logo image

Lexical Pecularities and Translation Difficulties in ”The Catcher in the Rye” by J. D. Salinger

Introduction

There are different elements that are helpful in the presentation of all features that are presented in an analysis and one o the main steps that are taken in the identification of these important features are lexical pecularities and translation difficulties. “„Lexical Pecularities and Translation Difficulties in”The Catcher in the Rye” by J. D.Salinger.” is a thesis that was chosen in order to identify these important features.

The theme of this thesis that would be discussed is “Lexical peculiarities and translation difficulties in “The Catcher in the Rye” by J. D. Salinger “and this theme was chosen in order to describe the lexical peculiarities used by the author and to make distinction in the types of translation difficulties and to identify them in this work. The theme such as the translation difficulties and lexical peculiarities is actual and well-known today because these are two the most important elements of a lexical-stylistic analysis or important elements of studies in lexicology and in translation studies.

The Modernist period is a time of the late XIXth and XXth centuries that was marked by the work of the great writer that activated during this period. The main representatives of this period are Ernest Hemingway, Sherwood Anderson, F. Scott Fitzgerald and the writer whose work would be treated in this thesis is J. D. Salinger with his well-known novel „The Catcher in the Rye.”

The first point that would be discussed in this thesis is Lexical peculiarities which are one of the main characteristic of the defining the main features of the text.The types of the lexical peculiarities and their meanig would be pointed out in the context of this reserch paper.

            Lexical peculiarities comprise the following difficulties: difference in the semantic volume of a word because a word exists in a close connection with the lexical-semantic system of a given language. It may have various kinds of lexical meanings (lexical-semantic) variants; it may widen or narrow its meaning and make it more abstract and concrete.

The second point that would be investigated in this work is the translation difficulties which are presented through various types that would be in details discuss in this reseach paper.

In this graduation paper there are given such methods of investigation:

explanation,
description,
investigation,
analysis.
The goal of this paper is to discover the lexical peculiarities and difficulties in translation from English into Romanian. In order to achieve the main goal and to study these important features of this theme the following specific objectives must be considered.

·         To present the main features of the Modernist Period;

·         To point out all the aspects that influenced the writer J. D. Salinger to write the prominent work „The Catcher in the Rye”

·         To show the definition of the translation difficulties and to identify the types that could exist;

·         To describe the main features of J. D. Salinger’s work „The Catcher in the Rye”;

·         To make a clear deffinition of the lexical peculiarities and to point the types of this peculiarities for identification of them in the Salinger’s work „The Catcher in the Rye”;

·         To analize Salinger’s work and to identify the translation difficulties in „The Catcher in the Rye.”;

·         To identify the main meaning of the words that were used by the author in the order to point out their function in the context;

·         To point out the usage of the lexical peculiarities and translation difficulties in the analysed text;

·         To investigate grammatical, lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties of translation in J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”.

The object of this research paper can be considered as one that gives the detailed review of the translation difficulties.  It  also  helps  to  improve one’s understanding of  the  principal  rules  of  translation  which  plays leading role while processing translation.

To accomplish this matter we are going to focus our attention on several points that are important elements of the lexical peculiarities and translation difficulties  and that reflect in an accurate way the main meanig of the writing and more specifically.

First of all we should account for the techniques or the main pont of an analyse such as translation dificulties and lexical peculiarities that are used during the Modern Age for pointing out the most esential meaning of the writings that were written during the period.

This research paper consist of two chapters.

The first is reprented by theoretical information where the literature of the Modern Age and the activity of one of the main representative of this period is analysed. This chapter  will point out the activity of one of the main representative of the 20th century J.D.Salinser and critics  about one of the well-known writing of this writer „The Catcher in the Rye”.

 The second chapter contains practical information from the book written by the writer that represent this period J. D. Salinger with his best-known novel „The Catcher in the Rye”. The practical chapter will single out examples of translation difficulties from the sourse language English and target language Romanian.

The first chapter of this study shall define the notion of „Translation difficulties” and present the representatives of the Modern period and some critics about one of the representative of this period which is J. D Salinger.

The second is represented by the analysis of a modernist novel written by J. D. Salinger „The Cather in the Ray” in which would be treated the points such as lexical pecularities and translation difficulties used by the author.

 Translation difficulties and lexical pecularities are the main points of an analyses. These two criterias identify the needs for a good knowledges in English in some of its branches of science.

This study on lexical pecularities and translation difficulties in a literary work are addressed to everybody but especially to pupils and students, also and the practical value of this research is  that these features of an analyses  is better understood and used by students and by everybody who is interested in, it facilitate the possibility of using and practice it day by day in the research and make it more expressive and colorful.

Chapter I The Modernist Literature

1.1  The Literature in the 19 century.

The first chapter deals with J. D. Salinger’s place in world literature, the most important influences on his writing style, the cultural and historical background behind his literary works and how they influenced and were reflected in his literary creations. The most important patterns, themes and motifs in Salinger’s fiction were the centre of this chapter, but before embarking upon discussing Salinger’s literary trademarks, it has to be  approached the issue concerning the controversy around Salinger and his ability to maintain his reputation in the context of his self-imposed reclusive lifestyle. The conclusion was that the main reasons behind his “retirement” from the public world refer to his great disappointment with the disturbing elements brought along by success and his desire to find a peaceful existence, most likely as a result of the Second World War experiences and, later on, of the strong influences of Zen philosophy. J. D. Salinger’s secluded lifestyle had its share of contribution and impact on the very popularity he has rejected and the implicit controversy. In this first chapter were also presented major biographical data on Salinger’s life and on his literary works in chronological order in order to emphasize the similarities and differences between his life and some of the events presented in his fiction. The conclusion is that there have been some similarities between Salinger’s private life and some of the events in his works, but not enough to entitle anyone to think that his fiction is autobiographical. A major theme and also strong influence concerns the war and the army life present throughout his short stories, especially during and after his participation in the Second World War.

In this chapter also will be exemplifies that Salinger’s fiction followed a chronological evolution, that there has been a well defined process of creating certain typical characters and that his characters evolved from the early prototypes in his short stories to the fully developed characters in his “mature” works, or even disappeared for good from his literary creations in a few cases. The conclusion is that the major themes, patterns and motifs that recur in Salinger’s fiction and develop into major and instantly recognizable archetypes, his trademarks, and at the same time a very clear indication of the very evolution of his writing technique, mainly refer to: his brevity, conciseness and concentration of style; his attentiveness to details and to exact dates and facts; his constant reference to parts of the human body; his leitmotif of the letter or note; his constant way of picturing certain female characters painting their nails or toenail or the recurrent motif of a man holding a child’s feet; his constant references to colors and the symbolism within colors; his repertoire of characters; his penchant for coining new words or changing different parts of speech into others; his constant use of italics; his inclination of dealing with psychological problems in his fiction; his tendency to use the pattern of sequence—sequence in his characters’ names—in his themes, etc.; his preference for the first person narrative; his unique and constant sense of humor; his attitudes towards sex, war, phony world, materialism and false values; his constant references to music and songs, to the movie industry, to movie stars and to famous movies; his penchant for constantly making references in his literary creations to writers, to literary works and classic characters; his preference for creating stories around the brother-sister relationship, but also around the idea of family and the relationships between family members; his love for children and the innocence they stand for; his multitude of representative names and characters and his preference for dialogue and replies; his tendency to use real and historical data or to introduce in his fiction real

places where he either grew up or which he knew; his use of well-established symbols throughout his fiction; his unique approach of religious themes and his use of Zen philosophy; his attachment to and protection for his characters.

The research has also led to the conclusion that the recurrent pattern of the letter or of the note plays a very well defined role in J. D. Salinger’s fiction and it is usually manifested through the characters’ repeated reading or memorizing of them in different (mostly difficult) situations. This chapter has also centered on presenting the major themes from Salinger’s literary highpoint, his novel and his Nine Stories collection. It was discussed the reasons which led to the negative reactions around The Catcher in the Rye and its repeated banning and removal from schools and high schools reading lists since its first publication until nowadays, and also some similar cases in American literature. The main reasons for the novel’s extensive banning refer to the colloquial and slang language used by Holden Caulfield and to the book’s sexual content. The many negative reactions were mainly caused by the social and political background of the postwar period, by misunderstanding the text, by misreading it, by associating the novel with famous criminals and the reading of the novel by the wrong audience—teenagers instead of adults. Another important aspect of this chapter focused on the presentation of the major themes developed by Salinger in his novel, in the Nine Stories collection and in some of his “mature” and last publications until 1965 when he stopped publishing his writings.

J. D. Salinger is one of the main representatives of the Modern literature which is experimented with a wide variety of new approaches and techniques, producing a remarkably diverse body of literature. Modernists shared a common purpose. They sought to capture the essence of modern life in the form and content of their work. The Modernists constructed their works out of fragments, omitting the exposition, transitions, resolutions, and explanations used in traditional literature. [1]

Modernist literature can be viewed largely in terms of its formal, stylistic and semantic movement away from Romanticism. Modernist literature often features a marked pessimism, a clear rejection of the optimism apparent in Victorian literature. Modernism as a literary movement is seen, in large part, as a reaction to the emergence of city life as a central force in society.

Modernism was distinguished by an emancipator met narrative. In the wake of Modernism, and post-enlightenment, meet narratives tended to be emancipator, whereas beforehand this was not a consistent characteristic. Contemporary met narratives were becoming less relevant in light of the implications of World War I, the rise of trade unionism, a general social discontent, and the emergence of psychoanalysis. The consequent need for a unifying function brought about a growth in the political importance of culture. [2:p.23]

Modernist writers were more acutely conscious of the objectivity of their surroundings. In Modernism the object is; the language doesn’t mean it is. This is a shift from an epistemological aesthetic to an ontological aesthetic or, in simpler terms, a shift from a knowledge-based aesthetic to a being-based aesthetic. This shift is central to Modernism.

