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IS midterm

The acronym PDA stands for
personal digital assistant
What is a DBMS?
a data base management system
A logistics information system (LIS) is designed to reduce the cost of _____?
transporting materials
The focus of a bottom-line strategy is improving efficiency by reducing overall __________.
costs
The data component to an information system is considered
an input to the system
what is the term used for having skills in using productivity and presentation software, and having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the internet, and collaboration tools and technologies?
computer literacy
What is the first task in designing an MIS?
clearly defining the system’s objectives
What is the most important resource in any organization?
human beings
Information is considered the __________.
output of an information system
In porter’s five forces model what is one of the five forces?
Buyer power
Porters Five Forces
Threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitutes, Industry rivalry, Bargaining power of buyers
Business intelligence (BI)
provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Computer literacy
is skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, and presentation software, as well as having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the Internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.
Data
consists of raw facts and is a component of an information system.
database
is a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files.
Five Forces Model
analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. The five forces include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing competitors.
Information literacy
is understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence.
Information technologies
support information systems and use the Internet, computer networks, database systems, POS systems, and radio-frequency-identification (RFID) tags.
management information system (MIS
is an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful information for decision-making purposes.
process
component of an information system generates the most useful type of information for decision making, including transaction-processing reports and models for decision analysis.
Transaction-processing systems (TPS)
focus on data collection and processing; the major reason for using them is cost reduction.
Restating a descriptive subject line in the body of a message results in redundancy.
False
The use of jargon is more common in email messages than in business letters.
True
______ is a web platform for distributing information to business partners such as vendors, suppliers, and customers, with access limited to those with authorization.
Extranet
Spelling and grammar matter less when exchanging messages using instant messaging.
True
To protect themselves against the liability imposed by the ______, employers provide a legitimate business reason for monitoring of emails.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Content in a wiki can be updated in real time, without any real administrative effort, and without the need for deliberate distribution.
True
_______ is a realtime email technology that blends email with conversation.
Instant messaging
Netiquette is a buzzword for
proper behavior on the internet.
Blogs, wikis and social networking sites are examples of
Web 2.0 technologies
Text messaging is a refinement of computer instant messaging.
True
Sending messages from one cell phone to another, a cell phone to a computer, or a computer to computer is called ______.
Text messaging
The body of a message should rely on the subject line for elaboration.
False
Web users do not want to read they only skim, browse and hope from one highlighted area to another.
True
A _______ is a type of online journal typically authored by an individual and does not allow visitors to change the original posted material, but to only add comments.
Weblog
Which of the following is true of a blog?
It does not need knowledge of coding.
A _______ is a collaborative Web site that hosts the collective work of many authors.
Wiki
Instant messaging is not used in business communication.
False
Web users can more quickly scan items in rows rather than columns, especially if they are categorized and grouped.
False
An________ is a community of people who share common interests or activities.
Social networking site
Social networking sites refer to
Websites that provide virtual communities
Computer hoaxes are email messages that incite panic.
True
Users refer frequently to directions, such a little notes, side bars, and help files.
False
Both intranets and extranets restrict access only to authorized viewers.
True
______ is a web platform distributing information to employees at numerous locations, with access limited to those with authorization.
Intranet
Output displayed on a screen is called_______.
soft copy
What is the heart of a computer?
The central processing unit
The smallest unit of storage is the _________.
Bit
What is volatile memory called?
Random Access Memory(RAM)
What devices send data and information to the computer
Input devices
What is one of the three basic tasks of computers?
Storage and retrieval operations
In the field of computing what is a bus?
A link between devices connected to the computer
What tasks does an ALU perform?
arithmetic and relational or comparison
Computer languages and software have developed through how many generations?
5
A computer system consists of hardware and ________.
Software
Application software
can be commercial software or software developed in house and is used to perform a variety of tasks on a personal computer.
arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
performs arithmetic operations (+, , *, /) as well as comparison or relational operations (<, >, =); the latter are used to compare numbers.
Assembly language
the second generation of computer languages, is a higher-level language than machine language but is also machine dependent. It uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions.
bus
a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal (local) or external.
Cache RAM
resides on the processor. Because memory access from main RAM storage takes several clock cycles (a few nanoseconds), cache RAM stores recently accessed memory so the processor is not waiting for the memory transfer.
central processing unit (CPU)
the heart of a computer. It is divided into two components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit.
computer
a machine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information.
control unit
tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to
CPU case
also known as a computer chassis or tower. It is the enclosure containing the computer’s main components
disk drive
a peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information
Fifth-generation languages (5GLs)
use some of the artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems, natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming. These languages are designed to facilitate natural conversations between you and the computer.
Fourth-generation languages (4GLs)
use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming. The commands are powerful and easy to learn, even for people with little computer training.
