Someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers.
work permit
Government document authorizing employment of foreign individual.
workforce utilization analysis
Classifying protected-class workers by the number and types of jobs.
working capital
Accessible resources for daily operations.
World Bank
United Nations agency providing loans to leser developed countries from more developed ones.
Fear or rejection of what is strange or foreign.
yellow dog contract
Contracts some employers forced workers to sign that made the workers promise not to join a union. (Outlawed by Norris-La Guardia act)
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