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IT-214 Midterm Practice Test Question Bank 1

____ is used to reveal the meaning of data.
Information
The only way to access the data in a database is through the DBMS.
True
Database programming languages receive all application requests and translate them into the complex operations required to fulfill those requests.
False
Structural dependence exists when it is possible to make changes in the file structure without affecting the application program’s ability to access the data.
False
The DBMS reveals much of the database’s internal complexity to the application programs and users.
False
Which of the following is an example of structured data?
A spreadsheet
A ____ database supports data distributed across several different sites.
distributed
To reveal meaning, information requires ____________________.
context
Within the database environment, a data model represents data structures with the purpose of supporting a specific problem domain.
True
Business rules are derived from ____.
a detailed description of an organization’s operations
Each row in the relational table is known as an entity instance or entity occurrence in the ER model.
True
The ____ model was developed to allow designers to use a graphical tool to examine structures rather than describing them with text.
entity relationship
____ are normally expressed in the form of rules.
Constraints
The hierarchical model is software-independent.
False
A(n) ____________________ in a hierarchical model is the equivalent of a record in a file system.
segment
In an SQL-based relational database, each table is dependent on another.
False
Tables must have the same attribute characteristics (the columns and domains must be compatible) to be used in a UNION.
True
____ logic, used extensively in mathematics, provides a framework in which an assertion (statement of fact) can be verified as either true or false.
Predicate
The practical significance of taking the logical view of a database is that it serves as a reminder of the simple file concept of data storage.
True
Referential and entity integrity are two names for the same thing.
False
PRODUCT yields all possible pairs of rows from two tables—also known as the ____________________ product.
cartesian
The SELECT operator yields a vertical subset of a table.
False
In an outer join, the matched pairs would be retained and any unmatched values in the other table would be left ____.
null
In a natural join, the column on which the join was made occurs twice in the new table.
False
Fortunately, the problems inherent in the ____________________ relationship can easily be avoided by creating a composite entity.
M:N
The ____________________ relationship is the relational database norm.
1:M
Relationships operate only in one direction.
False
A relationship is an association between ____.
entities
If an entity can exist apart from one or more related entities, it is said to be ____-independent.
existence
The ER model refers to a specific table row as an entity occurrence.
true
You should always load data from the 1 side of a 1:M relationship.
true
In the original Chen model, each attribute is represented using an oval with the attribute name connected to the entity with a line.
true
Derived attributes are stored in a special database table.
False
____ attributes can have many values.
Multivalued
In Chen notation, there is no way to represent cardinality.
False
____________________ are underlined in an ER diagram.
Primary keys
A specialization hierarchy can have ____ level(s) of supertype/subtype relationships.
many
The completeness constraint can be partial or total.
true
The “____” characteristic of a primary key states that:
The PK should not have embedded semantic meaning. An attribute with embedded semantic meaning is probably better used as a descriptive characteristic of the entity rather than as an identifier.
nonintelligent
At the implementation level, the supertype and its subtype(s) depicted in the specialization hierarchy maintain a ____ relationship.
1:1
____ is a generic entity type that is related to one or more entity subtypes.
an entity supertype
A(n) ____ is the attribute in the supertype entity that determines to which entity subtype each supertype occurrence is related.
subtype discriminator
The price paid for increased performance through denormalization is a larger amount of
redundancy
Normalization works through a series of stages called ___________________ forms.
normal
A table that has all key attributes defined, has no repeating groups, and all its attributes are dependent on the primary key, is said to be in ____.
1NF
A table is in BCNF if every determinant in the table is a foreign key.
False
A ____ derives its name from the fact that a group of multiple entries of the same type can exist for any single key attribute occurrence.
repeating group
Normalization is a process that is used for changing attributes to entities.
False
Repeating groups must be eliminated by making sure that each row defines a single entity.
True
A good relational DBMS excels at managing denormalized relations.
False
____________________ exists when it is possible to make changes in the data storage characteristics without affecting the application program’s ability to access the data.
Data independence
Raw data must be properly ____________________ for storage, processing and presentation.
formatted
A desktop database is a ____ database.
single-user
A(n) ____ database is designed to support a company’s day-to-day operations.
transactional
We are now said to be entering the “knowledge age.”
true
____ relates to the activities that make the database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed.
Performance Tuning
Most data you encounter is best classified as ____.
