Leadership Operational Plan
Political structures in organizations are assessed by means of analyzing the presence of institutions and political internal and external factors such as policies, communities and, state apparatuses. Santos (und. ) suggests that “far more damaging to the [organizations] are institutional decisions and policies initiated by Third World Governments, which allowed for the systematic yet legal process of forest decimation. ” In the Philippine context, state institutions are ideally the mode by which development is incurred; however, there are situations that do not allow genuine development to push through.
In essence, “the task is too huge for just one agency or organization to carry (Santos, und. ). The case of organizational behavior is not an exemption but rather a microcosm of the state practice of governance. Stakeholders such as the “citizenry, policy makers, community, private organizations, municipal governments, religious leaders, schools and forestry planners and implementers (Santos, und. )” are the actors that have to be considered in analyzing a particular organizational system.
“Through the years, the non-government organizations (NGOs) have been doing a proactive role in development through advocacy, training and technical assistance; however, the latter part of the 1980s offered greater opportunities for their direct involvement in the implementation of government
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The decisions, nonetheless, shall be considerate with the other stakeholders in a given area such as the community and the indigenous people. In San Teodoro, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines, for example, the Mangyans are the indigenous people which have to be considered. Gendrano (2008) described these people as very “docile, but would stand their grounds when they had to protect the forests where they had lived in, for many generations. ” Having known this, the projects and policies in relation to management strategies that are to be implemented shall have the least, if no, conflict with this tribe.
Although “the role the forestry sector plays in the national economy, and the distribution of income from the forest activities are all influenced by economic factors like the market, incentives and trade (Calderon, 2006),” the social influences shall not be put into compromises. The presence or modern innovations and development strategies threaten the preservation of wildlife and culture. In some extent, these were threatened because they are not the main priorities, but the economic zones.
Other than the internal goals of organizations, indigenous cultures have been disrupted by the emergence of private corporations’ entry to their ancestral domains and the local government’s intervention to their local practices. “The challenge to recognize and protect Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS), and to assure that these are done as quid pro quo for a more political project of protecting the rights of the indigenous peoples, has to be addressed not only through policy measures but also through the establishment of enabling institutions and processes (Contreras, 2002).
” Santos (unp. ), as cited by Calderon (2006), asserts that “development is achieved when community members and institutions have transformed, and not conformed, to status quo. ” Development is a common term, but the exact definition of it has not been resolved due to the variable meanings it create when said in different contexts. Todaro (1989) said that “development is not purely an economic phenomenon.
In an ultimate sense, it must encompass more than the material and financial side of people’s lives … In addition to improvements in incomes and output, it typically involves radical changes in institutional, social, and administrative structures as well as in popular attitudes and, in many cases, even customs and beliefs. ” Furthermore, Philippine Agenda 21 provides that the 1991 Local Government Code is “considered a landmark legislation that opened several windows for participation of Non-Government Organizations, People’s Organization (POs) and the private sector.
It also established a favorable policy environment of LGU-NGO/PO cooperation. ” This suggests that the Local Government Units should let NGOs and POs voice out their concerns for the benefit of the people. The Local Government Units “have a sound economic plan. Yet, many of the projects, which have been prioritized for implementation, remain on paper because the local chief executives do not want to implement them, for some reason or another. They lack the will to push for the completion of these projects due to political expediency (IIRR, 2005). ”
Policies, on the other hand, play an important role in the analysis of the political structure and governance of a particular area. These serve as the governing mechanism that would determine the successes and failures of development programs, by virtue of the assessment of the impacts it create on the local community and the natural resources. Pulhin and Peras (2009) categorized three approaches to policy analysis: political system theory, group theory of politics and the elite theory. These approaches are appropriate in the Philippines because of the dynamism of Philippine politics, which affects governance practices.