The literature of this period is marked by the activities of many well-known writers. The well-known representatives of this period are Ernest Hemingway with his writings “The Sun Also Rise” and “A Farewell to Arms.”

Another important writer of this period is William Faulkner with his works “The Sound and the Furry”, “Light in August” and “The Hamlet”.

    J. D. Salinger with his well-known work “The Catcher in the Rye” is also one of the main representatives of this literature. The author of this work is a writer that succeeded to combine all elements that represent this period in his work. [3]

1.2 Critics about J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Ray” and Influence.

Jerome David “J. D.” Salinger is an American author, best known for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye, as well as his reclusive nature. He has not published an original work since 1965 and has not been interviewed since 1980. This author achieved his fame through his especial style of writing that was pointed out in J. D. Salinger’s novel “The Catcher in the Rye”. [4:p.473]

Raised in Manhattan, New York, Salinger began writing short stories while in secondary school, and published several stories in the early 1940s before serving in World War II. In 1948 he published the critically-acclaimed story “A Perfect Day for Bananafish” in The New Yorker magazine, which became home too much of his subsequent work. In 1951 Salinger released his novel, The Catcher in the Rye, an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential, especially among adolescent readers. The novel remains widely read, selling around 250,000 copies a year. [5:p.66-67]

In 1951 Salinger released his novel, The Catcher in the Rye, an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential, especially among adolescent readers. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public attention and scrutiny: Salinger became reclusive, publishing new work less frequently. He followed Catcher with a short story collection, Nine Stories (1953), a collection of a novella and a short story, Franny and Zooey (1961), and a collection of two novellas, Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction (1963). His last published work, a novella entitled “Hapworth 16, 1924,” appeared in The New Yorker on June19, 1965.

Afterwards, Salinger struggled with unwanted attention, including a legal battle in the 1980s with biographer Ian Hamilton and the release in the late 1990s of memoirs written by two people close to him: Joyce Maynard, an ex-lover; and Margaret Salinger, his daughter. In 1996, a small publisher announced a deal with Salinger to publish “Hapworth 16, 1924” in book form, but amid the ensuing publicity, the release was indefinitely delayed. A lot of critics were expressed after the publishing of          J. D. Salinger’s novel “The Catcher in the Rye”.

Much of Salinger’s reputation, which he acquired after publication of “The Catcher in the Rye”, is derived from thoughtful and sympathetic insights into both adolescence and adulthood, his use of symbolism, and his idiomatic style, which helped to re-introduce the common idiom to American literature. While the young protagonists of Salinger’s stories (such as Holden Caulfield) have made him a longtime favorite of high school and university audiences, establishing Salinger as “the spokesman for the goals and values for a generation of youth during the 1950’s” (qtd. in Davis 317), “The Catcher in the Rye” has been banned continually from schools, libraries, and bookstores due to its profanity, sexual subject matter, and rejection of some traditional American ideals. Robert Coles reflected general critical opinion of the author when he called Salinger “an original and gifted writer, a marvelous entertainer, a man free of the slogans and clichs the rest of us fall prey to”.[6: p.43-45]

In 1961, the critic Alfred Kazin explained that Salinger’s choice of teenagers as a subject matter was one reason for his appeal to young readers, but another was “a consciousness among youths that he speaks for them and virtually to them, in a language that is peculiarly honest and their own, with a vision of things that capture their most secret judgments of the world.” Salinger’s language, especially his energetic, realistically sparse dialogue, was revolutionary at the time his first stories were published, and was seen by several critics as “the most distinguishing thing” about his work .Salinger identified closely with his characters, and used techniques such as interior monologue, letters, and extended telephone calls to display his gift for dialogue. Such style elements also gave him the illusion of having, as it were, delivered his characters’ destinies into their own keeping.” Recurring themes in Salinger’s stories also connect to the ideas of innocence and adolescence, including the “corrupting influence of Hollywood and the world at large”, the absence of connects between teenagers and “phony” adults, and the perceptive, precocious intelligence of children. Contemporary critics discuss a clear progression over the course of Salinger’s published work, as evidenced by the increasingly negative reviews received by each of his three post-Catcher story collections. Ian Hamilton adheres to this view, arguing that while Salinger’s early stories for the “slicks” boasted “tight, energetic” dialogue, they had also been formulaic and sentimental. It took the standards of The New Yorker editors, among them William Shawn, to refine his writing into the “spare, teasingly mysterious, withheld” qualities of “A Perfect Day for Banana fish”, The Catcher in the Rye, and his stories of the early 1950s. By the late 1950s, as Salinger became more reclusive and involved in religious study, Hamilton notes that his stories became longer, less plot-driven, and increasingly filled with digression and parenthetical remarks. Louis Menand agrees, writing in The New Yorker that Salinger “stopped writing stories, in the conventional sense.… He seemed to lose interest in fiction as an art form—perhaps he thought there was something manipulative or inauthentic about literary device and authorial control.” In recent years, Salinger’s later work has been defended by some critics; in 2001, Janet Malcolm wrote in The New York Review of Books that “Zooey” “is arguably Salinger’s masterpiece.… Rereading it and its companion piece “Franny” is no less rewarding than rereading The Great Gatsby.”[7: p163]

During a period was established that Salinger’s writing has influenced several prominent writers, prompting Harold Brodkey (himself an O. Henry Award-winning author) to state in 1991: “His is the most influential body of work in English prose by anyone since Hemingway.” Of the writers in Salinger’s generation, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist John Updike attested that “the short stories of J. D. Salinger really opened my eyes as to how you can weave fiction out of a set of events that seem almost unconnected, or very lightly connected.…  Yates describes Salinger as “a man who used language as if it were pure energy beautifully controlled, and who knew exactly what he was doing in every silence as well as in every word.”  Ever since its publication in 1951, J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye has served as a firestorm for controversy and debate. Critics have argued the moral issues raised by the book and the context in which it is presented. Some have argued that Salinger’s tale of the human condition is fascinating and enlightening, yet incredibly depressing. The psychological battles of the novel’s main character, Holden Caulfield, serve as the basis for critical argument. Caulfield’s self-destruction over a period of days forces one to contemplate society’s attitude toward the human condition. Salinger’s portrayal of Holden, which includes incidents of depression, nervous breakdown, impulsive spending, sexual exploration, vulgarity, and other erratic behavior, have all attributed to the controversial nature of the novel. Yet the novel is not without its sharp advocates, who argue that it is a critical look at the problems facing American youth during the 1950’s. When developing a comprehensive opinion of the novel, it is important to consider the praises and criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye.Many critics consider J.D. Salinger a very controversial writer, for the subject matters that he writes. J.D. Salinger’s works were generally written during two time periods.  The first time period was during World War II, and the second time period was during the 1960’s.

There are a lot of Salinger pieces in the University of Texas, at Austin´s Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center rare books collection; although some contemporary critics see a clear progression in Salinger´s published works, they think that The Catcher in the Rye is so brilliant. For example, Louis Menand said that the early stories of Pulitzer Prize- winner –Philip Roth- were affected by J. D. Salinger.

            The Catcher in the Rye and J. D. Salinger were very popular among young people because his rich and fresh vocabulary, full of slangs, connected with the teenagers; in the Fifties, there were a lot of articles about “The Catcher Cult”.

This novel revolutionised the society of the Fifties; as well as the style of J.D. Salinger, the other novelty was the big critic of the society that it represented. Some topics of The Catcher in the Rye were taboos (like drugs, sex or prostitution).

A lot of literary critics saw in this novel an advance of the crazies Sixties, with rebel and revolutionary young people who didn’t understand the “fabulous” society that adults had build. So this book supposed a big phenomenon of sales during Fifties and Sixties; but today, in the XXI century, catch more supporters and it is still editing, there are a lot of editions in different languages.The fame of Salinger grew very much at Eighties, when it appeared a lot of articles and comments about The Catcher in the Rye: one critic said that this novel was satanic. This is the main cause of the prohibition of this novel in some schools; but in the other side, there are a big number of schools and teachers that recommend this book as an obligatory reading. We can see that it were negative comments, hard critics…Many critics told that there wasn’t any novel that went into the adolescence as this Salinger´s work. Holden’s force and ideas last in time: his spirit, his way of thinking, etc…

In a New York Times op-ed piece published after J. D. Salinger’s recent death, David Lodge charged that many of Salinger’s critics simply “didn’t get” his work, particularly his post-Catcher in the Rye and Nine Stories work. Lodge suggests that Salinger—unbeknownst to his critics–was “playing a kind of Shandean game.” Offering a bold alternative to the famously critical 1961 review of Franny and Zooey in which John Updike concedes that Salinger’s fiction “matches the tint and shape of present American life,” but insists that it “pays the price. . .of becoming dangerously convoluted and static,” Lodge implicitly challenges critics to revisit and reassess Salinger’s body of work.

And finally, it can be said that Salinger didn’t assume the fame as well as other authors and he’s actually out of the literary world. [8]

1.3 J. D. Salinger’s style and techniques of writing.

            Without a doubt, J.D. Salinger is one of the best twentieth-century America authors. He is best known for his book, Catcher in the Rye, a book about a seventeen-year-old teenager, struggling through his teenager years, falling into a depression and trying to understand the real world. The straightforward approach to his novel caused a hurricane of controversy in America. It was the first time an author, dared to tell it how it really is and tried to open America’s eyes to understand the thoughts of a typical adolescent teenager. This straightforward, simple read is nonetheless used in many schools today for its rich content of symbols and truthfulness. This book has had a huge impact on teenagers all over the world.1 [2:p.96]

It’s possible that Salinger´s character –in this case, Holden- is expressed in his own works: some literary critics insist that the author is very controversial, and his novels are not simple.

