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IST 309 C. 5

_____ are fields in a record that have some identifying information but typically do not identify the record with complete accuracy.
a) Primary keys b) Secondary keys c) Duplicate keys d) Attribute keys e) Record keys
b) Secondary keys
_____ can be exercised to solve a problem, whereas _____ may or may not be able to be exercised to solve a problem.
a) Knowledge, information
b) Data, information
c) Information, data
d) Information, knowledge
e) Data, knowledge
a) Knowledge, information
_____ describe the activities of the business, whereas _____ categorize(s), aggregate(s), and evaluate(s) data generated by the organization’s activities.
a) Transaction data, master data
b) Source data, transaction data
c) Operational data, master data
d) Master data, source data
e) Business dimensional data, databases
a) Transaction data, master data
_____ is a formal approach to managing data consistently across an entire organization.
a) Database management
b) Enterprise information management c) Data warehousing
d) Data governance
e) Data mart
d) Data governance
_____ is a method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form.
a) Structured query
b) Normalization
c) Query by example
d) Joining
e) Relational analysis
b) Normalization
_____ is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and typically reside inside the organization in an unstructured manner.
a) Discovery
b) Knowledge management
c) Decision support
d) Online analytical processing
e) Data mining
b) Knowledge management
_____ occurs when applications cannot access data associated with other applications.
a) Data isolation
b) Data integrity
c) Data consistency
d) Data redundancy
e) Application/Data dependence
a) Data isolation
_____ occurs when the same data are stored in many places.
a) Data isolation
b) Data integrity
c) Data consistency
d) Data redundancy
e) Application/Data dependence
d) Data redundancy
_____ occurs when various copies of the data agree.
a) Data isolation
b) Data integrity
c) Data consistency
d) Data redundancy
e) Application/Data dependence
c) Data consistency
_____ provide(s) companies with a single version of the truth for their data.
a) Data warehouses
b) Data marts
c) Databases
d) Master data management
e) Enterprise information management
d) Master data management
_____ tell the database management system which records are joined with others in related tables.
a) Primary keys
b) Secondary keys
c) Common attributes d) Common files
e) Common fields
a) Primary keys
24) Which of the following is not a source for external data?
a) Commercial databases b) Corporate databases c) Sensors
d) Satellites
e) Government reports
b) Corporate databases
A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.
a) Byte
b) Field
c) Record d) File
e) Database
b) Field
A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of related fields.
a) Byte b) Field c) Record d) File
e) Database
c) Record
A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of related records.
a) Byte
b) Field
c) Record
d) File
e) Database
d) File
A(n) _____ represents a single character, such as a letter, number, or symbol.
a) Byte
b) Field
c) Record d) File
e) Database
a) Byte
As an individual student in your university’s student database, you are a(n) _____ of the STUDENT class.
a) instance
b) individual
c) representative d) entity
e) relationship
a) instance
At your university, students can take more than one class, and each class can have more than one student. This is an example of what kind of relationship?
a) one-to-one
b) one-to-many c) many-to-one d) many-to-many e) some-to-many
d) many-to-many
An attribute is any characteristic or quality that describes a particular entity.
Answer: True
The best way to capture the data in an organized format is to use a database.
Answer: True
Compared to data warehouses, data marts have which one of the following characteristics?
a) They cost less.
b) They have longer lead times for implementation. c) They provide for central rather than local control. d) They contain more information.
e) They are more difficult to navigate
a) They cost less
Data dictionaries perform all of the following functions except:
a) Providing information on each record.
b) Providing information on why attributes are needed in the database.
c) Defining the format necessary to enter data into the database. d) Providing information on the name of each attribute.
e) Providing information on how often attributes should be updated.
a) Providing information on each record.
Data dictionaries provide which of the following advantages to the organization?
a) They reduce data inconsistency.
b) They enable faster program development.
c) They make it easier to modify data and information. d) Both “They enable faster program development.” and “They make it easier to modify data and information.” e) All of these
e) All of these
e) All of these
e) All of these
The data dictionary stores definitions of data elements, characteristics that use the data elements, physical representation of the data elements, data ownership, and security.
Answer: True
The data in a data warehouse have which of the following characteristics?
a) They are organized by subject.
b) They are coded in different formats.
c) They are updated in real time.
d) They are typically retained for a defined, but limited, period of time.
e) They are organized in a hierarchical structure.
a) They are organized by subject.
The data in a data warehouse:
a) are updated constantly in real time.
b) are updated in batch mode, approximately once per day.
c) are not updated.
d) are purged constantly as new data enter.
e) are available for MIS analysts, but not users
c) are not updated.
Data marts are designed for the end- user needs in a strategic business unit or department.
Answer: True
Data rot refers to the quality of the data itself.