Semistructured
An operational database is sometimes referred to as an enterprise database.
False
When you can change the internal model without affecting the conceptual model, you have ____________________ independence.
logical
Business rules apply to businesses and government groups, but not to other types of organizations such as religious groups or research laboratories.
False
MySQL is an example of a(n) ____.
relational data model
A(n) ____ is a restriction placed on the data.
constraint
The ____ model was developed to allow designers to use a graphical tool to examine structures rather than describing them with text.
entity relationship
The object-oriented data model was developed in the ____.
1980s
The ____________________ defines the portion of the database “seen” by the application programs that produce information from the data.
subschema
In a relational model, if A determines B, C, and D, you write A = B, C, D.
False
If the attribute (B) is functionally dependent on a composite key (A) but not on any subset of that ____ key, the attribute (B) is fully functionally dependent on (A).
composite
____________________ is the real power behind the relational database, allowing the use of independent tables linked by common attributes.
JOIN
A(n) ____________________ is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.
index
Date attributes contain calendar dates stored in a special format known as the ____ date format.
Julian
The ____________________ relationship is the relational database norm.
1:M
Since it is used to link the tables that originally were related in a M:N relationship, the composite entity structure includes—as foreign keys—at least the ____ keys of the tables that are to be linked.
primary
In the context of a database table, the statement “A ____ B” indicates that if you know the value of attribute A, you can look up the value of attribute B.
determines
Codd’s rule of ____________________ states that every value in a table is guaranteed to be accessible through a combination of table name, primary key value, and column name.
Guaranteed Access
All RDBMSs enforce integrity rules automatically.
False
Complex ____ requirements may dictate data transformations, and they may expand the number of entities and attributes within the design.
information
Identifying the attributes of the entities helps you better understand the ____________________ among entities.
relationships
Failure to understand the distinction between mandatory and optional ____________________ in relationships might yield designs in which awkward (and unnecessary) temporary rows (entity instances) must be created just to accommodate the creation of required entities.
participation
An attribute representing one or more college degrees belonging to a person would be a(n) ____________________ attribute.
multivalued
Knowing the ____ number of entity occurrences is very helpful at the application software level.
maximum and minimum
____________________ are underlined in an ER diagram.
primary keys
Instead of storing a person’s age, it is better to store the date of birth and use the difference between that value and the system date as a(n) ____________________ attribute.
derived
____________________ attributes can be subdivided.
composite
Some ____________________ database modeling concepts can be expressed only using the Chen notation.
conceptual
The ERM forms the basis of a(n) ___________________________________.
ERD, Entity Relationship Diagram
The default comparison condition for the subtype discriminator attribute is the ____ comparison.
equality
In specialization hierarchies with multiple levels of supertype/subtypes, a lower-level supertype inherits all of the attributes and relationships from all of its upper-level subtypes.
False
From a data modeling point of view, ____________________ refer to data whose values change over time and for which you must keep a history of the data changes.
time-variant data
____ relationships occur when there are multiple relationship paths between related entities.
Redundant
____________________ completeness means that every supertype occurrence must be a member of at least one subtype.
Total
The most common design trap is known as a(n) ____________________.
fan trap
If a table has multiple candidate keys and one of those candidate keys is a composite key, the table can have ____ based on this composite candidate key, even when the primary key chosen is a single attribute.
partial dependencies
Atomic attributes are attributes that can be further divided.
False
Some very specialized applications may require normalization beyond the ____.
4NF
____________________ refers to the level of detail represented by the values stored in a table’s row.
Granulairty
The most likely data type for a surrogate key is ____.
Numeric
From a strictly database point of view, ____ attribute values can be calculated when they are needed to write reports or invoices.
derived
A table that is in 1NF and includes no partial dependencies is said to be in ____.
2NF
The DBMS reveals much of the database’s internal complexity to the application programs and users.
False
A(n) ___________________________________ is a collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data stored in the database.
DBMS
Data ____________________ is a discipline that focuses on proper generation, storage and retrieval of data.
Management
One disadvantage of a database system over previous data management approaches is increased costs.
true
___________________________________ is a special language used to represent and manipulate data elements in a textual format.
XML
____________________ is data about data through which the end-user data are integrated and managed.
Metadata
____________________ exists when it is possible to make changes in the data storage characteristics without affecting the application program’s ability to access the data.