In general, the main characters are usually misfits of society: they don’t like their way of life; they use to start with their stories telling us their bad conditions, their problems with the society and life in general. But then, they have solutions and they can change their hard conditions for better ones.

It’s possible that Salinger has a very negative view of the world; the author thinks that the research of happiness is based on 3 important elements: religion, loneliness and symbolism. He used to name, above all, the religion as the proper solution (for example, Holden was sad when he lost his girlfriend, and he read a passage in the Bible). The Holy book gave him peace.

Moreover, the characters created by Salinger used to have some obstacles to fins their own happiness; but, suddenly, it appears the religion as a solution, as a way of liberation: it supposes the end of the suffering for each character.

Normally, the conflict becomes the base of the unhapppiness, but many of the Salinger’s characters, loneliness or isolation is the better way for seach happiness. They think that society is harmful and they don’t like to be in it. Loneliness supposes a change in life for too many characters.

In conclusion, Salinger’s characters feel that society is hard and they have to go away. The author wanted to show that with a kind of symbols, like religion or loneliness, life can be happy: a better life is possible. One example of those symbols is that Holden changed his personality when he was at the fountain in Central Park: he became a new person when he was near the water.

So it can be concluded that Salinger tries to explain what these three elements can do for search the true happiness. So his main characters (who have a lot of obstacles) learn about happiness.

            If we talk about the language at Catcher in the Rye, we can say that the author uses a simple writing, with several interjections and qualifier adjectives; the tone of this novel is colloquial and full of teenager’s expressions (it is written in a monologue and in lively slang; it´s also important the chronolect). Holden´s jargon is very important, because it emphasizes how this teenager was, how he talked… We can see that Salinger has the tendency to use the second person pronoun “you” and the irony… It´s easy to see Holden´s thoughts: the author reproduces the teenager’s mind quite well.[9]

At this work, Salinger uses the technique of the interior monologue; this procedure reinforces the little stream of consciousness of Holden (we can appreciate his way of thinking). He uses letters and phone calls and he connect different ideas, like innocence and adolescence with the Hollywood’s corruption.

It exist a thin line between seriousness and humour. We could think that The Catcher in the Rye is next to the classical humour (for example, two Mark Twain´s works: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Salinger has the “power” to disconnect between his adorated teenagers and phony adults: he magnifies children’s intelligence; so we can say that the kind of language used in this novel is not monotonous. We must think that the author´s language was revolutionary, new and controversial at the time his first stories were published.

Richard Yates wrote at The New York Times in 1977 that Salinger is a man “who used language as if it were pure energy beautifully controlled, and who knew exactly what he was doing in every silence as well as in every word”.

Salinger had a very big number of important influences as Kafka, Flaubert, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Proust, Keats, Lorca, Rimbaud, Burns, Jane Austen or Coleridge. And he´s also an important influence for writers as Harold Brodkey or the two Pulitzer Prize- winners John Updike and Philip Roth.

So it can be consider that J. D. Salinger has a rich literary base and he becomes a kind of teacher for several big writers.

               Salinger’s writing style is pointed out through a very open and explicit way. He lets the reader know how the character feels at that time and his or her thoughts. For the first time, I can see a definite connection between the main character in the story and the author. Salinger seems to be almost identical to Holden in the story. They have the same attitude towards other people and they think the same way, too. Salinger used his teenage years as reference in creating Holden.

               Happiness is the very substance which all of these characters are striving for in Salinger’s works.  Salinger uses religion in his works to comfort them so that they can proceed on their quest to achieve happiness. Salinger uses religion as a means for liberation.  Salinger uses much of the Zen philosophy, as in the case of Nine Stories, to achieve this liberation.

               In many of Salinger’s works loneliness is used to isolate characters from evil.  Salinger portrays all of society to be bad, and for many character’s isolation from society is the only way to achieve happiness.  In Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye Holden Caulfield’s entire plot deals with him trying to isolate from society. Holden realizes that society has become bad, and wants no part in this terrible life.  Salinger uses society as the source of discord in this case to be isolated from.  The characters can only become happy if they isolate themselves from this society. Salinger uses loneliness also as a means to change in life.

               The characters in J.D. Salinger’s works start out in bad situations.  Through the use of lucky symbols their life is changed to what will make them happy. Salinger uses symbolism in his works also to foreshadow a better life. [10]

               In Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye, Salinger refers greatly in one chapter to ducks in central park.  The ducks are in context to a scripture in the Bible, which tells of how the ducks are Free.  Salinger later explains that Holden will become free as these ducks.  In “The Catcher in the Rye” Holden’s main purpose was to be free from the suffering.  The ducks represented how he would feel, being happy. Salinger also shows his symbolism from other works through the work of Mark Twain.  Salinger portrays how Holden in Catcher in the Rye changes to a different man when he is at the water fountain in Central Park, as the case in Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn in which Huck changes when he is on the Mississippi River.  Salinger uses symbolism from other books in his books to convey how the characters in his works will change for a better life. Salinger uses much of the symbolism to show how the life of the characters has become happy.  Salinger uses symbols to show the turning point of the character’s lives.  He shows that these symbols will change their lives for the better. The works of Salinger show the quest for happiness through religion, loneliness, and symbolism.  Salinger’s writings deal with characters fulfilling their quest for happiness.  The writings of the Salinger become very important for this time period, because he goes against the grain of society to show how it is wrong.  The writings of Salinger, while they may have been excellent in style, have become very controversial for what he has portrayed in the society during this time period

The Catcher in the Ray is a writing of a well-known American writer J. D. Salinger that is marked by a lot of characteristics of Salinger writings

Formal/Stylistic characteristics

·         Free indirect speech

·         Stream of consciousness

·         Juxtaposition of characters

·         Wide use of classical allusions

·         Figure of speech

·         Intersexuality

·         Personification

·         Hyperbole

·         Parataxis

·         Comparison

·         Quotation

·         Pun

·         Satire

·         Irony

·         Antiphrasis

·         Unconventional use of metaphor

·         Symbolic representation

·         Psychoanalysis

·         Discontinuous narrative

·         Met narrative

·         Multiple narrative points of view

Thematic characteristics

Breakdown of social norms
Realistic embodiment of social meanings
Separation of meanings and senses from the context
Despairing individual behaviors in the face of an unmanageable future
Sense of spiritual loneliness
Sense of alienation
Sense of frustration
Sense of disillusionment
Rejection of the history
Rejection of the outdated social system
Objection of the traditional thoughts and the traditional moralities
Objection of the religious thoughts
Substitution of a mythical past
Two World Wars’ Effects on Humanity
In the end, “The Catcher in the Rye” will continue to be a point of great public and critical debate. One must remember, however, in the study and critique of the novel, particularly for a researcher or critic in 1996 that the story was written in a different time. If originally published today, the novel would probably create little publicity and garner only average book sales. The fact that a novel of such radical social opinion and observation was written in a time of conservatism in America made it all the more controversial. Some critics scolded the novel as being too pessimistic or obscene, too harsh for the society of the 1950’s. Others, however, nominated Salinger himself as the top-flight “catcher in the rye” for that period in American history. They argued that Salinger’s concerns represented an entire generation of American youth, frustrated by the phoniness of the world, just like Holden was. The popularity of the novel and debate over its redeeming social value have never faltered since its initial publication, due in no large part to the fact that J.D. Salinger is now a recluse. It would be conclusive to say that critics of “The Catcher in the Rye” have legitimate criticisms of the novel, while advocates and supporters of the story’s message also have expressed veritable praise. [11]

1.4 Translation Difficulties and its types.

Every translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they may be, the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples. In the past few decades, this activity has developed because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. For this reason, the translator plays an important role as a bilingual or multi-lingual cross-cultural transmitter of culture and truths by attempting to interpret concepts and speech in a variety of texts as faithfully and accurately as possible.

Most translation theorists agree that translation is understood as a transfer process from a foreign language—or a second language—to the mother tongue. However, market requirements are increasingly demanding that translators transfer texts to a target language that is not their mother tongue, but a foreign language. This is what Newmark calls “service translation.”

Through experience it was learned that the consequences of wrong translations can be catastrophic—especially if done by laypersons—and mistakes made in the performance of this activity can obviously be irreparable. Just think of what could happen in cases of serious inadequacy in knowledge areas such as science, medicine, legal matters, or technology.

There are many thorns that can mortify us during the translation process, whatever the nature of the text we face, and translators should be aware of them. The first problem is related to reading and comprehension ability in the source language. Once the translator has coped with this obstacle, the most frequent translation difficulties are of a semantic and cultural nature: “Linguistic untranslatability” (cognates, i.e. true and false friends, calques, and other forms of interference; institutional and standardized terms, neologisms, aphorisms, etc.), and “cultural untranslatability,” (idioms, sayings, proverbs, jokes, puns, etc.). One should adopt a very cautious attitude toward these words or expressions so as to avoid interference and/or language misuse.

Whatever the difficulty in the translation process, procedures must aim at the essence of the message and faithfulness to the meaning of the source language text being transferred to the target language text. In the words of Nida and Taber (1974): Translating consists of reproducing, in the target language, the nearest equivalent to the message in the source language, in the first place in the semantic aspect and, in the second place, in the stylistic aspect.

This cognitive approach perfectly applies to the transfer process of ideas from one language to another, which obviously implies a lot more than the simple reproduction model. In the preparatory phase of a translation, cognition, in the form of self-consciousness and self-confidence, plays a very important role, inasmuch as this period implies conscious mental activities, where translating problems are detected and analyzed, and information and knowledge are accumulated.

…the transfer process is a difficult and complex approach mechanism, one in which one must make use of all one’s intellectual capacity, intuition and skill (Tricás, 1995).

