Learning Disorder Management
Learning disabilities and conditions that cause a discrepancy between potential and actual levels of academic performances as predicted by the person’s Intellectual abilities. Learning disabilities involves impairments and difficulties in concentration or attention, language development, or visual and aural information processing. In addition, a learning disability Is a life-long condition and can significantly Impact relationships, daily activities, and eventually work and careers. A. Briefly discuss the causes off learning disability? Arks) b. What are the early signs and symptoms displayed by Individuals affected with Autism, ADD, Dysphasia and Dyslexia? (20 marks) c. Treatment approaches and non-traditional therapies identified for Autism Spectrum Disorder are debated by researches in literature and parents and professional on regular basis. Many exist that promise cures or at the very least dramatic improvement. While some of these therapies are effective for some, there is no one approach that Is effective for all people with autism spectrum disorder.
Describe one therapy that would help an individual with autism spectrum disorder cope with his/her disability. (20 marks) a. Briefly discuss the causes of a learning dillydally? . Learning can be explained as a process of acquiring Information, facts, skills, and methods that can be retained and used as necessary.
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Learning disability can be categorized in deferent specification of affected skills such as ADD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Dyslexia, Dysphasia, Discalced, Dysphasia and others. One person with learning disabilities ay not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities. One person may have trouble with reading and writing (Dyslexia). Math (Discalced). Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying.
Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a person’s brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning disabilities are not “stupid” or “lazy. ” In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Their brains Just process information differently. However these disabilities are a lifelong disability that cannot be cured. The exact cause of learning disability is still unknown.
However as our knowledge on learning disabilities gets deeper and technology advancement in brain imaging improves rapidly, it has shown that learning disability is a neurological condition. Learning disabilities can run in families. Studies also suggest that a child’s developmental environment may also be reasons for a person to have learning disabilities. As researchers go deeper into their research especially under biological factors, they have categorized causes of learning disability under four general disagrees I. E. Brain injury, errors in brain development, neuron-chemical imbalances, and heredity. Brain injuries that have been shown to produce learning disabilities are brain hemorrhages, brain tumors, encephalitis, meningitis, untreated glandular disorders in infancy and infant hypoglycemia. ; Other health factors such as malnutrition and exposure to toxic chemicals have been indicated. Radiation and chemotherapy treatments can cause learning disabilities as well as anything that deprives the brain of oxygen such as choking, suffocation, drowning, smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide poisoning, and some birth complications. Still more factors that could cause learning disabilities that would result from the condition of the mother during pregnancy might be diabetes, kidney disease, measles, smoking, drug or alcohol use. Premature brains are more vulnerable to injury. Sometimes the injury is immediately evident but sometimes the effects are more subtle and delayed. -2- Finally, a number of research studies have found that children with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder evidence at least one of several types of damage to the brain structure.
The damage usually manifest in one of the following says: Fewer numbers of brain cells in important areas of the brain ; Smaller size of brain cells ; Brain cells that moved into the wrong part of the brain (dysphasia) ;Lower than normal blood flow to specific areas of the brain ; Brain cells that metabolize glucose (the brain’s primary fuel) at lower than normal levels. B. What are the early signs and symptoms displayed by individuals affected with b.
The early signs and symptoms displayed by individuals affected with Autism, ADD, Dysphasia and Dyslexia are : Autism Does not babble, point, or make meaningful gestures by 1 year of age ; Does not peak one word by 16 months, does not combine two words by 2 years ; Does not respond to name, Loses language or social skills ; Poor eye contact ; Doesn’t seem to know how to play with toys or excessively lines up toys or other objects, is attached to one particular toy or object ; Doesn’t smile or interact joyfully, lack of sharing interest or enjoyment with others ; At times seems to be hearing impaired Lack of showing, gestures: pointing, reaching, waving, showing ; Repetitive movements with objects, repetitive movements or posturing of the body ; Lack of appropriate eye gaze, response to name (something parents report very frequently) -4- ADD The capacity for concentration is short and difficult to sustain. They are easily distracted. ; They do not listen when they are spoken to or does not appear to listen when spoken to directly. ; They frequently lose things.
They lose things necessary for tasks or activities. ; They have difficulties following instructions and finishing tasks. They direct poor attention to details and make careless mistakes in their work or other activities. ; They are unable to sit without fidgeting. They fidget with hands or feet or squirms in seat. They get in trouble in school for not sitting at their place, running and climbing excessively or inappropriately. They have difficulty organizing tasks and activities. They also avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort. ; They talk excessively. They Just go on and on about a subject and can take over a conversation. They interrupt constantly or intrude on others and ‘act silly’ in a group to get attention but not fit in. ; Damage other children’s toys etc, without meaning to. They have difficulty in playing quietly or play roughly in the playground and hurt other children. They have poor motor skills (egg can’t catch or throw a ball). ; Blurts out answers before the question is complete. They cannot wait for their turn ; They speak without thinking, so they will be socially clumsy. They have volatile moods, so other children won’t know what to expect from them. They have a short fuse and lash out when frustrated. -5- Dysphasia Feeding difficulties: milk allergies, colic, restricted diet and Continued problems with development of feeding skills. Sleeping difficulties: problems establishing routine, requires constant adult reassurance ; Delayed early motor development: tinting unaided, rolling from side to side: do not usually go through the crawling stage. ; Constantly moving arms and legs; Repetitive behaviors: head banging or rolling, feet swinging and tapping when seated. ; Hands clapping or twisting, associated mirror movements, hands flap when running or Jumping. ; Sensitive to high levels of noise Poor Fine Motor Skills – pencil grip, use of scissors, immature drawings ; Delayed language development: single words not evident until age 3 ; Highly emotional: easily distressed, frequent outbursts of uncontrolled behavior ; Concentration limited to 2 or 3 minutes on any task. Unable to stay in one place longer than 5 minutes, tasks often left unfinished. Voice loud and shrill and constantly bumping into objects and falling ; Difficulty Peddling Tricycle or Similar Toy, poor ground awareness and no sense of danger, Jump from inappropriate heights. ; Lack of Imaginative Play, prefers adult company. Dislike being touched. -6- Dyslexia Oral reading is choppy, not fluent and smooth. Reads words in the wrong order. Recognizes a word on one page but not on the next page. ;Skips small words such as a, the, to, of, were, and from. ; Inserts extra letters in a word when reading or spelling. For example, may read tail as trail or Deletes letters in a word when reading. For example, may read sag instead of sang. The misread word often has the same beginning and ending letter. ; Switches the order of letters in a word.
