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KBAT Services and Urban Patterns

annexation
the process of legally adding land area to a city
CBD
Central Business District (CBD) is the commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers., the area that acts as a hub for most activities in the city, particularly retail and office space.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
command and control centers
cities that have key corporate management, government, and financial and business services functions. For example, these cities have a high proportion of company headquarters where a large amount of corporate decision making is done and from where national and transnational business operations are controlled., Second level of cities that contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, including insurance, accounting, advertising, law, and public relations.
concentric zone model (Burgess Model)
model created by EW Burgess in 1923, which explains that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings on a tree.
conurbation
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities, An agglomeration of towns or cities into an unbroken urban environment.
density gradient
density change in an urban area., the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
edge cities
city around a beltway that is a node of consumer and business services, A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the united states away from the central business district (CBD) toward the loci of economic activity at the urban fringe (extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, modern buildings, less than 30 years old)
filtering (filter process)
process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people.
galactic city
mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways.
gentrification
process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing., A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
greenbelts
rings of open space. New housing is built in the older suburbs within the rings and planned extensions, small towns, and new towns are built beyond the rings., A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
hinterland
Surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well.
Latin American city model (Griffon-Ford Model)
Large plaza in center with church (tallest building) as you go out from plaza it was grid roads. The further out, less wealthy it gets. “the spine”: main transportation into city (large road). wealthy downtown and along spine. poorest on outer edge, called the “Flavelas”, presented in 1980 by Larry Ford and Ernst Griffin. Example of a colonial city. Represents a European-style city. Includes commercial spine, zones (elite residences, maturity, in situ accretion, and peripheral squatter settlements).
Market Area
the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
megalopolis
Region described as an MSA that may overlap and cause several large metropolitan areas to come so close together that they form one continuous urban complex.
MSA (and CMSA)
smaller urban areas that the census has designated to include in part of their measure., metropolitan statistic area; centre city with +50 000 people, surrounding county, and surrounding counties; 15% of population in surrounding counties working in first city’s county
multiple nuclei model (Harris-Ullman Model)
model created by CD Harris and EL Ullman in 1945, which explains that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve., Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place., Created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1940s, it’s a model that suggests that the CBD is losing its dominant position.
new urbanism
A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community orientated cities. New urbanism is a reaction to the sprawling, automobile centered cities of the mid twentieth century.
peripheral model
model created by Chauncey Harris, which describes how an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
primate city rule: a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
public housing
housing provided to low-income households, who pay 30% of their income as rent for the housing.
range
range (of a service): the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
redlining
drawing of lines on a map to identify areas in which banks will refuse to loan money.
renovated housing
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.
scattered site
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.
squatter settlement
settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of a housing shortage.
sector model (Hoyt model)
theory developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939, which explains that a city develops in a series of sectors rather than rings.
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
suburb
A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls., A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
sprawl
what US suburbs are characterized by; the progressive spread of development over the landscape.
threshold
the minimum number of people needed to support the service.
underclass
what inner-city residents are frequently referred to because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.
urban realms model
a simplified description of urban land use, especially descriptive of the modern North American city. it features a number of dispersed, peripheral centers of dynamic commercial and industrial activity linked by sophisticated urban transportation networks., Includes a CBD, central city, new downtown, and suburban downtown.
urban renewal
something under which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities.
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce., Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world’s biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
zone in transition
name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing.
zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc

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