As suggested by Kussmaul (1995), it is a good practice to classify the kinds of errors/difficulties. The most frequent types of difficulties arising from translation that can be proposed to assess in any translation are the following:

•          Comprehension, sense and ideas;

•          Lexico-semantic level;

•          Morpho-syntactic level;

•          Writing style and register;

•          Spelling and punctuation;

•          Creative solutions to translation problems;

•          Transfer and re-wording (use of translation procedures);

•          Cohesion and coherence;

•          Assessment of the result and post-edition;

•          Format.

The method of penalization of errors must be previously established, using clear criteria, and placing emphasis on the lack of coherence, especially regarding meaning and sense, whether it is due to faulty translation, missing items or the wrong application of lexical, semantic, grammatical, graphemic and/or cultural transfer. It is suggested to be drastic with text omissions, but it was found as an important feature to point out to the students all the positive aspects of meaning of her/his translation.

A translation difficulty is a problem that could be met in the process of translation because a translation is the same text in a different language. Every statement made about the work by a reader of the translation should also be true of the original text. This is not possible. Not with poetry, and not even with prose, where the difficulty is generally assumed to be less. But it is what it aims at. The real thing, with the curtain of language somehow made transparent.

There are different types of translation difficulties.

One difficulty in translation stems from the fact that most words have multiple meanings. Because of this fact, a translation based on a one-to-one substitution of words is seldom acceptable.

This first type of difficulty is the task of distinguishing between a use of a word as a specialized term and its use as a word of general vocabulary. One might think that if the distinction can be made, people are home free and the computer can produce an acceptable translation. Not so. The second type of difficulty is distinguishing between various uses of a word of general vocabulary. The third type of difficulty is the need to be sensitive to total context, including the intended audience of the translation. Meaning is not some abstract object that is independent of people and culture.

During a great period of searching it was identified three types of translation difficulty:

·         Distinguishing between general vocabulary and specialized terms,

·         Distinguishing between various meanings of a word of general vocabulary,

·          Taking into account the total context, including the intended audience and important details such as regionalisms. [12]

Types of translation

In his article `On Linguistic Aspects of Translation’, Jacobson distinguished three types of translation:

Intra-lingual translation or rewording (an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs in the same language). Intralinguistic translation, or rewording means interpreting verbal signs through other signs of the same language. This can be done on diachronic level: Chaucer’s text is translated into modern English. When done on synchronic level, this kind of code switching is called a paraphrase. We often deal with paraphrasing when trying to explain or define things. In the theory of translation, this type of code switching is called a transformation. Intralinguistic transfer can also be illustrated by stylistic differentiation
Inter-lingual translation or translation proper (an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language). Inter-language translation means substituting verbal signs of one language by verbal signs of another language, or switching from one language code to another one. This type of code switching is translation proper, the object of Translation Studies.
Inter-semiotic translation or transmutation (an interpretation of verbal signs of non-verbal sign systems). Inter-semiotic translation means substituting signs of one semiotic system by signs of a different semiotic system. In its broad meaning, the term implies transmutation and can be illustrated by decoding some ideas and themes expressed, for example, in a poem through the “language” of music or dance.
But Dagut’s distinction between `translation’ and `reproduction’, like Catford’s distinction between `literal’ and `free’ translation does not take into account the view that sees translation as semiotic change. In his definition of translation equivalence, Popovic distinguished four types:

Linguistic equivalence, where there is homogeneity on the linguistic level.
Paradigmatic equivalence, where there is equivalence of `the elements of a paradigmatic expressive axis’, i.e. elements of grammar, which Popovic sees as being a higher category than lexical equivalence.
Stylistic (translational) equivalence, where there is `functional equivalence of elements in both original and translation aiming at an expressive identity with an invariant of identical meaning’.
Textual (syntagmatic) equivalence, where there is equivalence of the syntagmatic structuring of a text, i.e. equivalence of form and shape.[13:p.35]
After researching different kinds of documents the scientist made a great work in identifying the types of translation difficulties. The scientists identify the next types of translation difficulties and these types are:

False friends – are an umbrella term where some similarity between two words in a language pair dealt with look or sound sufficiently alike to sometimes make translators render the source word by a target word that is semantically wrong in that context. False friends (or faux amis) are pairs of words in two languages or dialects (or letters in two alphabets) that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning.The term ‘translator’s false friends’ (les faux amis) was introduced by the French theorists of translation M. Koessler and J. Derocquigny in 1928. This term means a word that has the same or similar form in the source and target languages but another meaning in the target language. Translators’ false friends result from transferring the sounds of a source language word literally into the target language. P. Newmark calls them deceptive cognates, as their meanings are different and they can easily confuse the target text receptor. ‘False friends’ could be called inter-language synonyms, homonyms and paronyms.
False cognates, by contrast, are similar words in different languages that appear to have a common historical linguistic origin (whatever their current meaning) but actually do not.
Both false friends and false cognates can cause difficulty for students learning a foreign language, particularly one that is related to their native language, because students are likely to identify the words wrongly, because of linguistic interference. Because false friends are a common problem for language learners, teachers sometimes compile lists of false friends as an aid for their students.

Collocations – is the way in which particular ors tend to occur or belong together.
Idioms – is a phrase whose meaning is difficult or sometimes impossible to guess by looking at the meaning of the individual words it contains.
The first step towards an examination of the process of translation must be to accept that although translation has a central core of linguistic activity, it belongs most properly to semiotics, the science that studies sign systems or structures, sign processes and sign functions (Hawkes, Structuralism and Semiotics, London, 1977). Beyond the notion stressed by the narrowly linguistic approach, that translation involves the transfer of `meaning’ contained in one set of language signs through competent use of the dictionary and grammar, the process involves a whole set of extra-linguistic criteria also.

Edward Sapir claims that `language is a guide to social reality’ and that human beings are at the mercy of the language that has become the medium of expression for their society. Experience, he asserts, is largely determined by the language habits of the community, and each separate structure represents a separate reality:

“No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality. The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached.”

Sapir’s thesis, endorsed later by Whorf, is related to the more recent view advanced by the Soviet semiotician; Lotman that language is a modelling system. Lotman describes literature and art in general as a secondary modelling systems, as an indication of the fact that they are derived from the primary modelling system of language, and declares as firmly as Sapir or Whorf that `No language can exist unless it is stepped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have at its centre, the structure of natural language.’ Language, then, is the heart within the bodies of culture, and it is the interaction between the two that results in the continuation of life-energy. In the same way that the surgeon, operating on the heart, cannot neglect the body that surrounds it, so the translator treats the text in isolation from the culture at his peril. [13:p.38]

There are different kinds of difficulties that appear during the process of translation and one of the main is lexical difficulties which is one of the main .Lexical difficulties in translation deals especially with the word meaning. There are different types of lexical difficulties in translation and the main of them are:

A polysemy is a word or phrase with multiple, related meanings. Polyseme in the same time is the capacity for a sign (e.g., a word, phrase, etc.) or signs to have multiple meanings or a large semantic field. A word is judged to be polysemous if it has two senses of the word whose meanings are related. One group of polysemes are those in which a word meaning an activity, perhaps derived from a verb, acquires the meanings of those engaged in the activity, or perhaps the results of the activity, or the time or place in which the activity occurs or has occurred. Sometimes only one of those meanings is intended, depending on context, and sometimes multiple meanings are intended at the same time. Other types are derivations from one of the other meanings that lead to a verb or activity.
There are several tests for polysemy, but one of them is zeugma: if one word seems to exhibit zeugma when applied in different contexts, it is likely that the contexts bring out different polysemes of the same word. If the two senses of the same word do not seem to fit, yet seem related, then it is likely that they are polysemous. The fact that this test again depends on speakers’ judgments about relatedness, however, means that this test for polysemy is not infallible, but is rather merely a helpful conceptual aid.

One group of polysemes are those in which a word meaning an activity, perhaps derived from a verb, acquires the meanings of those engaged in the activity, or perhaps the results of the activity, or the time or place in which the activity occurs or has occurred. Sometimes only one of those meanings is intended, depending on context, and sometimes multiple meanings are intended at the same time. Other types are derivations from one of the other meanings that lead to a verb or activity.

Phraseologisms – or expressions that would aspire at becoming so – are formed in huge quantities, but do not always succeed. The only instances that create problems for the translator are the stable, recurrent lexical idioms that for their metaphorical meaning do not rely only on the reader’s logic at the moment of reading but also, and above all, on the value that such a metaphor has assumed in the history of the language under discussion. The obstacle for the translator consists in recognizing phraseologisms. If unrecognized, they are translated interpreting the meaning of the single words to the letter, with doubtful outcome. The translator is always alert in order to catch a passage that is marked,  forms a particular sensitivity allowing the translator, to stop and think about an unusual formulation even when in translator’s experience he/she never ran across that particular idiomatic expression. The lexical translation consists in expliciting through other words the denotative meaning of the phraseologism, giving up all the other style and connotation aspects. Once the expression is identified, the next problem consists in decoding it. All authors agree that dictionaries are not always reliable tools in this sense. First, they don’t contain all phraseologisms, then because every day new ones are formed, and lastly because dictionaries have a limited length and cannot contain all. The second problem consists in the identification of phraseologisms under a given entry: “to be between hammer and anvil” can be found under the words “between”, or “anvil”, or “hammer”, or “be”, but certainly if it is present under one entry it is absent in all the other entries, otherwise the dictionary would be too redundant.
The third problem is the use of bilingual dictionaries. In this case, the provided solutions are not the explanation of the sense of phraseologisms that, in the compiler’s intentions, should serve to translate them into the other language. Since there is never a good coincidence of meaning between phraseologisms, there is a very high risk of finding others that have different metaphors, a different meaning, and are not at all fit for specific cases.