Answer: False
A database management system is primarily a(n) _____.
a) file-handling program
b) data-modeling program
c) interface between applications and a database d) interface between data and a database
e) interface between queries and a database
c) interface between applications and a database
An entity is a person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained.
Answer: True
Entity-relationship diagrams are documents that show the primary and secondary keys associated with a conceptual data model.
Answer: False
Explicit knowledge has which of the following characteristics?
a) objective
b) personal
c) slow
d) costly to transfer
e) ambiguous
a) objective
Explicit knowledge refers to the cumulative store of subjective learning, which is personal and hard to formalize.
Answer: False
Historically, management information systems have focused on capturing, storing, managing, and reporting _____ knowledge.
a) tacit
b) explicit
c) managerial
d) geographical
e) cultural
b) explicit
In a data warehouse, existing data are constantly purged as new data come in.
Answer: False
In a database, the primary key field is used to _____.
a) specify an entity
b) create linked lists
c) identify duplicated data
d) uniquely identify a record
e) uniquely identify an attribute
d) uniquely identify a record
In a relational database, every row represents a(n) _____.
a) file
b) record
c) attribute
d) primary key
e) secondary key
b) record
In a university’s relational database, the student record contains information regarding the student’s last name. The last name is a(n):
a) attribute.
b) entity.
c) primary key. d) object.
e) file.
a) attribute.
In data warehouses and data marts, data are stored in a multidimensional structure and visually represented as a data cube. Figure 3.12 is an example of a data cube of sales with the dimensions of product, geographic area, and time period (year). These are called business dimensions.
What would the business dimensions be for Walmart’s sales with its many sales transactions for many products in many stores that would allow them to do weekly analysis?
a) Customer, product, and month
b) Customer, product, store
c) Customer, product, store, and month d) Customer, product, store, and week e) Product, store, and week
e) Product, store, and week
In the data hierarchy, the smallest element is the _____.
a) Record.
b) Bit.
c) Byte.
d) Character.
e) File.
b) Bit.
In the relational database model, related tables can be joined when they contain common _____.
a) primary keys
b) rows
c) records
d) columns
e) files
d) columns
Increasing amounts of external data need to be considered in making organizational decisions.
Answer: True
It is easy to manage all the data coming into an organization.
Answer: False
It is important for applications and data to be dependent on each other.
Answer: False
Master data are generated and captured by operational systems.
Answer: False
The most important benefit of knowledge management systems is:
a) They improve customer service.
b) They make best practices available to employees.
c) They enable the organization to retain scarce knowledge when employees retire.
d) They improve employee morale.
e) They make product development more efficient.
b) They make best practices available to employees.
A negative value for a student’s grade point average is an example of a data integrity problem.
Answer: True
Not including alphabetic characters in a Social Security Number field is an example of _____ .
a) Data isolation.
b) Data integrity.
c) Data consistency.
d) Data redundancy.
e) Application/data dependence
b) Data integrity.
Online analytical processing (OLAP) involves the analysis of accumulated data by end users.
Answer: True
An organization’s data warehouse generally maintains its operational data.
Answer: False
Organizations are turning to data governance for which of the following reasons?
a) They have too little data.
b) They are responding to federal regulations.
c) Their data are typically structured.
d) Their data are usually located in the organization’s databases. e) Data across their organizations are generally consistent.
b) They are responding to federal regulations
Place the following members of the data hierarchy in their correct order:
a) Bit – byte – field – record – database – file
b) Bit – field – byte – record – file – database
c) Byte – bit – record – field – database
d) Bit – byte – field – record – file – database
e) Bit – record – field – byte – file — database
d) Bit – byte – field – record – file – database
The process of moving data from various sources into the data warehouse is called:
a) uploading.
b) extracting, transforming, and loading. c) online transaction processing.
d) master data management.
e) online analytical processing.
b) extracting, transforming, and loading.
Refer to Closing Case – CoStar Group. The target audience for CoStar’s aggregated commercial real estate data was
a) banks.
b) building owners.
c) real estate agents. d) builders.
e) All these
e) All these
Refer to IT’s About Business 5.2 – Cell phone owners in Mexico: The cell phone registry is useless because:
a) data for some cell phones are missing.
b) data for some cell phones are inaccurate.
c) very few Mexicans can afford cell phones.
d) All of these
e) Both “data for some cell phones are missing” and “data for some cell phones are inaccurate.”
e) Both “data for some cell phones are missing” and “data for some cell phones are inaccurate.”
Refer to IT’s About Business 5.3 – Isle of Capri Casinos. Capri Casinos decided it needed a data warehouse for all of the following reasons except:
a) to process transactions faster.
b) to provide a complete view of the customer.
c) to enhance its marketing campaigns
d) to provide business users access to business-wide data. e) to determine where to place its slot machines.
a) to process transactions faster.
