Allow separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems.
The use of the internet to provide customers with the ability to gain personalized information by querying coporate databases and their information sources.
The integration of a company’s existing management information systems.
The integration of data from multiple sources, which provides a unified view of all data.
Sends information entered into a given system automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
Sends information entered into a given system automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
Provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm’s operations and business processes.
These systems can manage customer information across the enterprise, letting you view everything your customer has experienced from sales to support. Enterprise systems are often available as a generic, but highly customizable, group of programs for business functions such as accounting, manufacturing, and marketing. Generally, the development tools for customization are complex programming tools that require specialist capabilities.
Enterprise application integration (EAI)
Connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating seperate enterprise systems.
A current or existing system that will become the base for upgrading or integrating with a new system. EAI reviews how _____________ fit into the new shape of the firm’s business processes and devises ways to reuse what already exists efficiently while adding new systems and data.
Several types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications. It translates information between disparate systems.
Enterprise application integration(EAI) middleware
Takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors.
Primary enterprise systems
1. Supply chain management
2. Customer relationship management
3. Enterprise resource planning
Consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in obtaining raw materials or a product.
five basic supply chain activities
One of the five basic supply chain activities. Prepare to manage all resources required to meet demand.
One of the five basic supply chain activities. Build relationships with suppliers to procure raw materials
One of the five basic supply chain activities. Manufacture products and create production schedules
One of the five basic supply chain activities. Plan for transportation of goods to customers.
One of the five basic supply chain activities. Support customers and product returns.
Supply chain management (SCM)
The management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability.
Supply chain visibility
The ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time.
Supply chain planning systems
These use advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chai while reducing inventory. To yield accurate results, however, these require information inputs that are correct and up to date regarding customers, orders, sales, manufacturing and distribution capabilities.
supply chain execution systems
Ensure supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain.
Eg. THis might electronically route orders from a manufacturer to a supplier using electronic data interchange (EDI)
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
A standard format for the electronic exchange of information between supply chain participants.
Occurs when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain.
he misinformation regarding a slight rise in demand for a product could cause different members in the supply chain to stockpile inventory. These changes ripple throughout the supply chain, magnifying the issue and creating excess inventory and costs for all.
Business areas of supply chain management
3. Materials management
The purchasing of goods and services to meet the needs of the supply chain.
Processes that control the distribution, maintenance, and replacement of materials and personnel to support the supply chain.
Activities that govern the flow of tangible, physical materials through the supply chain such as shipping, transport, distribution and warehousing.
Disruptive business technologies
1. 3D printing
A process that builds-layer by layer in an additive process-a three dimensional solid object from a digital model. It supports procurement.
Uses electronic tags and labels to identify objects wirelessly over short distances. It supports logistics.
An unmanned aircraft that can fly autonomously, or without a human. It supports logistics.
Amazon.com is piloting these for package delivery
Focus on creating artificial intelligence devices that can move and react to sensory input. It supports materials management.
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems
These are used to create the digital designs and then manufacture the products. For example, a user creates a design with a CAD application and then manufactures the product by using CAM systems
A cultural trend that places value on an individual’s ability to be a creator of things as well as a consumer of things.
A community center that provides technology, manufacturing equipment, and educational opportunities to the public that would otherwise be inaccessible or unaffordable.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
Uses electronic tags and labels to identify objects wirelessly over short distances. It holds the promise of replacing existing identification technologies such as the bar code.
RFID’s electronic product code (RFID EPC)
This promotes serialization or the ability to track individual items by using the unique serial number associated with each RFID tag
3. Computer network
Customer relationship management (CRM)
A means of managing all aspects of a customer’s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization’s profitability.
Phases in the evolution of CRM
CRM reporting techniques
help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
CRM analysis technologies
help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.
CRM predicting technologies
Help organizations predict customer behavior, such as wich customers are at risk of leaving.
Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers
Compiles customer information from a variety of sources and segment it for different marketing campaigns.
These sources include website visits, questionnaires, surveys, marketing mailers, and so on
Campaign management systems
These guide users through marketing campaigns by performing such tasks as campaign definition, planning, scheduling, segmentation, and success analysis. These advanced systems can even calculate the profitability and track the results for each marketing campaign.
Selling additional products or services to an existing customer.
For example, if you were to purchase Tim Burton’s movie Alice in Wonderland on Amazon, you would also be asked whether you want to purchase the movie’s soundtrack or the original book.
Increasing the value of the sale. McDonald’s performs this by asking customers whether they would like to super-size their meals for an extra cost.
Customer service and support (CSS)
A part of operational CRM that automates service requests, complaints, product returns, and information requests.
Sales force automation (SFA)
This automatically tracks all the steps in the sales process. SFA products focus on increasing customer satisfaction, building customer relationships, and improving product sales.
Primary operational CRM technologies a sales department can adopt
1. Sales management CRM systems
2. Contact management CRM systems
3. Opportunity management CRM systems
Sales management CRM systems
These automate each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all their accounts. Features include calendars, reminders for important tasks, multimedia presentations, and document generation.
Contact management CRM system
These maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales, using tools such as organizational charts, detailed customer notes, and supplemental sales information. For example, a contact management system can take an incoming telephone number and automatically display the person’s name along with a comprehensive history, including all communications with the company.
Opportunity management CRM systems
These target sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales. They determine potential customers and competitors and define selling efforts, including budgets and schedules
Contact (call) center
where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and solve problems, usually by email, chat, or phone. It is one of the best assets a customer-driven organization can have because maintaining a high level of customer support is critical to obtaining and retaining customers
Contact center services
1. Automatic call distribution
2. Interactive voice response (IVR)
3. Predictive dialing
Automatic call distribution
A contact center service. Routes inbound calls to available agents.
