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IT 360 CH 12 Review

Why are new information systems built?
As solutions to problems
4 steps to building an information system
1.Define and understand the problem
2.Develop alternative solutions
3.Choose a solution
4.Implement the solution
“systems analysis” refers to
The first three steps of building an information system

(define and understand, develop alternatives, choose solution)

Information Requirements of Defining a Problem are:
Identifies who needs what information, when, where, and how
4 questions of Defining a Problem are:
1.What caused the problem?
2.Why does it persist?
3.Why hasn’t it been solved?
4.What are the objectives of a solution?
4 parts to Developing Alternative Solutions are:
1.Paths to a solution are determined by systems analysis
2.Some solutions do not require an information system
3.Some solutions require modification of existing systems
4.Some solutions require new systems
Evaluating and Choosing Solutions use:
Feasibility studies and Feasibility reports
The Requirements Analysis of defining a problem. . .
defines the objectives of the new/modified system and develops a description of the functions it will perform
Feasibility Studies determine
whether each proposed solution is achievable from a financial, technical and organizational standpoint
Financial Feasibility asks. . .
Is the solution a good investment?
Technical Feasibility asks. . .
Is the technology needed available? Can the staff utilize it properly?
Organizational Feasibility asks. . .
Is the organization able to accommodate the changes the new system will introduce?
Feasibility Reports describe
the costs and benefits, and advantages and disadvantage of each solution
2 parts of implementing the solution involve:
1.Systems design (physical and logical)
2. Completing implementation
Systems design shows
how a system will fulfill information requirements determined in the systems analysis phase
(6) Completing implementation involves:
1. Hardware selection and acquisition
2. Software development and programming
3. Testing (unit, system, and acceptance)
4. Training and documentation
5. Conversion (parallel, direct cutover, or phased)
6. Production and maintenance
Unit testing is
a detailed testing of individual computer programs
System testing is
a test of the performance of the information system as a whole
Acceptance testing provides
the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting
Test Plans include
all the preparations for the unit, system, and acceptance test
New system documentation shows
how the system works from both a technical and end-user standpoint
Conversion is
the process of changing from the old system to the new system
Parallel conversion runs
both the old and new systems together for a time
Direct cutover conversion
replaces the old system entirely with the new one on an appointed day
Phased conversion
introduces the new system in stages
Production is
The phase after the new system is installed and conversion is complete. The system is then reviewed to see how well it meets its objectives.
Maintenance is
Any change in hardware, software, documentation, or procedure to a system that is in production.
Reasons for maintenance
correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
managing the system change is
the process of planning change so that it is implanted in an orderly and effective manner (very critical)
(5) Traditional Systems Development Lifecycles (SDLC) are
1.The oldest method for building information systems.
2.A phased approach that divides development into a series of formal stages.
3. Predominantly a “waterfall” approach
4. Is used for building large, complex systems
5. Time consuming
A waterfall approach is
an approach in which tasks in one stage are completed before work on the next stage begins
Prototyping consists of
building an experimental model rapidly and inexpensively for end users to evaluate
4 steps of prototyping
1.Identify the user’s basic requirements
2.Develop an initial prototype
3.Use the prototype
4.Revise and enhance the prototype
Advantages of prototypes
Can be built quickly and inexpensively and user involvement is extensive
Disadvantages of prototypes
May result in creating systems that have not been completely tested and documented or are inadequate, also are inappropriate for large and complex systems
End-User Development allows
end users to create simple information systems with little or no assistance from technical specialists and more rapidly than with conventional tools
(3) End-User development systems use
fourth-generation languages, graphics languages, and PC software tools
2 Disadvantages of end-user development
1.cannot easily handle the processing of large numbers of transactions or applications
2.Poses organizational risks due to rapid and informal development
2 purchasing solutions are
application software packages and outsourcing
A Request for Proposal is
a detailed list of questions submitted to external vendors to see how well they meet the requirements of the proposed system
Application software packages are
Generalized systems for common functions with standard processes that do not change much over time
Application software package customization will
allow a package to be modified to meet an organization’s unique requirements (within limits)
Outsourcing is
sending the work to an external organization that specializes in that service (application service providers)
Offshore outsourcing is
often driven by costs, but can still offer great assets and skills
Rapid Application Development for E-Business (RAD)
process of creating workable systems in a very short period of time, doesn’t have to be sequential and key parts can occur simultaneously
Joint application design for E-business (JAD)
End users and information systems specialists working together on design, can significantly speed up design phase
A project is
a planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective
Project Management is
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to achieve targets within specified budget and time constraints
5 variables of project management
scope, time, cost, quality, and risk
project management scope is
what work is/isn’t included in a project
project management cost is
based on time * the daily cost of human resources required + costs of hardware, software and workspace
project management quality is
an indicator of how well the end result will satisfy management’s objectives
project management risks are
any potential problem that would threaten the success of the project (usually by impacting one of the other four project management variables)
Tangible benefits are
quantifiable and can be assigned a monetary value
Intangible benefits are
not immediately quantifiable ( such as more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making)
Capital budgeting methods are
typically employed to evaluate proposed information system solutions as investments
3 examples of Capital budgeting methods
net present value, internal rate of return (IRR), and accounting rate of return on investment (ROI)
Information systems plans show
how specific information systems fit into a company’s overall business plan and business strategy
Information systems plans should
describe organizational changes, changes in business processes, and changes in authority, structure, or management practice
Portfolio analysis will
inventory and analyze all projects and assets of a firm to help evaluate alternative system projects
Scoring models will
give alternative systems a single score based on the extent that they meet selected objectives
implementation refers to
all the activities aimed toward the adoption and management of an innovation (such as a new information system)
User-designer communications gaps are
problems caused by differences between end users and information specialist
3 controllers of risk factors
1.Gantt Chart
2.PERT chart
3.Project management software
Formal planning and tools are
for documenting and monitoring project plans for large projects (usually Gantt and PERT charts)
Gantt Charts are
charts of project activities and their corresponding start and completion dates. (listed as horizontal bars)
PERT stands for
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
(developed by US Navy)
PERT Charts are
graphic depictions of project tasks and their interrelationships (which activities must be completed before certain other actives can be started)
PERT charts are portrayed as
a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes that show the task, duration, start, and complete date. The arrows show the sequence and order tasks must be completed in.
3 ways to overcome user resistance
1.promoting participation
2.making education and training easily available
3.providing better incentives for cooperation
Ergonomics is
the interaction of people and machines in the work environment
an organizational impact analysis looks at
procedural changes and changes in job functions, organizational structure, power relationships, and behavior
3 project risk factors
project size, structure, and level of technical expertise of users and project team

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