Durst (2006) implies that the economy, society and the environment have conflicting objectives. The forestry sector, therefore, needs forest policies to address conflicts. The problems of the forestry sector are already identified and still have not been resolved by policy makers, because of “pre-conceived ideas and bias of policy makers and external and political influences (lobby groups, private companies and business, senior politicians and funding organizations) (Durst, 2006). ” In addition to the aforementioned stakeholders, organizations face problems regarding labor unions that can be similar to insurgency.
“Many insurgents have chosen the forests as their haven and training ground … Wildlife and other species are driven away by the noise that continuously disrupts their once quiet habitat (Santos, und. )” This factor, among others like logging and modernization schemes, contributes to the progress or backwardness of an area, which is part of the analysis of a governance system. It should be thoroughly analyzed the reasons the organizational government will either permit or ban the practices of such. In contemporary analysis, certain aspects should be considered.
Organizational strategies are now incorporated by additional factors that will either support or criticize proposed plans. The discourse theory, for one, “is concerned with the role of meaningful social practices and idea in political life. It analyses the way systems or ‘discourses’ shape the way people understand their roles in society and influence their political activities (Howarth, as edited by Marsh and Stoker in 1999). ” Moreover, the continuous destruction of native organizational resources proves that past forest management strategies should be modified.
The management, as the primary agency involved in terms of the organizations, plays a very crucial role in rebuilding the damaged system. Essentially, the analysis of organizational behavor does not solely rely on the state, but on the manner by which the state satisfies its task of providing the people with their basic needs and the manner by which the state satisfy policy requirements for the efficiency of organizations. Leadership in any organizational system is a web of interrelated web of stakeholders that make it complex for analysis.
In this study, the factors to be considered shall be in harmony with the other aspects so that conflicts will arise in a manner that it can be resolved through consensus and with the least extent of compromise. This ideal view does not always happen because stakeholders consequently clash as the developmental aspect is put into consideration. For one, the management unit creates organizational plans to maximize the area’s resource use. The management as the primary organizational stakeholder links the other aspects like the leadership strategies.
The employees consider the workplace as their ancestral domain; thus, not all projects planned by the mangement suit the requirements set forth by the employees. Moreover, the policy requirements for a program shall be treated by the management with complete monitoring and evaluation so as to avoid further conflicts between the stakeholders. In analyzing the leadership operational plan, the previous policies for a certain period of time shall be analyzed to assess whether or not the management satisfied the prerequisites before a development plan is implemented.
Other than the employee welfare, the community people shall be put into consideration to analyze if the management is authentically in harmony with other stakeholders. Furthermore, leadership efficiency is the main objective that will bridge the gap or complicate more the interests of the stakeholders mentioned. BIBLIOGRAPHY Calderon, M. M. (2006). General forestry syllabus. UPLB: College of Forestry and Natural Resources. Contreras, A. P. (2002). Locating the political in the ecological: Globalization, state-civil society articulations, and environmental governance in the Philippines.
Quezon City: De La Salle University Printing Press. Dolom, B. L. (und. ). The DENR’s social forestry programs: planning and implementation schemes. Unpublished manuscript. Durst, P. B. (Ed. ). (2006). Presentation to the expert consultation on establishing a regional forest policy network. Manila: Traders Hotel. Enhancing participation in local governance experiences from the Philippines. (2001). Cavite, Philippines: International Institure of Rural Reconstruction. Gendrano, O. A. (2008). Oscar: A man of the forest (Memoirs of a forester). Quezon City: Central print on demand. Marsh, D. & Stoker, G.
(1999). Theory and methods in political science. College of Forestry and Natural Resources: Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance reading room. Mayers, J. & Bass, S. (2004). Policy that works for forests and people: Real prospects for governance and livelihoods. United Kingdom: Earthscan. Pulhin, J. M. & Peras, R. J. J. (2009). [SFFG 125: Part 2. Lecture]. University of the Philippines Los Banos. Santos, E. P. (und. ). [SFFG 111 syllabus]. University of the Philippines Los Banos. Todaro, M. P. (1989). Economic development in the third world. (4th ed. ). New York: Pitman publishing Inc.