Once the idiom has been recognized and understood, the task is not yet finished: in the contrary, one could say that has just begun. The problem is to find a translating expression.

In the case of non phraseological rendering, there are two possibilities: one can opt for a lexical translation or for calques. The lexical translation consists in expliciting through other words the denotative meaning of the phraseologism, giving up all the other style and connotation aspects. In the case of the “hammer and anvil” idiom, a lexical rendering could be “to be in an uneasy, stressing situation”.

One of the main problem or difficulty in translation- is the use of bilingual dictionaries. In this case, the provided solutions are not the explanation of the sense of phraseologisms that, in the compiler’s intentions, should serve to translate them into the other language.[14]
Slang- is the use of informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker’s dialect or language. Slang is often to be found in areas of the lexicon that refer to things considered taboo. Slang should be distinguished from jargon, which is the technical vocabulary of a particular profession. Jargon, like many examples of slang, may be used to exclude non–group members from the conversation, but in general has the function of allowing its users to talk precisely about technical issues in a given field. Few linguists have endeavored to clearly define what constitutes slang. Attempting to remedy this, Bethany K. Dumas and Jonathan Lighter argue that an expression should be considered “true slang” if it meets at least two of the following criteria:
It lowers, if temporarily, “the dignity of formal or serious speech or writing”; in other words, it is likely to be seen in such contexts as a “glaring misuse of register.”

Its use implies that the user is familiar with whatever is referred to, or with a group of people who are familiar with it and use the term.

“It is a taboo term in ordinary discourse with people of a higher social status or greater responsibility.”

It replaces “a well-known conventional synonym.” This is done primarily to avoid the discomfort caused by the conventional item or by further elaboration.”

Slang should be distinguished from jargon, which is the technical vocabulary of a particular profession. Jargon, like many examples of slang, may be used to exclude non–group members from the conversation, but in general has the function of allowing its users to talk precisely about technical issues in a given field.[15: p132]
One difficulty in translation stems from the fact that most words have multiple meanings. Because of this fact, a translation based on a one-to-one substitution of words is seldom acceptable.
Colloquialism is a lexical item used in informal speech; whilst the broadest sense of the term ‘colloquialism’ might include slangism, its narrow sense does not. Slangisms are often used in colloquial speech but not all colloquialisms are slangisms.
Justification is the reason why someone properly holds a belief, the explanation as to why the belief is a true one, or an account of how one knows what one knows. In much the same way arguments and explanations may be confused with each other, so too may explanations and justifications. Statements which are justifications of some action take the form of arguments. For example attempts to justify a theft usually explain the motives (e.g., to feed a starving family).
It is important to be aware when an explanation is not a justification. A criminal profiler may offer an explanation of a suspect’s behavior (e.g.; the person lost their job, the person got evicted, etc.). Such statements may help us understand why the person committed the crime, however an uncritical listener may believe the speaker is trying to gain sympathy for the person and his or her actions. It does not follow that a person proposing an explanation has any sympathy for the views or actions being explained. This is an important distinction because we need to be able to understand and explain terrible events and behavior in attempting to discourage it.

·         While arguments attempt to show that something is, will be, or should be the case, explanations try to show why or how something is or will be. If Fred and Joe address the issue of whether or not Fred’s cat has fleas, Joe may state: “Fred, your cat has fleas. Observe the cat is scratching right now.” Joe has made an argument that the cat has fleas. However, if Fred and Joe agree on the fact that the cat has fleas, they may further question why this is so and put forth an explanation: “The reason the cat has fleas is that the weather has been damp.” The difference is that the attempt is not to settle whether or not some claim is true, it is to show why it is true.

Arguments and explanations largely resemble each other in rhetorical use. This is the cause of much difficulty in thinking critically about claims. There are several reasons for this difficulty.

·         People often are not themselves clear on whether they are arguing for or explaining something.

·         The same types of words and phrases are used in presenting explanations and arguments.

·         The terms ‘explain’ or ‘explanation,’ et cetera is frequently used in arguments.

Explanations are often used within arguments and presented so as to serve as arguments.

All mentioned above features about translation difficulties single out that it can be concluded: there are three main types of translation difficulties: grammatical, lexical and stylistical difficulties in translation.

·         Grammatical Difficulty of Translation.

Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language –the source- and in the other language-the target. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. In translation, both the source language and the target one are important. Sometimes in translation, the translator will face some problems related to the equivalences of source and target languages. Finding a good equivalence is an important job which the translator should care about it. One problem which will arise in translation is the translating of the third-person pronoun from Persian –as a source text- into English –as a target text. In this case the translator will face many difficulties.

A text has some features which make the texture of a text. According to Lotfipour-Saedi, the texture of a text can be characterized by textual features of:

·         Thematization strategies,

·         Schematic structure,

·         Paralanguage

·         Cohesion.

Cohesive relations may be grammatical or lexical. They are classified as :

·         Reference,

·         Substitution,

·         Ellipses,

·         Conjunction

·         Lexical cohesion.

The first four are grammatical and the last one lexical. Lexical cohesion is a relation that exists between or among specific elements of different sentences in a text and is achieved through the vocabulary. In this research the researcher tries to highlight the problems of the translator’s hesitation of translating the third-person pronoun, which the gender is not obvious, from Romanian to English.

The translation process from one language into another is inevitable without necessary grammatical transformations (change of structure). It gets great importance while making translation to add or omit some words since the structures of languages are quite different. Grammatical transformations are characterized by various principles – grammatical and lexical as well, though the principal role is given to grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes are mixed so that they have lexical-grammatical character.

When comparing the grammatical categories and forms of English and other languages are identify the following differences:

·         the absence of the categories in one of the comparing languages;

·         partial correspondence;

·         complete correspondence.

Absence of conforming form, partial correspondence, differences in character and use – urge translators to make necessary grammatical transformations while translating some piece. Those grammatical transformations maybe divided into following types:

·         substitution

·         transposition

·         omission (ellipsis)

·         supplementation.

Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by another item (or items).

Transposition, that’s, change of structure of the sentence may be caused by several reasons. But the main of them, as it has been mentioned before is the difference in the structure of the English and Romanian languages.

 Transposition is required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns with indefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center of informative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

It is very frequent when grammatical and lexical transformations demand supplementation or omission of some words or elements. Therefore omission and supplementation are frequently combined with other types of grammatical transformations and more frequently with substitution of parts of speech. Supplementations of parts of speech are characterized by several factors: difference in structures of the sentences and that short English sentences demand spread translation in the Romanian language. Absence of some corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant in both languages is also one of the reasons of applying additional words in translation.

Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which is nevertheless understood. It doesn’t include every instance when the hearer or reader has to supply missing information, but only those cases where grammatical structure itself points to an item or items that can fill the slot in question.

·         Lexical difficulties of translation.

Every word in a language carries some concrete notion. The semantics of a word reflects different signs of the subject and the relation of its meanings to other objects it denotes. The semantics of a word includes word perception characteristic to the studied language, being more precise to the bearers of the studied language. When studying the reality of some object can be identify that its name reveals its functions which finds the reflection in the semantics of the word.

The second reason, causing lexical difficulties to translation is the difference in the semantic volume of a word. In every language a word exists in a close connection with the lexical-semantic system of a given language. It may have various kinds of lexical meanings (lexical-semantic) variants; it may widen or narrow its meaning and make it more abstract or concrete.

The third reason presenting lexical difficulties in translation the difference in combinability. Words in languages have some definite relation characteristic only to the given language. It should be mentioned that word combinability is possible if words point to similar objects they denote. This difference of word combinability in various languages is very important; therefore some types of combinability are easily accepted in one of language and are completely unacceptable in other languages.

Last but not the least is the accepted usage of words in a language. It is, of course related to the development of a given languages and formation of its lexical system. Every language worked out its own clichés and some set expressions used by speakers, nevertheless those word expressions are not phraseological units but they possess complete form, which, in comparison with the phraseological units, are never broken by adding some introductory words or substitution of some of its elements.

Difference in the semantic structure of a word represents one of the main reason causing lexical difficulties in translation. These differences are related to peculiar features of separate words or word groups. And it is quite natural that this matter covers a wide range of examples. Practically, even identical words in different languages are not always equal in their meaning, they never correspond completely. Most often is the correspondence of first lexical-semantic variants of such words – their primary meaning – then we have various lexical-semantic variants for the course of development of these words was of different nature.

This is characterized by different functioning of a word in language, different in usage and combinability, but even the primary meaning of an English word maybe wider of the corresponding one in Russian.

The semantic structure of a word predefines the possibility of its contextual use, and the translation of contextual meaning presents a hard task to translators.

Contextual meaning of a word in many instances depends on the character of semantic context, on the semantics of the words combining with it. Occasional meanings, suddenly originated in the context are not always arbitrary – it is based into the semantic structure of the word. In contextual usage of a word in poetry or prose – often point to the author’s penetration into the depth of the word’s semantic structure.  Paradigmatic and semantic relations are characteristic to any words and the lexical potential of words can be revealed in both cases. But revealing these potentials of words is closely connected with the specificity of lexical-semantic aspects of every language and here forth we may observe the difficulty of translation of contextual meaning of words. What is possible in one language maybe impossible in another because of its difference in semantic structure and its usage?

Contextual meaning of a word is always effective semantically and stylistically owing to its unexpectedness as well. It often used in stylistic purposes and therefore a translator runs into two obstacles: he should avoid and at the same time not to break the norms of translation.

A peculiar group of words demanding transformation in translation are the words that possess different volume of meaning in two languages. To this group belong international words, some words of human perception, mental activity.

International words are words that are used in a wide range of languages in one or several forms. These words express scientific and social-politic notions. The volume meaning of these words does not usually coincide (except term-words). Though it is well-known that they comprise the false-friends of translators and the mistakes in their translation are frequent. These mistakes are caused not only by difference in their semantic structure but by the difference of their usage as well which demand lexical changes.