High-level languages
machine independent and part of the third-generation of computer languages. Many languages are available, and each is designed for a specific purpose.
Input devices
send data and information to the computer. Examples include keyboards and mouses.
Machine language
the first generation of computer languages, consists of a series of 0s and 1s representing data or instructions. It is dependent on the machine, so code written for one type of computer does not work on another type of computer.
magnetic disk
made of Mylar or metal, is used for random-access processing. In other words, data can be accessed in any order, regardless of its order on the surface.
Magnetic tape
made of a plastic material, resembles a cassette tape and stores data sequentially.
Main memory
stores data and information and is usually volatile; its contents are lost when electrical power is turned off. It plays a major role in a computer’s performance.
motherboard
the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards. It usually contains the CPU, Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), memory, storage, interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers for standard peripheral devices, such as the display monitor, disk drive, and keyboard.
Network attached storage (NAS)
a network-connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices.
operating system (OS)
a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software. It provides an interface between a computer and the user and increases computer efficiency by helping users share computer resources and by performing repetitive tasks for users.
Optical discs
use laser beams to access and store data. Examples include CD-ROMs, WORM discs, and DVDs.
output device
capable of representing information from a computer. The form of this output might be visual, audio, or digital; examples include printers, display monitors, and plotters.
Random access memory (RAM)
volatile memory, in which data can be read from and written to; it is also called read-write memory
Read-only memory (ROM)
is nonvolatile; data can not be written to ROM
redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance, typically in large network systems.
Secondary memory
holds data when the computer is off or during the course of a program’s operation. It also serves as archival storage.
server
a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network
storage area network (SAN)
a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical storage devices
In a persuasive message, presenting research evidence with hard facts and figures is not a viable alternative because it takes space.
False
AIDA refers to the four basic steps of the persuasive process
True, gaining ATTENTION, generating INTEREST, creating DESIRE and motivating ACTION
The majority of memos are a routine of a routine nature
True, essential for day to day operation of the business
For proper clarity and emphasis, the last paragraph of a sales message should:
Be relatively short
In a message about the durability of furniture, saying a piece of furniture is durable is not enough; you must present information that shows what makes it durable and also define how durable. This is an example of ________.
Presenting factual evidence
In a persuasive message, an unfamiliar anecdote
True
A _____ is requested by a potential buyer or supporter.
Solicited sales message
If an attention getter does not introduce a product, service, or idea, it should lead naturally to the introduction. This is an example of _______.
Being cohesive
Guarantees and free trials convey both negative and positive connotations.
True
Routine messages are written inductively.
False
If a receiver waits to take action on a proposal, the persuasive evidence will be harder to remember, and the receiver will be less likely to act.
True
Which of the following statements about the central selling point is true?
It should be included in the last paragraph as an emphatic, final reminder.
Price should be introduced late in a message after most of advantages have been discussed.
True
When the main idea in a message, which is a request for action, appears in the last paragraph after presenting the details, the persuasive approach is said to be ____.
Inductive
Persuasive messages are usually shorter than other messages.
False
To introduce you an offer in an interesting way you must place the product service or idea in your receivers hands and talk about using it or benefitting from accepting you idea, this is an example of _______.
Being action oriented
An action for which there is little reward, time or inclination is called a________.
Favor
_______is the ability of the sender to influence others to accept his or her point of view.
Persuasion
Success in writing is directly related to preliminary thinking.
True
The primary appeal on which a persuasive message focuses is called the __________.
Central selling point.
One-line paragraphs are not acceptable in persuasive messages.
False
Persuasive memos and email messages are no longer than most routine messages in terms of persuading within an organization.
False
Claim requests and messages that ask for special favors and information are common types of _________.
Persuasive messsages
A hardware device that allows several nodes to share one communication channel is known as a ___________.
multiplexer
A collection of binary digits from a computer to computer over a network is known as a ________.
Packet
What is the term for rules that govern data transmission?
Protocols
What layer in an OSI model serves as the window through which applications access network services?
Application layer
What is an advantage to distributed processing?
access to unused processing power
What type of network can span several cities, states or even countries, and is usually owned by several different parties?
Wide area network
What term describes the amount of data that can be transferred from one point to another in a certain time period?