Refer to Opening Case – Big Data. Which of the following is not a problem created by “Big Data”?
a) The data is not reliable.
b) The amount of data exceeds the available storage.
c) The existing networks can’t handle the volume.
d) It is more difficult to protect the data.
e) The vast amounts of data make decision making more complicated.
a) The data is not reliable.
The relational database model is based on the concept of three- dimensional tables.
Answer: False
The secondary key is a field that identifies a record with complete uniqueness.
Answer: False
A standardized language used to manipulate data is _____.
a) MS-Access
b) Oracle
c) query-by-example language d) structured query language e) data-manipulation language
d) structured query language
Structured query language is a relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple statements.
Answer: True
Tacit knowledge has which of the following characteristics?
a) codified
b) objective
c) unstructured
d) rational
e) technical
c) unstructured
Tacit knowledge is the more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge.
Answer: False
When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend on the primary key and any secondary keys.
Answer: False
When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend only on the _____.
a) secondary key
b) common attribute c) primary key
d) common row
e) common record
c) primary key
Which of the following has (have) the broadest impact on an organization?
a) Decisions about hardware.
b) Decisions about software.
c) Decisions about data.
d) Both “decisions about hardware” and “decisions about software.”
e) All of these have an equal impact.
c) Decisions about data.
Which of the following is not a reason why managing data is difficult over time?
a) New systems are developed.
b) The media the data are stored on becomes problematic.
c) New sources of data are created.
d) The amount of data increases exponentially.
e) All of these are reasons why managing data is difficult over time.
e) All of these are reasons why managing data is difficult over time.
You have moved to a different apartment, but your electricity bill continues to be sent to your old address. The Post Office in your town has which problem with its data management?
a) Data redundancy b) Data inconsistency c) Data isolation
d) Data security
e) Data dependence
b) Data inconsistency
You would be an instance of your university’s STUDENT class.
Answer: True
In the United States, federal law requires companies to store, evaluate, and disclose financial data for fixed periods of time, even if the company no longer has any use for the data.
Answer: True
Social data is not a form of big data.
Answer: False
NoSQL databases can process both structured and unstructured data.
Answer: True
A data warehouse is a low-cost, scaled-down version of a data mart designed for the end-user needs in a department in a large organization.
Answer: False
A database must be associated with only one computer program or information system.
Answer: False
A group of related fields is generally called a data file.
Answer: False
A relational database typically consists of one large two-dimensional table.
Answer: False
Knowledge management systems (KMS) are used by organizations to capture, store, and disseminate knowledge within the organization.
Answer: True
Online analytical processing involves the analysis of accumulated data by end users.
Answer: True
Which of the following problems do organizations face when managing data?
a) Collecting the vast amounts of data that are being generated
b) Storing the data that are being collected
c) Processing and analyzing the data that are being stored
d) All of these
d) All of these
The term “data rot” refers to
a) Data that no longer serve a purpose.
b) The deterioration of the medium on which the data are stored.
c) Data that are irrelevant or contain errors.
d) All of these
b) The deterioration of the medium on which the data are stored.
Data redundancy refers to:
a) Storing data in a single central location.
b) Sharing data with others.
c) Having copies of the same data in multiple locations.
d) All of these
c) Having copies of the same data in multiple locations.
The management of data across the entire organization is most accurately defined as:
a) Data integration.
b) Data control.
c) Data governance.
d) Data administration.
c) Data governance.
The use of databases enables organizations to (choose all that apply):
a) Eliminate data redundancy.
b) Minimize data isolation.
c) Minimize data inconsistency.
d) Minimize data security risks.
e) b, c and d
e) b, c and d
A data model is the diagrammatic representation of a database that clearly defines a database’s ___ , ____ and ____.
a) Entities, attributes, relationships.
b) Entity classes, hierarchy, files.
c) Data hierarchy, data attributes, data files.
d) Entity classes, entity attributes, entity files.
a) Entities, attributes, relationships.
A standardized language used to manipulate data is _____.
a) MS-Access
b) Oracle
c) Query-by-example language
d) None of these
c) Query-by-example language
_____ is a method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form.
a) Structured query
b) Normalization
c) Query-by-example
d) Relational analysis
b) Normalization
Operational data that are constantly updated are stored in:
a) Data warehouses.
b) Data marts.
c) Databases.
d) All of these
c) Databases.
____ is the cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning.
a) Tacit knowledge
b) Explicit knowledge
c) Intellectual capital
d) None of these
a) Tacit knowledge
_____ is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply expertise that is part of the organization’s memory and typically resides inside the organization in an unstructured manner.
a) Discovery
b) Knowledge management
c) Decision support
d) Data mining
b) Knowledge management
45) Which of the following has (have) the broadest impact on an organization?

a) Decisions about hardware.
b) Decisions about software.
c) Decisions about data.
d) Both “decisions about hardware” and “decisions about software.”
e) All of these have an equal impact.

c) Decisions about data.

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