Lexical transformations are also caused by necessity to concretize a word while translating. It is characteristic to English language the availability of words with wide spread meaning. They can be nouns, adjectives and verbs. Translation of these words depends on the context, which helps to identify their concrete meaning.

The following problem which demands careful consideration in lexical transformations of translation is problem of word combinability. In all languages there are typical norms of word combinability. The concept of norm is relative, on the one hand, with system of language, and on the other hand, it is closely connected with speech, in which the originality of speech formation is displayed. Each language can form uncountable number new word combinations that will be understood by its bearers. In any language there exists generally accepted tradition of word combinations, which do not coincide with the corresponding tradition of word combinations in the other languages.

The wider is the semantic volume of a word, the wider is its combinability, thus due to this feature it can interact with various word forms and word combinations. And this features enables the translator to use his creativity in translation.

Along with traditional combinations in languages unexpected combinations are also possible, but they are quite clear, for they follow generally accepted semantic models of word combinability. This phenomenon – the connection of words with completely various semantic features – is peculiar to all languages, but in each language it has various rules and traditions. In English language such unexpected word combinations are formed very easily. It is probably caused by conversion and easiness in formation of new words in various ways, heterogeneity of languages vocabulary and some other reasons. Not only poets and writers, but also journalists frequently create unexpected word combination that makes their statements significantly vivid and original. The unexpectedness of word usage is closely connected with expressiveness of the statement.

In the end can be concluded that the main Lexical translation problems are:

1.      Even assuming monolingual disambiguation …

2.      Style/register differences

3.      Proper names

4.      Conceptual differences

5.      Lexical gaps

·         Stylistic difficulties of translation.

Practically, stylistic devices in almost all languages are similar still though their functions in speech vary. Identical stylistic devices are used differently in languages; they perform different functions and have different value in stylistic system of their language what actually explains their necessity when transformations in translation occur. The stylistic changes are as necessary as grammatical or lexical ones. While applying some grammatical or lexical transformation in translation the translator is guided by principle of rendering grammatical of lexical meaning. When rendering stylistic meaning of the source text a translator should be guided by the same principle – to recreate in translation the same impression that might be left by the original text.

A translator should not try to preserve the stylistic device given in the sentence, but reproduce its function in the target language.

All stylistic devices are multi functional. It is like when polysemantic words in English and other languages do not coincide in their lexical-semantic variants and the same is when differ the function of identical stylistic device. Thus when comparing stylistic devices we can easily identify complete correspondence, partial correspondence and even sometimes absence of correspondence and their functions.

Concerning the translation of comparison as a stylistic device, the difficulties arise only if the words of English and other languages are various in the semantic structure.

There is another kind of stylistic transformation – actualization – which involves transition of something simple into something unusual, strange. It reveals potential expressiveness put in the lexical morphologic and syntactic means of a language.

It is not important to classify the device itself but the point is to be able to realize their ongoing effect and to identify the purpose of their application in the translation they are working on.[12]

1.5 The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

As far as idioms and phraseological units are concerned in translation, the first difficulty that a translator comes across is being able to recognize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression. This is not always so obvious. There are various types of idioms, some more easily recognizable than others. Those which are easily recognizable include expressions which violate truth conditions

They also include expressions which seem ill-formed because they do not follow the grammatical rules of the language.

Generally speaking, the more difficult an expression is to understand and the less sense it makes in a given context, the more likely a translator will recognize it as an idiom.

There are two cases in which an idiom can be easily misinterpreted if one is not already familiar with it:

·        Some idioms are ‘misleading’; they seem transparent because they offer a reasonable literal interpretation and their idiomatic meanings are not necessarily signalled in the surrounding text. A large number of idioms in English, and probably all languages, have both a literal and an idiomatic meaning. Such idioms lend themselves easily to manipulation by speakers and writers who will sometimes play on both their literal and idiomatic meanings. In this case, a translator who is not familiar with the idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss the play on idiom.

·         An idiom in the source language may have a very close counter
part in the target language which looks similar on the surface but has
a totally or partially different meaning.[16]

             Apart from being alert to the way speakers and writers manipulate certain features of idioms and to the possible confusion which could arise from similarities in form between source and target expressions, a translator must also consider the collocational environment which surrounds any expression whose meaning is not readily accessible. Idiomatic and fixed expressions have individual collocational patterns. They form collocations with other items in the text as single units and enter into lexical sets which are different from those of their individual words.

The ability to distinguish senses by collocation is an invaluable asset to a translator working from a foreign language. It is often subsumed under the general umbrella of ‘relying on the context to disambiguate meanings’, which, among other things, means using our knowledge of collocational patterns to decode the meaning of a word or a stretch of language. Using our knowledge of collocational patterns may not always tell us what an idiom means but it could easily help us in many cases to recognize an idiom, particularly one which has a literal as well as a non-literal meaning.

Once an idiom or fixed expression has been recognized and interpreted correctly, the next step is to decide how to translate it into the target language. The difficulties involved in translating an idiom are totally different from those involved in interpreting it. Here, the question is not whether a given idiom is transparent, opaque, or misleading. An opaque expression may be easier to translate than a transparent one. The main difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed expressions may be summarized as follows:

·         An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language. The way a language chooses to express, or not express, various meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way another language chooses to express the same meanings. One language may express a given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of a transparent fixed expression, a third may express it by means of an idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course.[17:p45]

Like single words, idioms and fixed expressions may be culture-specific.

Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items are not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an expression contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture-specific contexts which can make it untranslatable or difficult to translate.

·         An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable.

·         An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

·         An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its context of use may be different; the two expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be pragmatically transferable. An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the target-language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

Idiom generally have three characteristics:

·         Their meaning cannot be deduced from their components or any arrangement thereof, and must be learned as a whole.

·         None of their constituents may be substituted with words of similar meaning.

·         Finally, idioms cannot be syntactically modified.

     Translation is an exacting art. Idiom more than any other feature of language demands that the translator be not only accurate but highly sensitive to the rhetorical nuances of the language.[18]

References:

Books:

1.      Ccrowther Jonathan and Cavanagh Katchryn, Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press 2003;

2.      Printice Hall Literature American Experience, Second Edition, Printice Hall Edgewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Needham Massachusetts 1991;

3.      http://www.wikipedia.org.

4.      Crystal, David, The English Language. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1988.

5.      Mad about Children.” Rev. of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. The New Republic, Vol. 125, No. 3, 16 July 1951, 20-1.

6.      The Catcher in the Rye, L, Penguin, 1958

7.      Volume 17, The World book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc a Scott Fetzer Company Chicago London Sydney Toronto 1997;

8.      http://www.digischool.nl/ckv1/literatuur/salinger/salinger1.htm

9.      http://www.directessay.com;

10.  Michael Cart, “Famous Firsts. (young-adult literature)”, 2007;

11.  http://www.wikipedia.org.

12.  http://www.ttt.org/theory/difficulties.htlm;

13.  Cay Dollerup, Basics of Translation Studies, Institutul Europa;

14.  http://www.magicessay.com;

15.  New Dictionary of American Slang, Harper & Row, Publishers 1986

16.  Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers. London 1995

17.  The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press 2007;

18.  http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50034626?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=catharsis&first=1&max_to_show=10

Chapter II Lexical Peculiarities and Translation Difficulties in “The Catcher in the Ray” by J. D. Salinger

2.1 Types of Lexical Peculiarities in “The Catcher in the Ray” by J. D. Salinger.

Lexical peculiarities – are the stylistic devices used by the author in his work. In literature and writing, a stylistic device is the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written. There are three types of stylistic devices which were used by the author in “The catcher in the Ray”:

The interaction of different types of lexical meaning:

·         Dictionary and contextual (Metaphors, metonymy, irony etc.);

·         Logical and emotive (epithet, oxymoron);

1.      Intensification of a feature (simile, hyperbole, periphrasis).

2.      Peculiar use of set expressions (clichés, proverbs. Quotation).

J. D. Salinger’s “The Cather in the Ray” is full of stylistic device that made author’s style more clear and sometimes more interesting.

One of the fist stylistic devices that were used by the author in his novel “The Cather in the Ray” is character’s speech.

There are three types of character’s speech that could be used in writing and these types are:

·         Direct speech;

·         Indirect speech ( reported speech);

·         Represented speech.

J. D. Salinger in his novel used all these three types of character’s speech in his work “The Cather in the Ray”. The combination of the first two types of are clear pointed out to the reader in the beginning where the author used indirect speech for giving clear details about the main character and also this type is used through whole novel for giving more detail where it is necessary, the direct speech is used by the author in order to show to the reader the way of talking of the characters of the novel. The last type of character’s speech is represented speech which also could be called inner speech and that was used in order to described Holden’s thoughts and the way in which he thought also this type was used by the author in order to convey to the reader Holden’s feelings. [1]

The author begins the novel with the using of the stylistic devices such as comparison like “…touchy as hell…”(J. D. Salinger: 1) through this stylistic devices the author wanted to point out besides his positive point of view about all his parents but also he had some negative thoughts about his parents. The author used in his novel the comparison to show to the reader the variety and difference in Holden’s thoughts.

The author used a lot of comparison in his work because through this stylistic devices J. D. Salinger introduce to the reader a lot of details of his characters and about his work. The comparisons that were used in “The Cather in the Ray” are “…pretty as hell…” (J.D.Salinger:12) through this stylistic devices the author pointed out to the reader the that everything in Holden’s life which was worse was compared with the source of the bad things which is HELL, and the usage of this word by the author showed to the reader that there are no any another bad places like HELL.

