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ISDS 551 Chapter 6

planning schedule management
The first process involved in project time management is _____ .
Defining activities
Which of the following processes in project time management involves identifying the specific tasks that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables?
Defining activities
In project time management, which of the following processes generate the main outputs of an activity list, activity attributes, and a milestone list?
Sequencing activities
In project time management, which of the following processes primarily involve identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities?
Estimating activity durations
In project time management, which of the following processes involve calculating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities?
Developing the schedule
In project time management, which of the following processes involve analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule?
controlling the schedule
In project time management, the process of_____ primarily involves checking and managing changes to the project schedule.
project management plan update
In project time management, a(n) _____ is an output of controlling the schedule
Project charter
Which of the following documents is most likely to include planned project start and end dates which serve as the starting points for a detailed schedule?
An activity attribute provides more schedule-related information about each activity than an activity list.
Which of the following is a difference between an activity list and an activity attribute?
milestone
A(n) _____ on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration.
defining activities
In project time management, the main goal of _____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
determining their dependencies.
In project time management, the next step after defining project activities is:
Mandatory
Which of the following types of dependencies are inherent in the nature of work being performed on a project?
Discretionary
_____ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care because they may limit later scheduling options.
External
Which of the following dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities?
bursts
In an AOA network diagram, _____ occur when two or more activities follow a single node.
PDM
A network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities is known as a(n) _____.
finish-to-start
AOA network diagrams use only _____ dependencies.
Start-to-start
Which of the following is a relationship in which the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity is started?
It is a dependency in which the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be finished.
Which of the following is true of a finsih-to-finish dependency?
They show logical relationships between activities.
Which of the following is true of dummy activities?
Project documents update
Which of the following is one of the main outputs of estimating activity resources process?
estimate the duration of activities.
After working with key stakeholders to define activities and calculate their resources, the next process in project time management is to:
developing a schedule
In project time management, the ultimate goal of _____ is to provide a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project.
Gantt charts
_____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format.
Critical path analysis
Which of the following is a network diagramming technique used primarily to predict total project duration?
longest; shortest
The critical path is the _____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the _____ amount of slack or float.
free slack
The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities is known as a _____.
Total slack
_____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date.
late start date
The _____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date.
crashing
The technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost is known as _____.
Fast tracking
Which of the following techniques involve doing activities in parallel that one would normally do in sequence?
both can shorten the time needed to finish a project.
A similarity between the crashing technique and the fast tracking technique is that:
feeding buffers
Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using _____, which consist of additional time added before tasks on the critical chain that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks.
Parkinson’s Law
_____ states that work expands to fill the time allowed.
PERT uses different duration estimates whereas CPM uses one specific duration estimate.
A difference between the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) is that:
Both are portions of the integrated change control process under project integration management.
Which of the following is a similarity between scope control and schedule control?
Lessons-learned reports
Which of the following is an output of schedule control?
project charter
A draft schedule for a project is most likely to be found in a _____.
