Appropriate stress management can lead to_______.
a decreased susceptibility to diseases
The average life expectancy in the past 100 years has_______.
The three leading causes of death in the United States are
heart disease, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases
One benefit of a healthy diet is_______.
a healthy body weight/composition level
Approximately what percentage of Americans gets no leisure-time activity?
Another important dimension of wellness is occupational wellness, which is_______.
the level of happiness and fulfillment you gain through your work
A disease that develops and continues over a long period of time is a(n)_______.
The six dimensions of wellness do NOT include______.
The first step in changing a health related behavior is________.
identifying the target behavior
Setting realistic specific goals can help you change unwanted behavior by________.
making the ultimate goal seem more manageable
Physical activity can be defined as_______.
movement carried out by the skeletal muscles that requires energy
Heart disease is linked most closely with_______.
low cardiorespiratory fitness
The time component of the FITT principle for overload for a muscular strength program is
based on the number of sets and repetitions of specific exercises
The Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Promoting General Health, Fitness, and Weight Management recommend the following for achieving or maintaining weight loss
exercising moderately for 60-90 minutes per day on most days of the week
The latest version of the Physical Activity and Exercise Guidelines for Americans does NOT recommend_______.
getting at least 150 minutes of vigorously intense exercise per day
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity is
Cardiorespiratory endurance is developed best by activities that_______?
involve continuous rhythmic movements of large muscle groups
Specificity of training is best shown by which one of the following examples?
doing push-ups to develop chest and shoulder endurance
The maximal improvement in the body s ability to transport and use oxygen that people can realistically expect as a result of training is about______.
Healthy body composition is best characterized by a_______.
high proportion of muscle, bone, and water and a acceptably low proportion of fat
Long-term effects of regular cardiorespiratory exercise include______.
increased heart size
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is______.
the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort
Immediate effects of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise includes______.
decreased blood pressure
During digestion, most carbohydrates are broken down into______.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is defined as_______.
the basic form of energy used by cells
Endurance exercise can help to reduce_____.
high blood pressure
Which of the following is NOT an energy-containing nutrient?
Alveoli serve what function in the lungs?
They allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
The oxidative energy system produces ATP in structures called______.
The portion of the circulation controlled by the right side of the heart is the ___________ circulation.
A motor unit is made up of
a motor nerve connected to muscle fibers.
Muscular strength is assessed by measuring
the maximumamount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximal effort
Metabolic rate increases if
muscle mass increases
Injuries such as low back pain are reduced if the spine is properly aligned by strong muscles in the
abdomen and hips.
Hypertrophy is defined as
an increase in muscle fiber size
What percentage of all Americans will be afflicted with low back pain at some point in their life?
Muscular endurance is assessed by measuring
the ability to exert a submaximal force repeatedly over time.
Fast twitch muscle fibers are NOT characterized by
People typically begin to lose muscle mass after age
Strength training can boost resting metabolic rate by up to
Contracting a muscle prior to stretching is best described as an example of
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends performing stretching exercises at least __________ days per week
2 or 3
Which of the following is NOT a potential benefit of flexibility?
improved energy production
Joint capsules are
semielastic structures that surround major joints
Which of the following is a proprioceptor?
Static flexibility does NOT depend on
To improve flexibility, do __________ repetition(s) of each stretch.
Flexibility is NOT determined by
Ballistic stretches are considered dangerous, because they
may stimulate a muscular contraction during a stretch.
The stretching technique most commonly recommended by experts for general fitness is
Essential fat is best defined as
fat incorporated into the organs and tissues.
Obese people are more than three times as likely as non-obese people to develop
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of symptoms present in many overweight and obese people. Symptoms for this syndrome do NOT include
low blood pressure
Women have a higher proportion of essential fat than men primarily, because women
have essential fat deposited in the breasts, uterus, and other sex specific sites
The percentage of Americans who are classified as obese is approximately
Type 2 diabetes
is best prevented by eating a healthy diet and physical activity.