For example, may read mug as gum. ; Substitutes words with similar meanings when reading stories. For example, may read said instead of shouted. Substitutes similar-looking words, such as house for horse. ; Reads at a level substantially below that of peers. Poor reading comprehension. ; Is fatigued after reading for a short time. ; Has difficulty copying words from another paper or the board. Copies letter by letter, referring to the original copy for almost every letter. ; May be able to spell the words on a spelling test after much studying, but then misspells the same words outside of spelling class. ; Learns to talk later than expected.
Speaks in “baby talk” longer than his or her peers, ; Mispronounces words like spaghetti (peppiest), animal (nominal). ; Has difficulty repeating multipliable words, remembering the entire alphabet or following instructions that have more than one step. ; Difficulty remembering the days of the week and months of the year, phone numbers. -7- Improper pencil grip. Awkward, fist-like, or tight pencil grip. ; Dominant hand isn’t established until later than peers. May switch from right to left hand while writing or coloring until after age 7 or 8. ; May write letters in the wrong direction. For example, instead of writing an o in a counter clockwise direction, child may write it in a clockwise direction.
Instead of starting the letter I at the top, child may start the letter from the bottom. ; Confuses letters with a similar shape, especially the pairs b-d, m-w, and n-u. ; Improper use of uppercase and lowercase letters. Poor spacing twine letters, words, and sentences. Handwriting looks “childlike” even into the Difficulty understanding body language and facial expressions, expressing oneself Delay in learning tasks such as tying shoes & telling time ; Inattentiveness; destructibility, Inability to follow directions -8- no one approach that is effective for all people with autism spectrum disorder. C. Autism Spectrum Disorder affects one in a hundred children that is across the whole spectrum.
So some children may be affected very severely, others may be less so. It runs through all socio-economic and ethnic groups. There are more boys ignored than girls. It is a life-long condition which affects the way an individual sees and understands the world. Particularly, with people around them. They have difficulties interacting and understanding other people. To get a diagnosis of autism, a specialist will look for difficulties in three areas known as the triad of impairments I. E. L. Difficulties in social interaction – difficulties in understanding how others think. They find very hard to give facial expression and to understand motivations of others. II.
Difficulties in social Communication – difficulties in understanding receptive engage (what other people are saying) and expressive language (expressing themselves in language and body language). -9- Ill. Difficulties in Social Imagination – they have difficulties of seeing other people’s point of view and may seemed self-centered way of The difficulties they face may be minimized with good education and good person centered support. There are many therapies that would help an individual with autism spectrum disorder cope with his/ her disability such as music therapy, occupational therapy, physic-therapy, speech therapy, yoga, ABA or Applied Behavioral Analysis seeks to make meaningful improvement n important behavior and to produce an analysis of the factors responsible for that improvement.
It does not cure but it seeks to change the behavior of an autistic person. It teaches skill, shape/change behavior (increase acceptable behavior and reduce unacceptable behaviors). It has a good track record that go way back 30+ years to be effective for children with autism. It teaches skills like learning readiness, cognitive/academic skills, communication skills, play skills, social skills, self-help skills The most common and distinguishing type of intervention based on applied behavior analysis is discrete trial teaching (DOT). It’s the process of selective behavior that gives effect/consequences that have effect in future behaviors. It is a form teaching or strategy that develops critical skills.
DOT involves teaching functional skills, breaking the skills into smaller parts, teaching one component skill at a time until mastered, allowing repeated practice within a concentrated period of time, providing prompt and prompt fading as necessary, using reinforcement procedure and facilitating generalization of skills into natural environment. -10- Briefly: a student is given a stimulus-?a question, a set of blocks and a pattern, a quest to go ask Mom for a glass of water-?along with the correct response, or a strong ‘hint’ at what the response should be. He is rewarded (an M&M, a piggy-back ride, a happy “good Job! “) for repeating the right answer; anything else is ignored or corrected very neutrally. As his response becomes more reliable, the ‘clues’ are withdrawn until he can respond independently.
This is usually done one-on-one at a table (thus the term table-top work), with detailed planning of the requests, timing, wording, and the therapist’s reaction to the student’s responses. Through decades of search, the field of behavior analysis has developed many techniques for increasing useful behaviors and reducing those that may cause harm or interfere with learning. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) principles and techniques can foster basic skills such as looking, listening and imitating, as well as complex skills such as reading, conversing and understanding another person’s perspective. Today, ABA is widely recognized as a safe and effective treatment for autism.