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Introduction to Project Management

WHAT IS A PROJECT?
A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
What is Operations
Is work done in organizations to sustain the business
Difference between Project and Operations
They end when their objectives have been reached or the project has been terminated.
Project Attributes (6)
1.- Has a unique purpose
2.- Is temporary
3.- Is developed using progressive elaboration
4.- Requires resources, often from various areas
5.- Should have a primary customer or sponsor
6.- Involves uncertainty
1. Why a project has a unique purpose?
– every project should have a well-defined objective
– projects result in a unique product, service, or result
2. Why a project is temporary?
– a project has a definite beginning and end
3. Why a project requires resources?
– to meet objective
– these resources include people,
hardware, software, and other assets
– many projects cross departmental or
other boundaries to achieve their unique purposes
– resources are limited & must be used effectively to meet project and other corporate goals
4. Why a project is developed using progressive elaboration?
Because,
– projects are often defined broadly when they begin,
– and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer
– therefore, projects should be developed
in increments
– a project team should develop initial plans – and then update them with more detail based on new information
5. Why a project should have a primary customer or sponsor?
Because,
– most projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship
– the project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project
6. Why a project involves uncertainty?
Because,
– every project is unique,
– it is sometimes difficult to define its
* objectives clearly
* estimate how long it will take to complete, or
* determine how much it will cost
An Effective Project Manager
is crucial to a project’s success
because…
– the uncertainty of every project
– this is one of the main reasons Project Management is so challenging
Project Constraints
Every project is constrained in different ways, often by its scope, time, and cost goals.
Triple Constrain
1.- Scope
2.- Time
3.- Cost

– Managing the triple constraint involves making trade-offs between scope, time, and
cost goals for a project.

Quadruple Constrain
1.- Scope
2.- Time
3.- Cost
+
4.- Quality

Quality
– is often a key factor in projects
– as is customer or sponsor satisfaction

Additional Constrains
– Risk
– Resources
– Communication
PROJECT

Quality

– A project team may meet scope, time, and cost goals but might fail to meet quality standards
and satisfy the sponsor

– The project team may have completed the work on time and within the cost constraint, but the quality may have been unacceptable.

PROJECT

Risks

– Can also affect major project decisions
– A company might wait to start a project until the risks are at an acceptable level
– The project manager:
should be communicating with the sponsor throughout the project to make sure it is
meeting expectations
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Project management
Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements

– must strive not only to meet specific scope, time, cost, and quality goals of projects,
– they must also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of people involved in project activities or affected by them

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Stakeholders

Stakeholders
– are the people involved in or affected by project activities, – includes the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents
of the project
– These stakeholders often have very different needs and expectations.

– Project Sponsors -> potential new homeowners
– Project Manager -> general contractor responsible for building the house

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Management Knowledge Areas (10)
** Describes the key competencies that project managers must develop.

1. Project SCOPE management
2. Project TIME management
3. Project COST management
4. Project QUALITY management
5. Project HUMAN RESOURCES management
6. Project COMMUNICATIONS management
7. Project RISK management
8. Project PROCUREMENT management
9. Project STAKEHOLDER management
10. Project INTEGRATION management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

1. Project scope management

– involves defining and managing all the work to complete the project successfully
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

2. Project time management

– estimating duration to complete the work
– developing an acceptable project schedule and
– ensuring timely completion of the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3. Project cost management

– preparing and
– managing the budget
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

4. Project quality management

– project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

5. Project human resources management

– making effective use of the people involved with the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

6. Project communications management

– generating,
– collecting,
– disseminating, and
– storing project information
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

7. Project risk management

– identifying,
– analyzing, and
– responding to risks related to the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

8. Project procurement management

– acquiring or
– procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

9. Project stakeholder management

– identifying and
– analyzing stakeholder needs
– while managing and
– controlling their engagement throughout the life of the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

10. Project integration management

– is an overarching function

– function
==> that affects and
==> is affected by all of the other knowledge areas

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLD AND TECHNIQUES

– Thomas Carlyle, a famous historian and author, stated, “Man is a tool-using animal. Without tools he is nothing, with tools he is all.”

– Project management tools and techniques assist project
managers and their teams in carrying out work in all 10 knowledge areas.

– SURVEY 2006 -> 753 projects (Super Tools)

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

SUPER TOOLS definition

– Tools that had:
-> high use and
-> high potential
for improving project success.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Super Tools Included:

A.- Software for task scheduling (project management software)
B.- Scope statements
C.- Requirement analyses, and
D.- Lessons-learned reports.