J. D. Salinger also uses another comparison with the worst place that could exist as “hell” because the author pointed out through the comparison like “…sad as hell…” (J.D.Salinger:13) that he used this word also with another meaning like that the person that made the worst thing in this life because through this words the author showed to the reader that Holden’s feelings were compared with a hell.

The writer also used this stylistic devise like comparison in order to give a clear description of Ackley through the next comparison “…dirty as hell…”( J.D.Salinger:19)and the author pointed out that there are people that don’t look very good as using the rules that are taken in society for a good looking.

The author presented to the reader another comparison like “… I didn’t mind the idea so much, but I didn’t feel like being lectured …” (J.D.Salinger:14)through this stylistic device the author wanted to point out to the reader that Holden wasn’t a boy who like to read a lot of and showed the he didn’t like to study. [2]

An important lexical pecularity single out in Salinger’s writing is the metaphor and in the same time which is one of the main stylistic device used in “The Catcher in the Rye”.

Metaphor is transference of some quality from one object to another. It is an implicit comparison of two unlike objects. The purpose of metaphor is to liven up the text, make it more colorful, dramatic and witty – that is, metaphor carries out an emotive function.

      Simile is a more cautious form of metaphor. It is a comparison of two objects when the linkage is made explicit, like drumming like a noise in dreams.

      Metaphor is inherent in language. In this case it can go unnoticed in everyday conversation, like she attacked my views. Language metaphors are stock metaphors. They are trite and typical for many users, and fixed by the dictionary, as mostly idioms. They are sometimes called dead metaphors.

      Other metaphors are occasionally constructed in individual speech. They are eulogistic and ephemeral unless they become language metaphors by being diffused through popular speech and, later, the media.

An important stylistic device that was used by the author in his writing is epithet.       Another problem is the transferred qualifier, or an epithet syntactically joined to a word to which it does not belong logically. He ran a tired hand through his hair.The word tired logically is linked with he, syntactically with hand.  There are two major types of epithets which are;

1.      From the point of view of their compositional structure epithets may be divided into:

·         Simple (adjectives, nouns, participles);

·         Compound;

·         Sentence and phrase epithets;

·         Reserved epithets – composed of two nouns linked by an of phrase.

2.      Semantically according to I. Galperin.

·         Associated with the noun following it, pointing out to a feature which is essential to the object they describe;

·         Unassimilated with the noun, epithets that add a feature which is unexpected and which strike the reader. [3]

There are another two important types of epithets used in Salinger’s novel:

Inverted epithet is a word syntactically functioning as a headword, but semantically serving as a modifier to a dependent noun.
Gradation of epithets, that is a sequence of synonymous epithets, is constructed on a different basis in English and in Romanian. In English, gradation is based on rhythmical sequence; in Romanian, this device is logic-centered: the word, most important logically, is positioned in the end of the sequence.
J. D. Salinger used a lot of epithets in his work “The Cather in the Ray” in order to present a good characteristic of the characters which are in the work and of the objects that he used in his work the epithets were used for pointing out to the reader some of the properties or features of the characters and of the objects with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties. [4]

The author used the next kind of epithets “… grand people …” (J. D. Salinger: 8) which is a simple epithet because is used by an adjective and a noun. J. D. Salinger used this epithet in order to make a comparison towards Holden’s parents because in the beginning Holden showed to the reader a not positive one but “old Spenser “as the author describe this man point out to the reader that Holden’s parents were good peoples.

Another epithet that was used by the author in his novel is “… hardly ever listened …” (J. D. Salinger: 6) This is a reserved epithet because it is composed of two words linked by a preposition and it was chosen in order to point out to the reader that speech of old Spenser was not a clear one and not understandable one for the listener.

J. D. Salinger used the simple epithet “… pretty lousy …” (J. D .Salinger: 11) in order to point out the thoughts of another characters about Holden for pointing out that Holden wasn’t a good character for another characters.

 The author used in his work epithets in order to make the reader to see easily the true in the navel and to create interest for reading the novel which would capture readers attention quickly and without any questions. [5]

Stylistic device that was used in the novel “The Cather in the Ray” written by J. D. Salinger is “peculiar use of set expression” which was used in the form of quotations the quotation could be easily identify in some chapters of the novel. There are five quotations that are used by the author in his novel “The Catcher in the Ray”:

1. “Life is a game, boy. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules.”

“Yes, sir. I know it is. I know it.”

“Game, my ass. Some game. If you get on the side where all the hot-shots are, then it’s a game, all right—I’ll admit that. But if you get on the other side, where there aren’t any hot-shots, then what’s a game about it? Nothing. No game.”

This quotation is from Holden’s conversation with Spencer in Chapter 2. His former teacher is needling him about his failures at Pencey; at this point, he lectures Holden about the importance of playing by the rules. The conversation succinctly illuminates key aspects of Holden’s character. We see his silent contempt for adults, which are evidenced by the silent ridiculing and cursing of Spencer that Holden hides beneath his nodding, compliant veneer. We also see how alienated he feels. He clearly identifies with those on the “other side” of the game, and he feels alone and victimized, as though the world is against him. At this point in the novel, Holden’s sense of disadvantage and corresponding bitterness seem somewhat strange, given his circumstances: he’s clearly a bright boy from a privileged New York family. As the book progresses, however, we learn that Holden has built cynical psychological armour around himself to protect himself from the complexities of the world.

2. [Ackley] took another look at my hat . . . “Up home we wear a hat like that to shoot deer in, for Chrissake,” he said. “That’s a deer shooting hat.”

“Like hell it is.” I took it off and looked at it. I sort of closed one eye, like I was taking aim at it. “This is a people shooting hat,” I said. “I shoot people in this hat.”

This brief passage occurs in Chapter 3, after Holden has returned to his dorm room and is being pestered by Ackley. Of all the places in the novel where Holden discusses his hat, the most famous and recognizable symbol in the book, this is probably the most enlightening. It is obvious from the start that Holden uses the hat as a mark of individuality and independence. Here, we see how deeply his desire for independence is connected to his feeling of alienation, to the bitterness he has for the rest of the world. Of course, Holden will not really shoot people in this hat, but it remains a symbol of his scorn for convention. Holden nevertheless does “shoot people” in his own way: when he is in this cynical frame of mind, he expends all of his mental energy denigrating the people around him. He desires independence because he feels that the world is an inhospitable, ugly place that, he feels, deserves only contempt.

3. The best thing, though, in that museum was that everything always stayed right where it was. Nobody’s move. . . . Nobody’s being different. The only thing that would be different would be you.

This passage, in which Holden explains why he loves the Museum of Natural History, is located in Chapter 16. Killing time before his date with Sally, Holden decides to walk from Central Park to the Museum of Natural History. Along the way, he remembers in detail his school trips to the museum. Holden has already demonstrated that he fears and does not know how to deal with conflict, confusion, and change. The museum presents him with a vision of life he can understand: it is frozen, silent, and always the same. Holden can think about and judge the Eskimo in the display case, but the Eskimo will never judge him back. It troubles him that he has changed each time he returns, while the museum’s displays remain completely the same. They represent the simple, idealistic, manageable vision of life that Holden wishes he could live.

 It is significant that in the final sentence Holden uses the second-person pronoun “you” instead of the first-person “me.” It seems to be an attempt to distance him from the inevitable process of change. But the impossibility of such a fantasy is the tragedy of Holden’s situation: rather than face the challenges around him, he retreats to a fantasy world of his own making. When he actually gets to the museum, he decides not to go in; that would require disturbing his fragile imaginative construction by making it encounter the real world. He wants life to remain frozen like the display cases in the museum.

4. . . . I’m standing on the edge of some crazy cliff. What I have to do, I have to catch everybody if they start to go over the cliff—I mean if they’re running and they don’t look where they’re going I have to come out from somewhere and catch them. That’s all I’d do all day. I’d just be the catcher in the rye and all.

This, the passage in which Holden reveals the source of the book’s title, is perhaps the most famous in the book. It occurs in Chapter 22, after Holden has slipped quietly back into his apartment and is speaking with Phoebe. They talk, argue, and then reconcile, and Phoebe asks Holden what he wants to do with his life. Holden responds with this image, which reveals his fantasy of idealistic childhood and of his role as the protector of innocence. His response makes sense, given what we already know about Holden: he prefers to retreat into his own imaginary view of the world rather than deal with the complexities of the world around him. He has a cynical, oversimplified view of other people, and a large part of his fantasy world is based on the idea that children are simple and innocent while adults are superficial and hypocritical. The fact that he is having this conversation with Phoebe, a child who is anything but simple and innocent, reveals the oversimplification of his worldview. Holden himself realizes this to a degree when he acknowledges that his idea is “crazy,” yet he cannot come up with anything more pragmatic; he has trouble seeing the world in any other way. His catcher in the rye fantasy reflects his innocence, his belief in pure, uncorrupted youth, and his desire to protect that spirit; on the other hand, it represents his extreme disconnection from reality and his naive view of the world.

5. “I have a feeling that you’re riding for some kind of terrible, terrible fall. . . . The whole arrangements designed for men who, at some time or other in their lives, were looking for something their own environment couldn’t supply them with. . . . So they gave up looking.”

The conversation in which Mr. Antolini speaks these words takes place in Chapter 24. Holden has just left his parents’ apartment, following his conversation with Phoebe, and he is reaching a point of critical instability, is having just burst into tears when Phoebe lent him her Christmas money. He goes to Mr. Antolini’s because he feels he can trust and confide in him—it seems to be his final chance to save himself. But Holden’s interaction with Mr. Antolini is the event that precipitates his full-blown breakdown. It completely unsettles him, and leaves him feeling confused and unsure. While most of Holden’s confusion stems from what he interprets as a homosexual come-on from Mr. Antolini, some of it stems from the conversation they have. Both the conversation and Mr. Antolini’s head-rubbing serve a similar purpose: they upset Holden’s view of the way things are or the way he believes they ought to be.