True
Many information technology projects are failures in terms of meeting scope, time, and cost projections. T/F
False
Managers often cite cost issues during the end phase of a project as one of their biggest challenges and the main cause of conflict. T/F
True
Schedule performance can be estimated by subtracting the original timeestimate from how long it really took to complete the project. T/F
True
Individual work styles and cultural differences may cause schedule conflicts. T/F
True
Different cultures may have different perceptions of work ethic. T/F
False
The outputs to schedule development include activity duration estimates and project document updates. T/F
False
The main outputs of estimating activity resources include the activity list and attributes, project scope statement, milestone list, and organizational process assets. T/F
False
Most managers are unfamiliar with any forms of scheduling. T/F
True
Project schedules grow out of the basic documents that initiate a project. T/F
False
It only takes one activity to complete a milestone. T/F
False
Activity information is not a required input to the other time management processes. T/F
True
After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is sequencing them or determining their dependencies. T/F
True
Even though the delivery of new hardware may not be in the scope of a project, you should add an external dependency to it if required project activities depend on that delivery. T/F
False
Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activitydiscretionary dependencies. T/F
True
The arrows in a network diagram represent the activity sequencing or relationships between tasks. T/F
False
It is not necessary to complete all of the activities on the network diagram in order for the project to finish. T/F
False
Every item on the WBS needs to be on the network diagram. T/F
False
Start-to-finish relationships are the most common type of relationships. T/F
True
It is important that the people who help determine what resources arenecessary include people who have experience and expertise in similar projects and with the organization performing the project. T/F
False
Duration only includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity. T/F
True
In a Gantt chart created in Microsoft Project, a black diamond symbol represents a milestone. T/F
True
A Tracking Gantt chart is based on the percentage of work completed for project tasks or the actual start and finish dates. T/F
False
Most projects have one path through a network diagram. T/F
False
The critical path always includes the most critical activities. T/F
True
A fast and easy way to determine early and late start and finish dates and free and total slack amounts for activities is by using project management software. T/F
True
Fast tracking can end up lengthening the project schedule. T/F
False
By using the PERT weighted average for each activity duration estimate,the total project duration estimate does not account for the risk or uncertainty in the individual activity estimates. T/F
True
One of PERT’s main disadvantages is that it involves more work than CPM. T/F
True
Many projects, especially in information technology, have very unrealistic schedule expectations. T/F
False
Project management software does not have the capacity to automatically generate network diagrams and calculate the critical path(s) for the project. T/F
six
There are __ main processes involved in project time management.
defining activities
The main outputs of the ____ process are an activity list, activity attributes, and milestone list
sequencing activites
___ involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities
estimating activity durations
____ involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed tocomplete individual activities
developing the schedule
____ involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, andactivity duration estimates to create the project schedule.
activity attributes
The ____ provide(s) schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity.
defining activities
he goal of ____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
defining activities
____ results in supporting detail to document important product information as well as assumptions and constraints related to specific activities
sequencing activities
____ involves evaluating the reasons for dependencies and the different types of dependencies.
mandatory
____ dependencies are inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project.
discretionary
____ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options.
external
____ dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities
bursts
___ occur when two or more activities follow a single node.
right
On a network diagram, all arrowheads should face toward the ___
PDM
he ____ is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities
finish to start
In a ____ relationship, the “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity can start
start to start
In a ____ relationship, the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity is started.
finish to finish
In a ____ relationship, one task cannot finish before another finishes.
resource breakdown structure
A ____ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type.
duration estimates
The activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, project scope statement, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets all include information that affect ____
developing the schedule
The ultimate goal of ____ is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project.
Gantt charts
____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format
critical path analysis
___ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
longest; shortest
The critical path is the ____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the ____ time it takes to complete a project
free slack
____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities.
total slack
___ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date.
late start date
he ____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date
crashing
____ is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost.
fast tracking
__ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence.
critical chain scheduling
_ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date.
feeding buffers
Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using ____, which consist of additional time added before tasks on the critical chain that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks
parkinson’s law
___ states that work expands to fill the time allowed
PERT
___ use(s) probabilistic time estimates duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations
instead of one specific or discrete duration estimate.
schedule control
The goal of ____ is to know the status of the schedule, influence the factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occur
tracking gantt chart
project managers often illustrate progress with a ____ showing key deliverables and activities
project schedules
Project managers must use discipline to control __
red
Project management software highlights the critical path in ____ on a network diagram
time
______________ is the one variable in project scheduling that has the least amount of flexibility
project time management
_________________ involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project.
estimating activity resources
_________________ involves estimating how many people, equipment, and materials a project team should use to perform project activities
estimating activity durations
Outputs of ______________________________ include activity duration estimates and project document updates
activity list
The ____________________ is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule
network diagram
A(n) ____________________ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities
node
In a network diagram, a(n) ____________________ is simply the starting and ending point of an activity
dummy activities
________________ have no duration and no resources but are occasionally needed on AOA network diagrams to show logical relationships between activities
effort
____________ is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task.
three point estimate
Duration estimates are often provided as a discrete number, such as four weeks, or as a range, such as three to five weeks, or as a(n) __________________
slipped milestone
A white diamond on the Tracking Gantt chart represents a(n) ___________________
critical path
A(n) ____________________ for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed
forward pass
A(n) ____________________ determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity

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