Bandwith
What term is used for a network’s physical layout?
network topology
A voice-grade communication channel cable of transmitting a maximum of 56,000 bps is known as _______.
narrowband
What type of media provides a physical path along which signals are transmitted?
conducted media
Attenuation
the loss of power in a signal as it travels from the sending device to the receiving device
broadband
multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the transmission rate
bus topology
(also called linear bus) connects nodes along a network segment, but the ends of the cable are not connected, as they are in a ring topology
centralized processing
all processing is done at one central computer
centralized routing
one node is in charge of selecting the path for all packets. This node, considered the network routing manager, stores the routing table, and any changes to a route must be made at this node
client/server model
software runs on the local computer (the client) and communicates with the remote server to request information or services. A server is a remote computer on the network that provides information or services in response to client requests
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
transmits multiple encoded messages over a wide frequency and then decodes them at the receiving end
Communication media
or channels, connect sender and receiver devices. They can be conducted or radiated
Conducted media
provide a physical path along which signals are transmitted, including twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber optics
controller
a hardware and software device that controls data transfer from a computer to a peripheral device (examples are a monitor, a printer, or a keyboard) and vice versa
convergence
refers to integrating voice, video, and data so multimedia information can be used for decision making
Data communication
the electronic transfer of data from one location to another
decentralized processing
each user, department, or division has its own computer (sometimes called an organizational unit) for performing processing tasks
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
a common carrier service, is a high-speed service that uses ordinary phone lines
Distributed processing
maintains centralized control and decentralizes operations. Processing power is distributed among several locations
Distributed routing
relies on each node to calculate its own best possible route. Each node contains its own routing table with current information on the status of adjacent nodes so packets can follow the best possible route
dynamic router
can build tables that identify addresses on each network
hierarchical topology
(also called a tree topology) combines computers with different processing strengths in different organizational levels
local area network (LAN)
connects workstations and peripheral devices that are in close proximity
mesh topology
(also called plex or interconnected), every node (which can differ in size and configuration from the others) is connected to every other node.
metropolitan area network (MAN)
designed to handle data communication for multiple organizations in a city and sometimes nearby cities as well
mobile network
(also called a cellular network) is a network operating on a radio frequency (RF), consisting of radio cells, each served by a fixed transmitter, known as a cell site or base station
modem
(short for modulator-demodulator) is a device that connects a user to the Internet
multiplexer
a hardware device that allows several nodes to share one communication channel
n-tier architecture
attempts to balance the workload between client and server by removing application processing from both the client and server and placing it on a middle-tier server
network interface card (NIC)
a hardware component that enables computers to communicate over a network
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
a seven-layer architecture for defining how data is transmitted from computer to computer in a network, from the physical connection to the network to the applications that users run. It also standardizes interactions between network computers exchanging information.
packet
a collection of binary digitsincluding message data and control characters for formatting and transmittingsent from computer to computer over a network
Radiated media
uses an antenna for transmitting data through air or water
ring topology
no host computer is required because each computer manages its own connectivity
router
a network connection device containing software that connects network systems and controls traffic flow between them
Routing
the process of deciding which path to take on a network. This is determined by the type of network and the software used to transmit data
routing table
generated automatically by software, is used to determine the best possible route for the packet
star topology
usually consists of a central computer (host computer, often a server) and a series of nodes (typically, workstations or peripheral devices)
static router
requires the network routing manager to give it information about which addresses are on which network
Throughput
similar to bandwidth. It is the amount of data transferred or processed in a specified time, usually one second
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
divides each channel into six time slots. Each user is allocated two slots: one for transmission and one for reception. This method increases efficiency by 300 percent, as it allows carrying three calls on one channel
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
an industry-standard suite of communication protocols that enables interoperability
two-tier architecture
(the most common type), a client (tier one) communicates directly with the server (tier two)
wide area network (WAN)
can span several cities, states, or even countries, and it is usually owned by several different parties
wireless network
a network that uses wireless instead of wired technology
What is a URL?
the address of a document or site on the internet
Domain names are converted to IP addresses by the protocol_________.
Domain Name system
What technology allows surgeons to operate all over the world without physically traveling anywhere?
Telepresence surgery
What are the embedded references in hypermedia documents called?
hypertext
What is the term for using the internet rather than the telephone network to exchange spoken conversations?
Interent telephony
What is the information system that allows users to retrieve data from the web by searching using search terms?
A search engine
What internet format allows users to exchange opinions and ideas on a specific topic?
discussion groups
What is one of the most widely used services on the Internet?
email
Which of the following is a banking service that is available via the internet?
transferring funds between accounts
What type of software program is generally available on the internet?
antivirus updates
An example of a traditional means of locating a job is to consult an employment agency.
True
Which of the following is an example of a career objective?
I would like to obtain a position in which I can utilize my management skills to contribute the organizations growth.
The aim of a targeted resume is to get an interview.
True
An application message is always written deductively.
False
Which of the following should be included in a resume?
Your willingness to relocate
For which of the following jobs is an employment video most suitable?
A reporting job for a news channel
The first paragraph of an application message should
refer to the job you are applying for and how you learned about it
The job search begins with calling potential employers to ask about available positions
False
Sending a resume within the body of an email message called an inline resume.
