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Information Technology
Combination of hardware, software, and services used by people to communicate, manage, and share information.
System Analysis and Design
A step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems.
Information System
Combining technology, people and data to provide support for business functions, e.g. order processing, accounting, etc.
A System
A set of related components that produces specific results.
A Mission-Critical System
It’s one vital for a company’s operations.
Basic facts (raw materials) that are in the system. It can be stored in several loci called tables.
Transformed data into an output that is valuable to users.
Information System Components
Everything of physical layer of the information system.
Refers to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired results or information.
Software Classification
System software
Application software
Horizontal system
Vertical system
Legacy system
System Software – Software Classification
Manages the hardware components, which can include a single workstation or a global network with several clients.
Application Software – Software Classification
Programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide needed information.
Horizontal Systems – Software Classification
A system adaptable to be used by many types of entities.
Vertical Systems – Software Classification
Designed to meet a unique requirements of a specific business or industry.
Legacy Systems – Software Classification
Also called old systems.
Describe the task and business functions performed by users to achieve specific results.
Entities interested in information systems who are also called Stakeholders. This is why it’s vital to understand essential requirements and expectations.
Internet Model
A series of web pages that provides user’s interface, which communicates with database management and web-based server. e.g. e-commerce.
B2C (Business to Customer)
Allows the customer to do research, compare prices and features, check availability, arrange delivery, and chose payment method in a single session.
B2B (Business to Business)
Transactions on the internet done in high volumes between companies with standard protocols, availability and low communication costs.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Enables data transfer from computer to computer, usually over private telecommunication lines.
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Refers to companies that provides materials, services, and functions needed to provide a product to customers. e.g. large firms and government agencies.
Product Oriented
Firms manufactured computer, routers, or microchips.
Service Oriented
Including consultants, vendors, software developers and service providers.
Modeling Business Operations
Representing company operations and information needs. Involves a business profile, and set of models that document business operations.
Business Profiles
Overview of the company’s mission, functions, organization, product, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constrains and future direction.
Business Processes
Specific set of transactions, events, and results that can be described and documented.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
A computer-based tool that displays a rough sketch of a simple business process. e.g. Microsoft Visio or a CASE tool like Visible Analysis.
Business Information Systems Components (BISC)
Enterprise computing
Transaction processing
Business support
Knowledge management
User productivity
System integration
Enterprise Computing (BISC)
Information system that supports company-wide operations and data management requirements. Mainly integrating primary functions to improve efficiency, lower costs, and help make key decisions.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP – BISC)
A system that provides cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company. Unfortunately, it imposes an overall structure that may or may not match the company’s operations.
Transaction Processing Systems (TP – BISC)
Processed data generated by the day-to-day business operations. Usually a big mission-critical data system. They process transactions as a group not individually.
Business Support Systems ( BS – BISC)
Provides job-related information support to users at all level of the company. Whether through analyzing transactions, generating/providing needed information, controlling processes leading to better decision making.
Knowledge Management Systems (KM – BISC)
Use large database that allows users find information by entering keywords or questions in plain English using inference (logical) rules that identify patterns and relationships.
User Productivity Systems (UP – BISC)
Technology provided by the company like Groupware which enables sharing data, collaborate on projects, teamwork for improvement.
System Integration (BISC)
Combining TP, BS, KM, and UP features.
What Information Do Users Need?
Understand the company’s organizational model to recognize who’s responsible for specific processes, decisions and learned what is required by whom.
Top Managers
Develop long-range (Strategic) plans, which defines company’s overall mission and goals. Focus on the overall business enterprise and use IT to set the company’s course and direction.
Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers
Provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders. Need detail information from top managers but less from supervisors on daily operations. Give support for the organization basic functions.
Supervisors and Team Leaders
Coordinate operational task and people, make necessary decisions, ensure that the right tools, materials, and training are available.
Operational Employees
Through empowerment give more responsibility and accountability to workers, improving employee motivation and increased customer satisfaction.
System Development Tools (SDT)
Computer-aided system engineering (CASE) tools
Produce a graphical representation of a concept or process that system developers can analyze, test and modify.
Business Modeling
Describes the information that a system must provide. Although they seem to overlap, they work together to describe the same environment from different viewpoints.
Early working version of an information system. Test system concepts and gives opportunity to examine input, output, user interface before final decision is made.
Computer-aided System Engineering (CASE) Tools
Helps system analyst develop and maintain information systems. Many CASE tools can generate programs code speeding the implementation process.
System Development Methods (SDM)
Structure analysis
Object-oriented analysis
Agile methods
Structure Analysis – Waterfall Model (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Traditional system development technique that is time-tested and easy to understand. Uses a series of phases called System Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
System Development Life Cycle (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
It is a predictive approach (process-centered technique) based on the overall plan. A set of process models to describe a system graphically. Plan, analyze, design, implement, and support IT systems.
SDLC phases – Str. Ana.
Systems planning
System analysis
System design
System implementation
System support and security
System Planning (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Presenting a formal system request describing the problem or desired changes in an information system or business process.
Preliminary Investigation – System Planning (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Evaluate business opportunity or problem. It’s a critical step because the outcome affects the entire development process.
Feasibility Study – System Planning (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
A key part of preliminary investigation which reviews anticipated costs, benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic and time factors.
Systems Analysis (Str. Ana. -SDLC)
Building a logical model of the new system.
Requirement Modeling – Systems Analysis (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
It is investigating business process and documenting what the new system must do to satisfy users.
System Requirements Documents – Systems Analysis (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Describes management and user requirements, costs benefits, and outlines alternative development strategies.
System Design (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Creating a physical model that will satisfy all documented system requirements. The system design specifications is presented to management and users for review and approval.
System Implementation (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
The new system is constructed. Delivering a complete functioning and documented information system. Also called a system evaluation for determining the system proper operation plus costs and benefits are within specifications.
System Support and Security (Str. Ana. – SDLC)
Maintaining, enhancing, and protecting the system. Maximizing IT investment return. Scalable Design which can expand to meet new business requirements and volume.
Object-Oriente Analysis (O-O) – SDM
Combining data and processes that act on the data into objects. An object is a member of a class, which is a collection of similar objects, with properties (characteristics) from its own or class. Popular for easy transition between programing languages.
Agile Methods – Spiral Model (SDM)
Developing an system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements. Emphasis on constant feedback, and each step is affected by what was previously learned.
Other Development Methods
Joint Application Development (JAD): focuses on team-based fact finding [only one phase of development]. Rapid Application Development (RAD): compress version of all the process.
The Information Technology Departments (ITD)
Application developments
System support and security
User support
Database administration
Network administration
Web support
Quality Assurance.
Application Development (ITD)
Provides leadership and overall guidance. The systems are developed by teams.
System Support and Security (ITD)
For vital protections and maintenance services for hardware and software, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems and corporate IT infrastructure.
User Support (ITD)
Provides technical, training, and productivity support also called service desk, help desk (IC).
Databse Administration (ITD)
Involving data design, management, security, backup and access.
Networking Administration (ITD)
Business operations depend on them because they enable company wide-information systems.
Web Support (ITD)
Specialists design and construct them, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link applications to the company’s information systems.
Quality Assurance (QA – ITD)
Reviews and test all application and systems changes to verify specification and software standards.
The System Analyst Skills & Abilities
Role: Acting as a translator. The best defense against IT disasters. Technically sound, with ability to listen.
Needs technical knowledge, communication, business and critical thinking skills & education shown thru certifications.

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