Successful management of body composition requires
long-term, consistent coordination of many aspects of a wellness program.
Which technique for evaluating health risks associated with body weight is based on the concept that a person s weight should be proportional to his or her height?
body mass index
Which of the following is not a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes?
a diet high in monounsaturated fat
People who tend to gain weight in the abdominal area are NOT at greater risk for developing
Which of the following is true regarding selecting activities for a complete fitness program?
It is best to include exercises for each component
Manipulating the duration and intensity of your workouts is referred to as
The recommended total duration for cardiorespiratory endurance training is __________ minutes.
Stretching should be done
to a point of slight muscular tension.
Varying your activities in order to develop balanced, total-body fitness is called
An appropriate frequency for a cardiorespiratory endurance program is _________ times per week.
Healthy body composition is NOT obtained with the help of
stretching the major muscle groups
Mini goals help a physical fitness program by
keeping a program on track
Cardiorespiratory endurance is developed by doing activities that
involve continuous rhythmic movements of large-muscle groups.
What is one benefit of starting an exercise program slowly?
it allows your body to adjust to exercising
A gram of carbohydrate has how many calories?
Which of the following is NOT a function of fats?
to form important components of blood
The major source of fuel for the body during rest and light activity is
Which of the following nutrients does NOT supply the body with energy?
During high-intensity exercise, muscles primarily get their energy from
The primary function of carbohydrates is to
supply energy to body cells
A gram of protein has how many calories?
An amino acid is
a protein building block
Which of the following are micronutrients?
A gram of fat has how many calories?
Controlling body weight is best accomplished by
balancing calories consumed with calories expended.
A negative energy balance of __________ calories is needed to produce a one pound weight loss.
How much daily physical activity is recommended for someone who is trying to maintain weight loss?
Weight loss of __________ of body weight is enough to reduce health risks and increase life expectancy in obese individuals.
According to the National Institutes of Health, about _________ of American adults are overweight.
The greater the amount of muscle mass, the
higher the resting metabolic rate
An example of a snack low in energy density is
Which one of the following is the largest component of metabolism?
Which of the following is NOT a good strategy for a successful weight loss program?
Losing weight out of concern for how others view your appearance.
Which of the following books is most likely to contain valid weight management information?
The Physical Activity and Diet Weight Loss Plan
is triggered by a pleasant event
Homeostasis is defined as a state in which
vital functions of the body are maintained at a normal level
Which of the following is an example of an effective response to stress?
learning new time-management skills
Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for heading off explosive anger?
having a drink
Which of the following describes a person with a Type B personality?
Stress is best defined as
the general physical and emotional state associated with the stress response.
Which of the following does NOT occur during the relaxation response?
increased blood flow to the muscles
A good nutritional strategy for coping with stress is to
limit caffeine intake.
Which of the following stressors would NOT be the result of poor time management?
Which of the following cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are NOT modifiable?
family history of CVD
The six major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that can be changed are
elevated cholesterol levels, tobacco use, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, and diabetes.
A person with high blood pressure should NOT increase their intake of
thickening of artery walls by deposit of fatty substances
Which one of the following blood pressure readings would be considered healthy for a young adult?
Which of the following is NOT a warning sign of a heart attack?
Cardiovascular disease risk is greatest for people who tend to store body fat in the
Blockage of blood supply to the brain causes
While cholesterol is important for many body functions, excess cholesterol is hazardous to health, because it is deposited
on artery walls
Which one of the following cholesterol profiles would place someone at greatest risk for heart disease?
Low HDL and high LDL
Metastasis occurs when
cancer cells break off and invade other body parts
The Pap test is used to help detect which type of cancer?
The most common cancer in men is
The most common cause of cancer death in the United States is
is relatively rare but has a high death rate.
The most dangerous type of skin cancer is
Which one of the following best describes leukemia?
malignant disease of the white blood cells
Cancer is best described as
an abnormal and uncontrollable multiplication of cells.
Any substance that causes cancer is called a(n)
The most common form of cancer in women is ________
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