Data independence
A(n) ____________________ develops when all required changes in the redundant data are not made successfully.
anamoly
In _________________________, a three-pronged symbol represents the “many” side of the relationship.
Crow’s Foot notation
The relational data model was developed in the ____.
1970s
A(n) ____________________ is a representation of the relational database’s entities, the attributes within those entities and the relationships between those entities.
relational diagram
The ____ model uses the term connectivity to label the relationship types.
entity relationship
In the ____ model, each parent can have many children, but each child has only one parent.
hierarchical
MySQL is an example of a(n) ____.
relational data model
The terms data model and database model are often used interchangeably.
True
A(n) ____ model represents a global view of the database as viewed by the entire organization.
conceptual
Tables within a database share common attributes that enable the tables to be linked together.
True
A foreign key must exist in both tables that have a relationship.
False
A left outer join on tables CUSTOMER and AGENT yields all of the rows in the CUSTOMER table, including those that do not have a matching value in the AGENT table
true
Date attributes contain calendar dates stored in a special format known as the ____ date format.
Julian
Depending on the sophistication of the application development software, nulls can create problems when functions such as COUNT, AVERAGE, and SUM are used.
true
A proper understanding of the concept and use of keys in a relational database model is very important.
true
____________________ relationships can be implemented by creating a new entity in 1:M relationships with the original entities.
M:N
A(n) ____________________ key can be described as a superkey without unnecessary attributes.
candidate
____ relational type is the “relational model ideal.”
1:M
A ____ relationship exists when an association is maintained within a single entity.
unary
An entity is said to be ____-dependent if it can exist in the database only when it is associated with another related entity occurrence.
existence
Attributes cannot share a domain.
False
A ____ identifier is composed of more than one attribute.
composite
Knowing the ____ number of entity occurrences is very helpful at the application software level.
maximum and minimum
In the original ERM described by Chen, relationships do not contain ____________________.
attributes
The step, ____, occurs first in the process of building an ERD.
Create a detailed narrative of the organization’s description of operations.
Ideally, a primary key is composed of several attributes.
False
A derived attribute is indicated in the Chen model by a ____.
dashed line
The Crow’s foot symbol with two parallel lines indicates ____ cardinality.
(1,1)
A design trap occurs when a relationship is improperly or incompletely identified and is therefore represented in a way that is not consistent with the real world.
True
Composite primary keys are particularly useful as identifiers of composite entities, where each primary key combination is allowed ____________________ in the M:N relationship.
once
At the implementation level, the supertype and its subtype(s) depicted in the specialization hierarchy maintain a ____ relationship.
1:1
The property of subtype discriminator enables an entity supertype to inherit the attributes and relationships of the subtype.
False
The relationships depicted within the specialization hierarchy are sometimes described in terms of “is-a” relationships.
True
The property of ____ enables an entity subtype to inherit the attributes and relationships of the supertype.
inheritance
An attribute that is part of a key is known as a(n) ____ attribute.
prime
The combination of ____________________ and ER modeling yields a useful ERD, whose entities may now be translated into appropriate table structures.
normalization
Normalization represents a micro view of the entities within the ERD.
True
An example of denormalization is using a ____ denormalized table to hold report data. This is required when creating a tabular report in which the columns represent data that is stored in the table as rows.
temporary
A table that is in 2NF and contains no transitive dependencies is said to be in ____.
3NF
A table is in BCNF if every determinant in the table is a foreign key.
False
If database tables are treated as though they were files in a file system, the _____________________________________________ never has a chance to demonstrate its superior data-handling capabilities.
RDBMS
Because a partial dependency can exist only if a table’s primary key is composed of several attributes, a table whose ____________________ key consists of only a single attribute is automatically in 2NF if it is in 1NF.
primary
____ is the body of information and facts about a specific subject.
knowledge
A(n) ____________________ is a specific request issued to the DBMS for data manipulation.
query
A ____ is a logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place or thing.
record
The ____ serve(s) as the intermediary between the user and the database.
DBMS
A(n) ____________________ develops when all required changes in the redundant data are not made successfully.
data anomaly
____________________ exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places.
data redundancy
Structural dependence exists when it is possible to make changes in the file structure without affecting the application program’s ability to access the data.
