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IS 300 sozer

subject studying technology and the management and process if information–deals with computers, software to convert, store, protect, process info
system that collects and processes data and provides it to managers at all levels for decision making and planning
Technology Dimension of IS
Hardware: physical equipment
Software: detailed programmed instructions
Data management: storing data and software
Capital Investment in IT
since 1980 investment is increasing, went from 32%-52% investment of capital
Strategic Business Objectives of IT
operational excellence: UPS
new products, services, business models: Spotify
customer and supplier intimacy: JC Penny
Improved decision making: Verizon
Competitive Advantage: WalMart
Survival: City Bank and ATMs
Complementary Assets
investing lots of money in IT does not guarantee success; need social, operational, and managerial complementary assets
organizational assets
culture, business model, processes
managerial assets
management support, innovation, training
social assets
society’s investment, laws and regulations, education
Types of Business Information Systems
Sales/Marketing, Accounting/Finance, Manufacturing/ Production, Human Resources
Organization Structure
Pyramid has three levels: strategic level systems, management level systems, operational level systems which correspond to different information systems
Strategic: Executive Support System (ESS)
Management: Management Info Systems (MIS), Decision Support System (DSS)
Operational: Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
Manufacturing/Production systems
assemble product, check quality, producing bills of materials
Sales/Marketing systems
identify customers, make aware of product, sell product
Finance/Accounting systems
pay creditors, create financial statements, manage cash accounts
Human Resource system
hire employees, evaluate job performance, employee benefit plans
Order fulfillment process
Sales–Generate Order–Submit Order
Accounting–Check Credit–Approve Credit–Generate Invoice
Manu/Production–Assemble Product–Ship Product
Business Global Dimension
Flattened World–Doing business of a global scale; overcoming regional differences and similarities
Global Outsourcing
US based multinational companies added jobs overseas in the 2000s and cut them at home
61% of global companies using outsourcing experienced cost saving
57% found easier to focus on core business
50% improved process speed
Leavitt Diamond
IT use
Business Process————–Organizational Form
Requisite People Skills
Enterprise Applications
Automate processes that span multiple business functions and organizational levels and may extend outside the organization
Connection View (1970-1995)
IT as a tool
Immersion View (1991-2015)
IT as an environemt
Fusion View (2015- )
IT as a fabric
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
cross functional enterprise system driven by an integrated suite of software models that supports the basic integrated business processes of a company
ERP Benefits
Quality and Efficiency: customer service, production/distribution, improve business processes
Cost Saving: lower transaction processing costs
Decision support: better info to managers; make decisions faster
Enterprise agility: breaks down walls of business processes
Challenges of Enterprise Systems
Difficult to build: fundamental changes, business reengineering
Technology: complex pieces of software
Not the best way for firms to operate
Supply Chain Management (SCM) System
enterprise applications that help businesses manage relationships with suppliers
Key SCM Processes
Plan, Source (identify suppliers, schedule deliveries), Make (production), Deliver (shipments, carriers, warehouses), Retain
Functions of SCM systens
Decide what to produce, store, move
Track status of orders/shipments
Check inventory availability and monitor inventory levels
Rapidly communicate orders
Plan production based on actual demand
Push vs. Pull Based SCM
Push supplier<---Manufacturer--->Distributor—>Retailor—>Customer

Pull supplier<---Manufacturer<---Distributor<---Retailor<---Customer "make what we sell, not sell what we make"

Supply Chain Management
automate flow of information from company to suppler
Supply Chain Planning
demand forecasts, sourcing and manufacturing plans
Supply Chain Execution
manage flow of products efficiently
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems
help firms manage firms relationship with customers
Functions of CRM
manages ways used by firms to deal with existing and potential new customers
capture customer data from various sources
distribute customer info to various systems
Operational CRM
Customer facing applications; collect data
Analytical CRM
Analyzes data from operational CRM to increase Business performance; segmentation strategies, Customer and product profitability
Business value of CRM strategies
Increase customer satisfaction
More effective marketing and lower costs
Reduce churn rate (customers who stop using products)
Realizing customer lifetime value
Why E-Commerce is Different
Ubiquity: shopping can take place anywhere
Global reach: national customers
Universal Standards: communication between different systems is seamless
Interactivity: more interaction with customers
Individualized commerce, user generated content
Digital Market
Lower search and transaction costs, lower menu costs, dynamic pricing, lower switching costs, delays gratification, stronger network effects, more disintermediation
Types of E-commerce
Business to consumer (B2C) retailing of products and services to individual customers–WalMart
Business to business (B2B) sales of goods and services to other businesses–Alibaba.com
Consumer to consumer (C2C) web private sales–Ebay
Internet Business Models
E-tailor: online store for goods (Amazon)
Content Provider: provider of digital content (ESPN.com)
Transaction Broker: facilitates online transactions (Expedia.com)
Market Creator: trading platform for individual firms (Ebay)
Community Provider: online community to focus groups (Facebook)
Portal: initial point of entry to the web (Yahoo)
Service Provider: provider of online services (Paypal)
Pricing in Digital Market
Prices onlineConventional Store
Price dispersion>Conventional Store
Advantages of Regular Shopping
Customer reaction/attitude: affective from touch, smell, sounds
Transaction costs: invisible (implicit) vs visible (explicit)
Delayed Gratification lower with regular shopping
Price War: Cost Transparency
Made possible by the abundance of free, easily attainable information–people able to see through costs and determine whether they are in line with the prices charged
1) impairs sellers ability to obtain high margins
2) turns products and services into commodities
3) weakens customer loyalty to brands
4) reputation can be damaged by price unfairness
Reasons for Cost Transparency
Information: more info about features, prices, quality on the internet
Brand Premium: internet lowered risk that buyers paid for inferior brands
Price floor: buyer led pricing and reverse auction allow buyers to infer price floor–lowest price company is willing to sell product or service
Rational shopping: less impulse to buy
Emphasis on building a customer base as opposed to making profits
Information (Digital) Goods
Information based (Ex. movies, record, books, research papers)
Big fixed costs
Small or negligible variable cotst
Varied marketing/inventory/delivery costs
Easy versioning and pricing
Product Versioning
many variations of essentially the same goods; charge as many people as possible the price as high as possible
Extreme Aversion
2 versions of an item or three versions, who buys which–Refrigerator example
Value Subtracted
IBM printers–same product, one has extra chip, costs extra money but not all people can buy more expensive version
B2B E-Commerce
largest e-commerce category in terms of size
Electric Data Interchange (EDI)
used to automate transactions for B2B e-commerce and continuous inventory replenishment. Suppliers can automatically send data about shipments to purchasers. Purchasers use EDI to provide production and inventory requirements to suppliers
M-commerce service–location based services
Geosocial services: where my friends are
Geoadvertising: what shops are near by
Geoinformation: how much did the house I just passed cost
Banking and financial services: account management
M-commerce technical challenges
Broadband connection speed: limited reach
Device and battery recharge
Website design: desktop vs mobile versions
Keyboard and screen size
Technology Dimension of IS

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