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Job Stress

The main independent variable engaged in Siu’s (2003) research are the total sources of pressure (TSP). Although TSP may be considered singularly, Siu, cites Evers, Frese, and Cooper (2000), wherein they confirm six factors of pressure, of which the subjects were asked to rate from a scale of 1 to 6. It is interesting to note, however, that the researcher also used stress moderators as additional variables and special types of independent variables. These are Chinese work values, and organizational commitment.

Siu believes that traditional values of Confucianism and hierarchy are still prevalent in the Hong Kong workplace, and is thus essential to consider. These Chinese work values were measured using the Lu, Kao, Chow, and Siu (2001) 16-item scale. On the other hand, he emphasizes organizational commitment having a vital role in job performance, which was then measured using the ACNC Scale employed by Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993). II. B. The dependent variable concerned in Siu’s (2003) research is job performance. He used Scullen, Mount, and Goff’s (2000) method in his assessment of job performance.

Rather than the usual supervisory performance rating, they used self-report methods to measure job performance in terms of quality, quantity, and overall competence. II. C.

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To select subject business enterprises, the researcher chose from finance/accounting, marketing, transport, catering, and personnel sectors both in public and private areas of Hong Kong. 595 questionnaires were distributed to employed students and employees, 424 of which were returned. 38 incomplete questionnaires were discarded, bringing the total to 386 subjects: 197 males, 179 females, and 10 unidentified. 57. 8% were married and 35.

8% were single. One third were 35 years old or below, 40% were between 36 and 45, and the rest were 46 years old or above. For the second sample, 180 questionnaires were distributed to employees who worked in similar public and private service sectors. 152 questionnaires were returned (7 incomplete questionnaires were discarded), making a response rate of 80. 6% and a final sample of 145 (51 males and 94 females). In this sample, employees were recruited from private and public service sectors, and they included office workers, medical and health care workers, and civil servants: 57.

9% were married and 36. 6% were single; 37% of the respondents were 35 years old or below, 28% were between 36 and 45, and the rest were 46 years old or above III. This correlation study was performed by distributing self-administered questionnaires using structured questions to obtain data from the two samples of Hong Kong employees. This was done to confirm convergent validity. Demographic information, including age, gender, education, marital status, occupation, tenure (years in the current job), and job level (position in the current organization) was also collected. IV.

Siu (2003) hypothesized that sources of pressure will be negatively related to job performance (H1). Furthermore, he also states that Chinese work values will be positively related to job performance (H2), and negatively related to stress (H3). He also believed that organizational commitment will be positively related to job performance (H4), although negatively related with the harmful effect of stressors (H5). V. The results “consistently revealed that employees who perceived more sources of pressure reported lower ratings of job performance”, as well as positive relations between the moderator variables and job performance.

The researchers found data that support hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, although hypothesis 3 cannot be supported and hypothesis 5, only partially so – “only Chinese work values were found to significantly moderate the relationship between sources of pressure and job performance for the second sample”. Siu concluded by pointing out the support of almost all the hypotheses, and cites the study as contributory to the rare study into job stress-performance relationships.

He also points out the cross-cultural study between Chinese and Western societies, hoping the study will contribute to the industrial and organizational psychology, as well as the areas of work stress and the practical enhancement of job performance. VI. A. The primary strengths of this study can be considered in the area of measuring the variables. The researcher used a mix of devices that have been proven reliable and accurate in the past. Although developed by other researchers in previous studies, his measurement methods allow for a more convenient and practical process.

It is also noteworthy to consider the practicality of his research, especially among corporate-level enterprises. His results and recommendations concerning the enhancement of job performance are indeed plausible. VI. B. The research’s weakness may be pinpointed at the sample selection. Two samples are perhaps not enough to prove convergent validity in the circumstances that the research provides. Furthermore, there are perhaps other variables that can moderate job performance. Organizational commitment and Chinese work values may be perceived as too lacking in an area as broad as this.

VI. C. VII. If I had the opportunity and the proper resources to perform the study again, I would like it to cover not just the Hong Kong business landscape. I would make the study in a truly global scale, to increase the relevance of the research. Would the results of the present study be relevant in Africa, perhaps, or in Europe? Would the study be as conclusive? It would also be more interesting to study job stress and performance in a more personal approach. In times of deep grief and emotional anxiety, how would that affect job performance?

For example, if a loved one has just died, would that enhance job performance or decrease it? Moreover, it is indeed fascinating how this study can be implemented to other areas of society concerning the performance of goals, like the household, or school. Would there be other variables involved? Or would they be surprisingly the same? ABSTRACT This study investigates the direct and moderating effects of Chinese work values and organizational commitment on the stress–job performance relationship. A self-administered questionnaire survey collected data from two samples of Hong Kong employees during 2001.

The results consistently revealed that sources of pressure and self-rated job performance were negatively related. Furthermore, organizational commitment and Chinese work values were positively related to job performance. A series of hierarchical regressions, while controlling for age, tenure, and job level, revealed that Chinese work values and organizational commitment were significant stress moderators. Chinese work values were found to be significant moderators of the stress–performance relationship in both samples. However, those values only safeguarded performance when work stress was low or moderately high.

When work stress was very high, employees with high levels of Chinese work values reported lower job performance. Organizational commitment, in contrast, protected employees from the negative effects of stressors and moderated the stress–performance relationship in a positive direction, but for the first sample only. The implications of the study are that it is essential to nourish work values among employees and cultivate employees’ commitment to their organizations. However, in very high stress situations, it is more appropriate to alter the work environment to reduce stressors at work, in order to enhance job performance.

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