False
Database programming languages receive all application requests and translate them into the complex operations required to fulfill those requests.
False
A(n) ____________________ is a collection of similar objects with a shared structure and behavior.
class
Which of the following is true of business rules?
They can serve as a communication tool between the users and designers.
A(n) ____ is bidirectional.
relationship
In the ____ model, the user perceives the database as a collection of records in 1:M relationships, where each record can have more than one parent.
network
The term ____________________ is used to refer to the task of creating a conceptual data model that could be implemented in any DBMS.
logical design
To be considered minimally relational, the DBMS must support the key relational operators ____, PROJECT, and JOIN.
SELECT
Codd’s rule of ____________________ states that every value in a table is guaranteed to be accessible through a combination of table name, primary key value, and column name.
Guaranteed Access
The relational model’s creator, E. F. Codd, used the term relation as a synonym for ____.
table
If the foreign key contains either matching values or nulls, the table that makes use of that foreign key is said to exhibit ____________________ integrity
referential
Because the relational model uses attribute values to establish relationships among tables, many database users correctly assume that the term relation refers to such relationships.
False
All primary key entries are unique, and no part of a primary key may be ____.
null
In both the Chen and Crow’s Foot models, an entity is represented with a rectangle containing the entity’s name.
True
The ____ type of attribute cannot be created in a DBMS.
multivalued
Attributes may share a ____.
domain
A ____ attribute can be further subdivided to yield additional attributes.
composite
A ____ relationship exists when three entities are associated.
ternary
The Crow’s Foot model is more ____________________-oriented than the Chen model.
implementation
The ____________________ refers to a specific table row as an entity instance.
ERM
An entity cluster is formed by combining multiple interrelated entities into ____.
a single abstract entity object
Partial completeness is symbolized by ____.
a circle over a single line
The ____________________ constraint specifies whether each entity supertype occurrence must also be a member of at least one subtype.
completeness
____ data refer to data whose values change over time and for which you must keep a history of the data changes.
time-variant
The extended entity relationship model (EERM) is sometimes referred to as the ____.
enhanced entity relationship model
Non-overlapping subtypes are subtypes that contain a(n) ____ subset of the supertype entity set.
unique
When a nonkey attribute is the determinant of a key attribute the table is in 3NF but not _________________________.
BCNF
Data redundancy produces ____.
data integrity problems
A table is in BCNF if every determinant in the table is a foreign key.
False
An atomic attribute ____.
cannot be further subdivided
A diagram that depicts all dependencies found within a given table structure is known as a(n) ____________________.
dependency diagram
Normalization works through a series of stages called normal forms. For most purposes in business database design, ____ stages are as high as you need to go in the normalization process.
three
In _________________________ no row may contain two or more multivalued facts about an entity.
4NF
Accurate, relevant, and timely information is the key to ____.
good decision making
A workgroup database is a(n)____ database.
multuser
A(n) ____________________ focuses primarily on storing data used to generate information required to make tactical or strategic decisions.
data warehouse
A(n) ____ represents a particular type of object in the real world.
enity
A manager and a programmer usually have the same view of the same data.
False
An implementation-ready data model should contain a description of the data structure that will store the end-user data.
True
Because the relational model uses attribute values to establish relationships among tables, many database users correctly assume that the term relation refers to such relationships.
False
The ____________________ catalog can be described as a detailed system data dictionary that describes all objects within the database, including data about table names, the table’s creator and creation date, the number of columns in each table, the data type corresponding to each column, index filenames, index creators, authorized users, and access privileges.
system
Proper data ____________________ design requires carefully defined and controlled data redundancies to function properly.
warehousing
Relationship strength depends on how the primary key of the related entity is formulated, while the relationship ____________________ depends on how the business rule is written.
participation
If you use a surrogate key, you must ensure that the candidate key of the entity in question performs properly through the use of “____________________” and “not null” constraints.
unique index
Generalization is based on grouping unique characteristics and relationships of the subtypes.
False
Implementing non-overlapping subtypes requires the use of one discriminator attribute for each subtype.
False
It becomes difficult to create a suitable ____________________ key when the related table uses a composite primary key.
foreign
Of the following normal forms, ____, is mostly of theoretical interest.
DKNF
Normalization is a process that is used for changing attributes to entities.
False

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