True
Recommendation letters from relatives should be included in a professional portfolio.
False
Which of the following is a suggestion that needs to be followed when writing a resume?
Use action verbs while describing your achievements.
A well-crafted career summary will compel the interviewer to review your resume more throughly.
True
The first step in the process of applying for a job is to:
conduct research and analysis of self, career and job
An electronic resume is a resume that:
is read by a computer that which matches the desired qualifications with the keywords in the resume.
A resume should contain only relevant information based on the jobs requirements.
True
Which of the following should be in an application message to encourage positive action from a potential employee?
I would appreciate an opportunity to discuss the teaching assistants with you.
A mailed paper resume does not need to be accompanied by an application letter.
False
A credible resume will include references from people who are either the applicants friends or relatives.
False
Which of the following is true about an application message?
It should interepret the resume in terms of benefits to the employer.
A functional resume is the traditional organizational format for resumes, which includes headings that spotlight an applicants education and experience.
False
In a database, files are accessed by using a sequential, random or ________.
Indexed sequential method
what type of database stores data on multiple servers thruout an organization?
distributed
in a relational database every record must be uniquely identified by a
primary key
what is one component of a data model?
data structure
What type of operation pares down a table by eliminating columns fields according to certain criteria?
a project operation
What process is used to eliminate redundant data and improve database efficiency?
normalization
In a database, a file is a group of related records, and a record is a group of related_______.
fields
What type of file organization is not arranged in a hierarchy and does not contain relationships between files?
flat files
What language is used by many DBMS packages such as Oracle 11g and Microsoft SQL server?
Structured Query Language
What DBMS component is used for tasks such as backup and recovery security and change management?
data administration
allocation
approach to a distributed DBMS combines fragmentation and replication, with each site storing the data it uses most often
Business analytics (BA)
uses data and statistical methods to gain insight into the data and provide decision makers with information they can act on.
Create, read, update, and delete (CRUD)
refers to the range of functions that data administrators determine who has permission to perform certain functions
data dictionary
stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field
data hierarchy
the structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files.
data mart
a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function
data model
determines how data is created, represented, organized, and maintained. It usually contains data structure, operations, and integrity rules.
data warehouse
data-driven Web site
Data-mining analysis
used to discover patterns and relationships
Database administrators (DBA)
found in large organizations, design and set up databases, establish security measures, develop recovery procedures, evaluate database performance, and add and fine-tune database functions
database management system (DBMS)
software for creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database files. A DBMS makes using databases more efficient.
distributed database management system (DDBMS)
stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization
Encapsulation
refers to the grouping into a class of various objects along with their attributes and methodsmeaning, grouping related items into a single unit. This helps handle more complex types of data, such as images and graphs
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
the processes used in a data warehouse. It includes extracting data from outside sources, transforming it to fit operational needs, and loading it into the end target (database or data warehouse)
foreign key
a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. It can be used to cross-reference tables
fragmentation
approach to a distributed DBMS addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed.
hierarchical model
the relationships between records form a treelike structure (hierarchy). Records are called nodes, and relationships between records are called branches. The node at the top is called the root, and every other node (called a child) has a parent. Nodes with the same parents are called twins or siblings.
indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
records can be accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number being accessed. For a small number, random access is used, and for a large number, sequential access is used.
Inheritance
refers to new objects being created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes
network model
similar to the hierarchical model, but records are organized differently. Unlike the hierarchical model, each record in the network model can have multiple parent and child records
object-oriented databases
both data and their relationships are contained in a single object. An object consists of attributes and methods that can be performed on the object’s data.
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
generates business intelligence. It uses multiple sources of information and provides multidimensional analysis, such as viewing data based on time, product, and location
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
used to facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, such as point-of-sale, data entry, and retrieval transaction processing. It generally uses internal data and responds in real time
physical view
how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media, such as hard disks, magnetic tapes, or CDs
primary key
uniquely identifies every record in a relational database. Examples include student ID numbers, account numbers, Social Security numbers, and invoice numbers.
query by example (QBE)
you request data from a database by constructing a statement made up of query forms. With current graphical databases, you simply click to select query forms instead of having to remember keywords, as you do with SQL. You can add AND, OR, and NOT operators to the QBE form to fine-tune the query.
random access file structure
records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical locations in storage media. This method of access is fast and very effective when a small number of records need to be processed daily or weekly
relational model
uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records (also called tuples), and columns are fields (also referred to as attributes).
replication
approach to a distributed DBMS has each site store a copy of the data in the organization’s database
sequential access file structure
records in files are organized and processed in numerical or sequential order, typically the order in which they were entered.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
a standard fourth-generation query language used by many DBMS packages, such as Oracle 11g and Microsoft SQL Server. SQL consists of several keywords specifying actions to take

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