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K201 Lecture: Excel portion

True or False? Information Systems exist to help organizations achieve their strategies.
Competitive Strategy
Determines the structure, features, and functions of an information system used in a company.
Also determines an organizations goals and objectives
Used to assess industry structure
Porter’s Five Forces Model
What does the intensity of each of the forces in Porter’s Five Forces Model determine?
It determines the characteristics of the industry, how profitable it is and how sustainable that profitability will be.
True or false? A business that selects a differentiation strategy would invariably structure itself around low-cost activities
True or False? A business with a differentiation strategy will add cost to an activity only as long as the activity has a positive margin.
The difference between the value that an activity generates and the cost of the activity.
Inbound Logistics
The activity that involves receiving and handling of raw materials and other inputs to the product.
Outbound Logistics
The activity that involves collecting, storing, and physically distributing the product to buyers.
Ex: a service company checking the availability of resources before planning its projects
Business Process
A network of activities that generate value by transforming inputs into outputs
True or False? Most business process designs require people to work in new ways.
High Switching Costs
The process of locking in customers by making it difficult or expensive for customers to move to another product
Purchasing raw materials is an example of what type of process?
A structured process
Structured Processes
formally defined, standardized processes that involve day to day operations (Ex: accepting a return, placing an order, purchasing raw materials)
Dynamic Processes
flexible and informal and adapt as you go along, more strategic activities and often require a human judgement Ex: Nike using Facebook and Twitter to generate buzz about its new line of running shoes, whether to open up a new store location or not)
Enterprise Processes
Span an organization and support activities in multiple departments
Process Efficiency
A measure of the ratio of process outputs and inputs
Information Silo
Exists when data are isolated in separated information systems
Customer Relationship and Management System
A suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer, from lead generation to customer service
A phase of the customer life cycle that focuses on sending messages to the target market to attract customer prospects
Enterprise Application Integration
Connects system “islands” via a new layer of software
Application Provider Examples
Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google are all social media (SM) application providers
Content Data
Data and responses to data that are contributed to social media sites by users and social media sponsors
Social CRM
Customer Relationship Management: uncontrolled but structured process
The dynamic social media process of employing users to participate in product design or product redesign
Social Capital
The investment in social relations with the expectation of returns in the marketplace
The Value of Social Capital
(# of relationships)(relationship strength)(entity resources)
The revenue model that offers users a basic service for free, and then charges a premium for upgrades or advanced features.
What do most social media companies rely on for revenue?
Enterprise 2.0
The application of social media to facilitate the cooperative work of people inside organizations
Five Forces in Porter’s Five Forces Model
Industry Structure–Competitive Strategy–Value Chains–Business Processes–Information Systems
Which Five Forces Determine Industry Structure?
Bargaining Power of Customers–Threat of Substitutions–Bargaining Power of Suppliers–Threat of New Entrants–Rivalry
Bargaining Power of Customers: Strong example and Weak example
Strong: Toyota’s purchase of auto paint
Weak: Your power over the procedures and policies at your university
Threat of Substitutions: Strong example and Weak example
Strong: Frequent traveler’s choice of auto rental
Weak: Patients using the only drug effective for their type of cancer
Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Strong example and Weak example
Strong: New car dealers
Weak: Grain farmers in a surplus year
Threat of New Entrants: Strong example and Weak example
Strong: A Corner Latte stand
Weak: A professional football team
Rivalry: Strong example and Weak example
Strong: Used car dealers
Weak: Google or Bing
True or False? According to Porter, in order to be effective the organization’s goals, objectives, culture, and activities must be consistent with the organizations strategy.
The amount of money that the customer is willing to pay for a resource, product, or service
Value Chain
A network of value-creating activities, a generic chain consists of five primary activities and four support activities
Primary Activities
Activities that contribute directly to the production, sale, or service of a product. In Porter’s model they are inbound logistics, operations and manufacturing, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and customer service.
Support Activities
In Porter’s value chain model the activities that contribute indirectly to value creation: procurement, technology, human resources, and the firm’s infrastructure.
Transforming inputs into the final products
Sales and Marketing
Inducing buyers to purchase the products and providing a means for them to do so
Customer Service
Assisting customers’ use of the products and thus maintaining and enhancing the product’s value
A business function that receives inputs and produces outputs
a collection of something
How do organizations gain a competitive advantage?
By creating new products/services, by enhancing existing products or services, and by differentiating their products and services from those of their competitors.
Locking in Customers
Making it difficult or expensive for customers to switch to another product.
Locking in Suppliers
Making it difficult or to switch to another organization or by making it easy to connect to and work with the organization
Creating Entry Barriers
Makes it difficult and expensive for new competition to enter the market.
Establishing Alliances
Such alliances establish standards, promote product awareness and needs, develop market size, reduce purchasing costs, and provide other benefits.
Workgroup Process
Exists to enable workgroups to fulfill the charter, purpose, and goals of a particular group or department.
Workgroup Information System
Exists to support one or more processes within the workgroup. (AKA Functional Information Systems)
Functional Application
The program component of a functional information system
Inter-Enterprise Process
Span two or more independent organizations (More difficult to change)
Enterprise Information Systems
Support one or more enterprise processes
Inter-Enterprise Information Systems
Support one or more inter-enterprise processes
How can information systems improve process quality?
By performing an activity, augmenting a human who is performing an activity, and by controlling data quality and process flow
How can processes be improved
By changing the process structure, resources, or both
Data Integrity
When an organization has inconsistent duplicated data
Business Process Reengineering
The activity of altering existing and designing new business processes to take advantage of new information systems
Inherent Processes
Predesigned procedures for using the software products, saved organizations from the expense, delays, and risks of business process reengineering
Four Stages of the Customer Life Cycle
Marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/churn.
Enterprise Resource Planning
(ERP) a suite of applications called modules, a database, and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform.
Enterprise Application Integration
(EAI) a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.
What does EAI do?
Connects system “Islands” via a new layer of software/system
Enables existing applications to communicate and share data
Provides integrated information
Leverages existing systems
Enables a gradual move to ERP
Stored Procedure
A computer program that is stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules
consists of the processes of finding vendors, setting up contractual agreements, and negotiating prices?
Value chain linkage
A manufacturing system that reduces inventory costs
how to solve the problem of information silos
integrate data into a single database and revise applications and business processes, also, allow for isolation but manage it effectively to avoid problems

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