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ISYS 210 Chapter 9

Agile Methodology
Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
Alpha testing
Assess if the entire system meets the design requirements of the users
Analysis phase
the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system.
a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period of time without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted
defects in the code of an information system
Business requirement
specific business requests the system must meet to be successful
Change agent
a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
Communication plan
defines the how, what, when, and who regarding the flow of project information to stakeholders and is key for managing expectations
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Software tools that provide automated support for the development of the system
Control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
A set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system
Corrective maintenance
makes system changes to an information system to repair flaws in the design, coding, or implementation
Critical path
Estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish.
a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone
Design phase
establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
Development phase
takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system
Development testing
Programmers test the system to ensure it is bug free
Discovery prototyping
builds a small scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements
Executive sponsor
the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project
Extreme programming (XP) methodology
breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete
measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system
Fourth-generation languages (4GL)
programming languages that look similar to human languages
Gantt chart
a simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project’s time frame, listed horizontally
Help desk
a group of people who respond to user questions
implementation phase
The organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it.
In-sourcing (in-house development)
uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems.
Intangible benefits
difficult to quantify or measure
Integration testing
verifies that separate systems can work together passing data back and forth correctly
Iterative development
consists of a series of tiny projects
Kill switch
a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion
Legacy system
an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization
Maintenance phase
involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
A set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges.
Nearshore outsourcing
contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country
Object-oriented languages
languages group data and corresponding processes into objects
offshore outsourcing
using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems
off-the-shelf application software
supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organization’s needs
Online training
run over Internet or from a CD or DVD, and employees complete the training on their own time and own pace
Onshore outsourcing
engaging another company within the same country for services
An arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house.
Parallel implementation
using both the legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new system performs correctly
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart
graphical network model that depicts a project’s tasks and the relationships between them
Phased implementation
installs the new system in phases until it is verified that it works correctly
Pilot implementation
a small group uses the new system until it is verified that it works correctly, then the remaining users migrate to the new system
Planning phase
Establishes a high-level plan of intended project and determines project goals
Plunge implementation
discards the old system completely and immediately uses the new system
preventive maintenance
Making changes to a system to reduce the chance of future system failure
Temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
project assumption
factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration
Project constraint
specific factors that can limit options; budget, delivery dates, available skilled resources, organizational policies
Project deliverable
Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project
project management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
Project management office (PMO)
an internal department that oversees all organization projects
Project manager
An individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget
Project milestone
represents key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
Project objective
quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success
Project plan
a formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution
Project requirements document
defines the specifications for product/output of the project and is a key for managing expectations, controlling scope, and completing other planning efforts
Project scope
describes the business needs and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
Project scope statement
links the project to the organization’s overall business goals
Project stakeholder
Individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion
modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system
Rapid application development (RAD) methodology (also called rapid prototyping)
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
Rational unified process (RUP) methodology
provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
Requirements management
process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project
Requirements definition document
prioritizes the business requirements by order of importance to the company
Responsibility matrix
defines all project roles and indicates what responsibilities are associated with each role
Scripting language
programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
Scrum methodology
uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30 day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
users’ actual signatures, indicating they approve all of the business requirements
Software customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
Software engineering
disciplined approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods, techniques, tools
Status report
periodic reviews of actual performance versus expected performance
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
System testing
Verifies that the units or pieces of code function correctly when integrated
Tangible benefits
easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success or failure of a project
test conditions
the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step
Testing phase
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
unit testing
Tests individual units or pieces of code for a system
user acceptance testing (UAT)
determines if the system satisfies the user and business requirements
User documentation
highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems
Waterfall methodology
a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
Workshop training
held in a classroom environment and is led by an instructor

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