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IST Test #2 – Ch10

The type of information required by decision makers in a company is directly related to the level of ________ _______ _______ and the amount of ______ in the decision situations they face.
management decision making ; structure
What are the three levels of managerial decision making that must be supported by information technology in a successful organization?
STO: strategic management ; tactical management ; operational management
Decision structure can be thought of as a continuum anchored on one end with ______ _______ decisions and on the other end with _______ _______ decisions.
highly structured ; highly unstructured
Decisions made at the operational mgmt level tend to be more ______, those at the tactical level are more ______. and those at the strategic mgmt level are more _______.
structured, semistructured, unstructured
Most decisions related to long-term strategy can be thought of as ________.
unstructured
Most business decisions are _________
semistructured
What does the emerging class of applications focus on?
personalized decision support
modeling
information retrieval
data warehousing
what-if scenarios
reporting
A business must meet the information and data analysis requirements of its stakeholders with more ______ and ______ web-based decision support.
personalized ; proactive
The dramatic expansion of corporate intranets and extranets has opened the door to the use of _______ _______
business intelligence
_____ ______ is rapidly becoming the mainstay for business decision making.
business intelligence
_______ _______ ________ are computer-based information systems that provide interactive information support to managers and business professionals during the decision-making process.
Decision support systems
What 4 things do decision support systems use to support semi-structured business decisions?
1) analytical models
2) specialized databases
3) a decision maker’s own insights and judgements
4) an interactive, computer-based modeling process
Unlike management support systems, decision support systems rely on _____ _______ as well as databases, as vital system resources.
model bases
______ _______ _______ can combine model components to create integrated models that support specific types of decisions.
decision support systems
______ _______ _______ were the original type of information system developed to support managerial decision making
management information systems
What are the 4 management reporting alternatives?
Periodic scheduled reports
Exception reports
Demand reports and responses
Push reporting
_____ ______ ______ enables managers and analysts to interactively examine and manipulate large amounts of detailed and consolidated data from many perspectives.
online analytical processing (OLAP)
an _____ ______ _____ session takes place online in real time with rapid responses to a manager or analyst’s queries so that the analytical or decision making process is undisturbed
online analytical processing (OLAP)
What are the three basic analytical operations that OLAP involves?
Consolidation
Drill Down
Slicing and Dicing
(CD’s)
_____ _____ ______ and ______ ______ ______ are special categories of DSS that integrate computer graphics with other DDS features.
geographic information systems (GIS)
data visualization systems (DVS)
_____ _____ _____ represent complex data using interactive, 3-D, graphical forms such as charts, graphs, and maps. Helps users sort and organize data while they are in their graphical form.
data visualization systems
_____ _____ _____ facilitate the mining and visualization of data associated with a geophysical location.
geographic information systems
A decision support system involves an interactive ______ ______ process.
analytical modeling
What are the 4 basic types of analytical modeling activities involved in using a decision support system:
1) what if analysis
2) sensitivity analysis
3) goal-seeking analysis
4) optimization analysis
In _______ analysis a user makes changes to variables or relationships among variables and observes the resulting changes in the values of other variables.
what-if
________ analysis is a special case of what-if analysis and the value of only one variable is changed repeatedly and the resulting changes on other variables is observed.
Sensitivity
______ analysis is really a case of what-if analysis that involves repeated changes to only one variable at a time.
sensitivity
Typically, decision makers use _______ analysis when they are uncertain about the assumptions made in estimating the value of certain key variables.
sensitivity
_______ analysis reverses the direction of the analysis done in what-if and sensitivity analyses.
goal-seeking
Instead of observing how changes in a variable affect other variables, _______ analysis sets a target value for a variable and then repeatedly changes other variables until the target value is acheived.
goal-seeking
_________ analysis is a more complex extension of goal-seeking analysis.
optimization
In _______ analysis, the goal is to find the optimum value for one or more target variables, given certain constraints and then one or more variables is changed repeatedly until you determine the best values for the target variables.
optimization
______ _______’s main purpose is to provide decision support to managers and business professionals through knowledge discovery.
data mining
______ ______ software analyzes the vast stores of historical business data and tries to find patterns, trends, and correlations to help a business perform better.
data mining
______ ______ _______ s one of the most common and useful types of data mining for marketing and is a key technique in business analytics.
Market basket analysis
What are some of the typical applications of market basket analysis?
cross-selling; product placement; affinity promotion; survey analysis; fraud detection; customer behavior
______ ______ is when you offer the associated items when a customer buys any items from your store.
cross-selling
______ ______ ______ are information systems that combine many of the features of management information systems and decision support systems.
executive information systems
The web-based _____ ______ system provides managers and business professionals with a variety of personalized information and analytical tools for decision support.
executive information
Decision support in business is changing, driven by rapid developments in _____-______ ______ and _______.
end-user computing; networking
An _____ ______ ______ is a Web-based interface and integration of MIS, DDS, EIS, and other technologies that give all intranet users and selected extranet users access to a variety of internal and external business applications and services.
enterprise information portal
An _____ _____ _____ is a customized and personalized Web-based interface for corporate intranets and extranets that gives qualified users access to a variety of applications, databases, software tools, and info services.
enterprise information portal (EIP)
For many companies, enterprise information portals are the entry to corporate intranets that serve as their _______ _______ ________
knowledge management systems
______ ______ ______ play an essential role in helping companies use their intranets as knowledge management systems to share and disseminate knowledge in support of business decision making.
enterprise knowledge portals
the goal of _____ _____ is to develop computers that can simulate the ability to think.
artificial intelligence
What are the 3 main application areas of artificial intelligence?
cognitive science, robotics, and natural interfaces
An ______ _______ is a knowledge based information system that uses its knowledge about a specific, complex application area to act as an expert consultant to users.
expert system
The components of an expert system include a ______ _______ and ______ ______ that perform inferences on the knowledge in the knowledge base and communicate answers to a user’s questions.
knowledge base ; software modules
What 2 things does the knowledge base of an expert system contain?
1) facts about a specific subject area
2) heuristics (rules of thumb) that express the reasoning procedures of an expert on the subject
The ______ ______ program in an expert system processes the knowledge related to a specific problem
inference engine
The easiest way to develop an expert system is to use an ______ ______ ______ as a developmental tool.
expert system shell
A ______ _______ is a professional who works with experts to capture the knowledge (facts and rules of thumb) they possess.
knowledge expert
A ______ ________ builds the knowledge base using an iterative, prototyping process until the expert system is acceptable.
knowledge engineer
______ _______ are computing systems modeled after the brain’s network of interconnected processing elements, called neurons.
Neural networks
The ______ ______ will change the strengths of the interconnections between processing elements in response to changing patterns in the data it receives and the results that occur.
neural network
______ _______ is a method of reasoning that resembles human reasoning, in that it allows for approximate values and inferences instead of relying on crisp data such as binary choices.
Fuzzy logic
_____ ______ simulate an evolutionary process that can yield increasingly better solutions to a problem
Genetic algorithms
_______ _______ is a fast growing area of AI that is a computer simulated reality.
Virtual reality
An ______ _______ is a special-purpose knowledge-based system that serves as a software surrogate to accomplish specific tasks for end users.
intelligent agent

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