– Tools that are already used extensively and have been found to
improve project performance include
a. progress reports,
b. kick-off meetings,
c. Gantt charts, and
d. change requests.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

SUPER TOOLS
TABLE 1-1
Common project management tools and techniques
by knowledge area

Note:
That project stakeholder management
was not a separate knowledge area at the time of this survey

1. Integration management
2. Scope management
3. Time management
4. Cost management
5. Quality management
6. Human resource management
7. Communications management
8. Risk management
9. Procurement management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

1. Integration management

– project selection methods
– project management methodologies
– stakeholder analyses
– work requests
– project charters
– project management plans
– project management software
– change requests
– change control boards
– project review meetings
– lessons-learned reports
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

2. Scope management

– scope statements
– work breakdown structures
– statements of work
– requirements analyses
– scope management plans
– scope verification techniques
– scope change controls
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

3. Time management

Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical path analysis,
crashing, fast tracking, schedule performance measurements
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

4. Cost management

Project budgets, net present value, return on investment, payback
analysis, earned value management, project portfolio management,
cost estimates, cost management plans, cost baselines
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

5. Quality management

Quality metrics, checklists, quality control charts, Pareto diagrams,
fishbone diagrams, maturity models, statistical methods,
test plans
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

6. Human resource management

Motivation techniques, empathic listening, responsibility assignment
matrices, project organizational charts, resource histograms,
team building exercises
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

7. Communications management

Communications management plans, kick-off meetings, conflict
management, communications media selection, status and progress
reports, virtual communications, templates, project Web sites
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

8. Risk management

Risk management plans, risk registers, probability/impact
matrices, risk rankings
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Super Tools

9. Procurement management

Make-or-buy analyses, contracts, requests for proposals or quotes,
source selections, supplier evaluation matrices
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Define
Project Success
(The Standish Group studies used this definition of
success)

1. The project met scope, time, and cost goals.
2. The project satisfied the customer/sponsor.
3. The results of the project met its main objective.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

1. The project met scope, time, and cost goals.

If all 500 computers were upgraded and met other scope requirements, the work was completed in three months or less, and the cost was $300,000 or less, you could consider the project successful

(See the references by Glass on
the companion Web site for this text to read more about this debate.)

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

2. The project satisfied the customer/sponsor.

Conversely, a project might not meet initial scope, time, and cost goals, but the customer could still be very satisfied.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

3. The results of the project met its main objective.

– Such as making or saving a certain amount of money, providing a good return on investment, or simply making the sponsors happy.
– Even if the project cost more than estimated, took
longer to complete, and the project team was hard to work with, the project would be successful if users were happy with the upgraded computers, based on this criterion.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

Why do some IT projects succeed and others fail?
Table 1-2
What helps projects succeed?

1. User involvement
2. Executive support
3. Clear business objectives
4. Emotional maturity
5. Optimizing scope
6. Agile process
7. Project management expertise
8. Skilled resources
9. Execution
10. Tools and infrastructure

Source:
The Standish Group, “CHAOS Activity News” (August 2011).

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

U.S. government report (2011)
listed the top three reasons
why federal technology
projects succeed:

1. Adequate funding
2. Staff expertise
3. Engagement from all stakeholders
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

The Chinese…

The Chinese, like the Americans,

– included top management support,
– user involvement, and a
– competent project manager as vital to project success

IMPORTANT:
– To look beyond individual project success rates and
– Focus on how organizations as a whole can improve project performance.
– Research comparing companies
that excel in project delivery—the “winners”—from those that do not found four
significant best practices. The winners:

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

PROJECT DELIVERY

1. Use an integrated toolbox.
2. Grow project leaders.
3. Develop a streamlined project delivery process.
4. Measure project health using metrics.

– Project managers play an important role in making projects, and therefore organizations,
successful

– Project managers work with the project sponsors, the project team, and
other stakeholders to meet project goals.

– Good project managers do not assume that their definition of
success is the same as the sponsors’.

They take the time to understand their sponsors’
expectations and then track project performance based on important success criteria.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success

PROJECT DELIVERY

1. Use an integrated toolbox.

– Clearly define what needs to be done in a project, by whom, when, and how.
– Use project management tools, methods, and techniques.
– Carefully select tools, align them with project and business goals,
– And link them to metrics, and
– provide them to project managers to deliver positive results
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success
PROJECT DELIVERY

2. Grow project leaders.

– Strong project managers—referred to as project leaders—are crucial to project success
– A good project leader needs to be a business leader as well, with strong interpersonal and intrapersonal skills
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success
PROJECT DELIVERY

3. Develop a streamlined project delivery process.

– Examined every step in the project delivery process, analyzed fluctuations in workloads, searched for ways to reduce variation, and eliminated bottlenecks to create a repeatable delivery process
– All projects go through clear stages and clearly define key milestones.
– All project leaders use a shared road map, focusing on key business aspects of their projects while integrating goals across all parts of the organization.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Success
PROJECT DELIVERY

4. Measure project health using metrics.

– Companies that excel in project delivery
use performance metrics to quantify progress
– They focus on a handful of
important measurements and apply them to all projects

– Metrics often include
===> customer satisfaction,
===> return on investment, and
===> percentage of schedule buffer consumed

PROGRAM AND PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT
– Projects make up a significant portion of work in most business organizations or enterprises
– And managing those projects successfully is crucial to enterprise success.

– Two important concepts help projects meet enterprise goals
a. Use of programs
b. project portfolio management

Programs
Group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.

• Infrastructure
• Applications development
• User support

Programs: Infrastructure
– IT department often has a program for IT infrastructure projects.
– This program could encompass several projects, such as providing more wireless Internet access, upgrading hardware and software, and developing
and maintaining corporate standards for IT.
Programs: Applications development
– This program could include several projects, such
as updating an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, purchasing a new
off-the-shelf billing system, or developing a new capability for a customer
relationship management system.
Programs: User support

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