Interactive voice response (IVR)
A contact center service. Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide information.
A contact center service. Automatically dials outbound calls and forwards answered calls to an available agent.
Web based self-service systems
Allow customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems.
FedEx uses web-based self-service systems to let customers electronically track packages without having to talk to a customer service representative.
A feature of web-based self-service. It allows customers to click a button and talk with a representative via the Internet.
Call scripting systems
Systems that gather product details and issue resolution information that can be automatically generated into a script for the representative to read to the customer.
This is a form of predictive analytics for marketing campaigns that attempts to identify target markets or people who could be convinced to buy products.
Analytical CRM provides this, which divides a market into categories that share similar attributes such as age, location, gender, habits, and so on. By segmenting customers into groups, it becomes easier to create targeted marketing and sales campaigns, ensuring that you are not wasting resources marketing products to the wrong customers.
Occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person’s likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person.
Supplier relationship management (SRM)
This focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects. These applications help companies analyze suppliers based on a number of key variables, including prices, inventory availability, and business focus or strategies. It can then determine the best supplier to collaborate with and develop strong relationships with to streamline processes, outsource services, and provide products the firm could not offer alone.
Partner relationship management (PRM)
This discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers. This type of system offers realtime sales channel information about such things as inventory availability, pricing strategies, and shipping information, allowing a company to expand its market by offering specialized products and services
Employee relationship management (ERM)
This provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resource department.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems) so employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information about all business operations.
Core ERP components
The traditional components included in most ERP systems and primarily focus on internal operations.
Extended ERP components
These are the extra components that meet organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.
Accounting and finance ERP components
One of the Core ERP components focusing on internal operations. Manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management. One of the most useful features of an ERP accounting/finance component is credit management.
Core ERP components focusing on internal operations
1. Accounting and finance
2. Production and materials management
3. Human resources
Production and materials management ERP components
One of the Core ERP components focusing on internal operations. Handle production planning and execution tasks such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control. Demand forecasting helps determine production schedules and materials purchasing.
Human resources ERP components
One of the core ERP components focusing on internal operations. track employee information, including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment and ensure compliance with all laws. They even allow the organization to perform detailed employee analysis, such as identifying who is likely to leave the company unless additional compensation or benefits are provided, and whether the most talented people are working in areas where they can have the greatest impact.
Extended ERP components
1. Business intelligence
2. Customer relationship management
3. Supply chain management
Business intelligence ERP components
Many organizations have found that ERP tools can provide even greater value with the addition of powerful business intelligence systems. The business intelligence components of ERP systems typically collect information used throughout the organization (including data used in many other ERP components), organize it, and apply analytical tools to assist managers with decisions.
Customer relationship management ERP component
These include contact centers, sales force automation, and advanced marketing functions. The goal is to provide an integrated view of customer data, enabling a firm to manage customer relationships effectively by responding to customer needs and demands while identifying the most (and least) valuable customers so the firm can better allocate its marketing resources.
Supply chain management ERP components
ERP vendors are expanding their systems to include SCM functions that manage the information flows between and among supply chain stages, maximizing total supply chain effectiveness and profitability. SCM components allow a firm to monitor and control all stages in the supply chain from the acquisition of raw materials to the receipt of finished goods by customers.
Ebusiness ERP components
The newest extended ERP components are these components that allow companies to establish an Internet presence and fulfill online orders. Two of the primary features of these components are elogistics and eprocurement.
A part of ebusiness ERP. It manages the transportation and storage of goods.
A part of ebusiness ERP. It is the business-to-business (B2B) online purchase and sale of supplies and services
Modifies existing software according to the business’s or user’s requirements.
A management system, as well as a measurement system, that a firm uses to translate business strategies into executable tasks. It provides feedback for both internal and external business processes, allowing continuous improvement.
Four perspectives of the balanced scorecard
1. Learning and growth perspective
2. Internal business process perspective
3. Customer perspective
4. Financial perspective
two-tier ERP architecture
Allows an organization to have an on-premises ERP system along with cloud ERP applications.
3 primary areas of operational CRM technologies for marketing department
1. Campaign management
2. Cross-selling and up-selling
3. List generator
Areas ERP must support
1. Saas ERP
business processes (workflows)
A software customization. Software can be customized to support the needs of business process workflows unique to each business or department.
A software customization. The most expensive. It occurs when application code is changed and should only be done if the code changes provide specific competitive advantages.
Reports, Documents, Forms
A software customization. Customization to these can consist of simple layout or design changes or complex logic programming rules for specific business requirements.
A software customization. An ERP system can be customized to ensure that each user has the most efficient and effective view of the application.
A software customization. Data integration is key for business process support that spans functional areas and legacy systems.
Collaborative demand planning
One of the fastest growing SCM components. Reduces inventory investments, while improving customer satisfaction.
One of the fastest growing SCM components. Reduces product development costs.
Selling chain management
One of the fastest growing SCM components. Automates order processes from initial customer inquiry to final product delivery.
Supply chain event management (SCEM)
One of the fastest growing SCM components. Increases real-time information sharing among supply chain partners focusing on reducing response time to unexpected events.
Human resource ERP components
Track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance assessment and ensure compliance with all laws.
Acquires raw materials and resources and distributes them to manufacturing as required.
Distributes goods and services to customers
3 operational CRM technologies for a customer service department
1. Call scripting
2. Web based self-service
3. Contact center
Cradle to grave
Provides logistics support throughout the entire system or life of the product.
3 components of RFM formula
3. Monetary value
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