Mr. Antolini’s words here resonate with the desires Holden has just expressed to Phoebe: like the catcher in the rye that Holden envisions, Mr. Antolini is trying to catch Holden in the midst of a “fall.” But the fall Mr. Antolini describes is very different from the one Holden had imagined. Holden pictured an idyllic world of childhood innocence from which children would fall into a dangerous world; Mr. Antolini describes Holden in an apathetic free fall—giving up, disengaging him from the world, falling in a void removed from life around him. In both cases, we sense that although Holden envisions himself as the protector rather than the one to be protected, he is the one who really needs to be caught. Mr. Antolini guesses that Holden feels disconnected from his environment, and, as we have already seen, his assessment is accurate. Holden has isolated himself in an attempt to be his own savior, but Mr. Antolini’s image of falling presents a more accurate image of what awaits Holden on the other side of the “cliff.” It thus reveals the weaknesses of Holden’s romantic outlook.

J. D. Salinger used a lot of stylistic device which made the content of the novel more exiting. The author used the hyperbole which is deliberate overstatement or exaggeration and the aim of this hyperbole is to intensify the main features of the novel and to show its utter absurdity. Hyperbole is a device which is sharpens the reader’s ability to make a logical assessment of the utterance. This is achieved, as in case with other devices, by awakening the dichotomy of thought and feeling where thought takes the upper hand though not to the detriment of feeling.

The stylistic device that was used by the author in the work is the following hyperbole “…He’s going to drive me home when I go home next month maybe. He just got a Jaguar. One of those little English jobs that can do around hundred miles an hour. …. “(J. D. Salinger: 7). Through this hyperbole the author wanted to point out to the reader what could do “one little English job” through this stylistic device the author intensify the functions of a “little English job.”

            Another lexical peculiarity that was used in this writing is one of the types of the interaction of different types of lexical meaning and this type is an interaction of logical and emotive meaning.

This type contain two subtypes and one of these subtypes is Interjections and Exclamatory words which are words that that we use when we express our feelings strongly and which may be said to exist in language as conventional symbols of human emotions.

J. D. Salinger used in his writing a lot of interjections that easily presented the feelings that feel the characters of the novel. The interjection that was used by the author is “… Oh…well…” (J. D. Salinger:7)The interjection used by the author “Oh” it is possible to express various feelings such as regret, despair, disappointment sorrow, surprise and many others but especially this  the author point out to the reader Old Spenser hesitation for giving a clear and interesting answer to Holden’s question. The author used this kind of interjection in order to describe Holden’s surprise to the question given by the old Spenser “… Oh, well it’s long story…” (J. D. Salinger: 29) J. D. Salinger used this interjection in order to demonstrate that Holden didn’t know the story.

The writer of the novel”The Cather in the Ray” also used another interjection such as “… Yeah? Give her to me boy…” it was used for pointing out to the reader that Stradler with whom Holden discuss was a person that didn’t pay attention to the person’s beauty.

Another interjection that was used by the writer is “Hell, no!” (J. D. Salinger:45)that was used in order to point out to the reader Holden’s surprise and for showing that Holden was a boy that used in his vocabulary not well words for a boy who was a junior in the school.

               The author used a lot of stylistic devices of these kinds in order to capture reader’s attention to the smallest elements used by the writer for pointing out those elements that could not be used without those peculiarities of Modernists writers. [6]

               Lexical peculiarities that characterise this novel and the style of the author are Themes, Motifs and Symbols which are one of the major and that could be easily identified in the novel “The Catcher in the Ray” by J. D. Salinger.

1.Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

Alienation as a Form of Self-Protection
Throughout the novel, Holden seems to be excluded from and victimized by the world around him. As he says to Mr. Spencer, he feels trapped on “the other side” of life, and he continually attempts to find his way in a world in which he feels he doesn’t belong.

The Painfulness of Growing Up
According to most analyses, The Catcher in the Rye is a bildungsroman, a novel about a young character’s growth into maturity. While it is appropriate to discuss the novel in such terms, Holden Caulfield is an unusual protagonist for a bildungsroman because his central goal is to resist the process of maturity itself. As his thoughts about the Museum of Natural History demonstrate, Holden fears change and is overwhelmed by complexity. He wants everything to be easily understandable and eternally fixed, like the statues of Eskimos and Indians in the museum. He is frightened because he is guilty of the sins he criticizes in others, and because he can’t understand everything around him. But he refuses to acknowledge this fear, expressing it only in a few instances—for example, when he talks about sex and admits that “[s]ex is something I just don’t understand. I swear to God I don’t” (Chapter 9).

The Phoniness of the Adult World
“Phoniness,” which is probably the most famous phrase from The Catcher in the Rye, is one of Holden’s favorite concepts. It is his catch-all for describing the superficiality, hypocrisy, pretension, and shallowness that he encounters in the world around him. In Chapter 22, just before he reveals his fantasy of the catcher in the rye, Holden explains that adults are inevitably phonies, and, what’s worse, they can’t see their own phoniness. Phoniness, for Holden, stands as an emblem of everything that’s wrong in the world around him and provides an excuse for him to withdraw into his cynical isolation.

2.  Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.

Loneliness
Holden’s loneliness, a more concrete manifestation of his alienation problem, is a driving force throughout the book. Most of the novel describes his almost manic quest for companionship as he flits from one meaningless encounter to another. Yet, while his behavior indicates his loneliness, Holden consistently shies away from introspection and thus doesn’t really know why he keeps behaving as he does. Because Holden depends on his isolation to preserve his detachment from the world and to maintain a level of self-protection, he often sabotages his own attempts to end his loneliness. For example, his conversation with Carl Luce and his date with Sally Hayes are made unbearable by his rude behavior. His calls to Jane Gallagher are aborted for a similar reason: to protect his precious and fragile sense of individuality. Loneliness is the emotional manifestation of the alienation Holden experiences; it is both a source of great pain and a source of his security.

Relationships, Intimacy, and Sexuality
Relationships, intimacy, and sexuality are also recurring motifs relating to the larger theme of alienation. Both physical and emotional relationships offer Holden opportunity to break out of his isolated shell. They also represent what he fears most about the adult world: complexity, unpredictability, and potential for conflict and change. As he demonstrates at the Museum of Natural History, Holden likes the world to be silent and frozen, predictable and unchanging. As he watches Phoebe sleep, Holden projects his own idealizations of childhood onto her. But in real-world relationships, people talk back, and Phoebe reveals how different her childhood is from Holden’s romanticized notion. Because people are unpredictable, they challenge Holden and force him to question his senses of self-confidence and self-worth. For intricate and unspoken reasons, seemingly stemming from Allie’s death, Holden has trouble dealing with this kind of complexity. As a result, he has isolated himself and fears intimacy. Although he encounters opportunities for both physical and emotional intimacy, he bungles them all, wrapping himself in a psychological armor of critical cynicism and bitterness. Even so, Holden desperately continues searching for new relationships, always undoing himself only at the last moment.

Lying and Deception
Lying and deception are the most obvious and hurtful elements of the larger category of phoniness. Holden’s definition of phoniness relies mostly on a kind of self-deception: he seems to reserve the most scorn for people who think that they are something they are not or who refuses to acknowledge their own weaknesses. But lying to others is also a kind of phoniness, a type of deception that indicates insensitivity, callousness, or even cruelty. Of course, Holden himself is guilty of both these crimes. His random and repeated lying highlights his own self-deception—he refuses to acknowledge his own shortcomings and is unwilling to consider how his behavior affects those around him. Through his lying and deception, Holden proves that he is just as guilty of phoniness as the people he criticizes.

 3. Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

The “Catcher in the Rye”
As the source of the book’s title, this symbol merits close inspection. It first appears in Chapter 16, when a kid Holden admires for walking in the street rather than on the sidewalk is singing the Robert Burns song “Comin’ Thro’ the Rye.” In Chapter 22, when Phoebe asks Holden what he wants to do with his life, he replies with his image, from the song, of a “catcher in the rye.” Holden imagines a field of rye perched high on a cliff, full of children romping and playing. He says he would like to protect the children from falling off the edge of the cliff by “catching” them if they were on the verge of tumbling over. As Phoebe points out, Holden has misheard the lyric. He thinks the line is “If a body catch a body comin’ through the rye,” but the actual lyric is “If a body meet a body, coming through the rye.”

Holden’s Red Hunting Hat
The red hunting hat is one of the most recognizable symbols from twentieth-century American literature. It is inseparable from our image of Holden, with good reason: it is a symbol of his uniqueness and individuality. The hat is outlandish, and it shows that Holden desires to be different from everyone around him. At the same time, he is very self-conscious about the hat—he always mentions when he is wearing it, and he often doesn’t wear it if he is going to be around people he knows. The presence of the hat, therefore, mirrors the central conflict in the book: Holden’s need for isolation versus his need for companionship.

The Museum of Natural History
Holden tells us the symbolic meaning of the museum’s displays: they appeal to him because they are frozen and unchanging. He also mentions that he is troubled by the fact that he has changed every time he returns to them. The museum represents the world Holden wishes he could live in: it’s the world of his “catcher in the rye” fantasy, a world where nothing ever changes, where everything is simple, understandable, and infinite. Holden is terrified by the unpredictable challenges of the world—he hates conflict, he is confused by Allie’s senseless death, and he fears interaction with other people.

The Ducks in the Central Park Lagoon
Holden’s curiosity about where the ducks go during the winter reveals a genuine, more youthful side to his character. For most of the book, he sounds like a grumpy old man who is angry at the world, but his search for the ducks represents the curiosity of youth and a joyful willingness to encounter the mysteries of the world. It is a memorable moment, because Holden clearly lacks such willingness in other aspects of his life. The ducks and their pond are symbolic in several ways. Their mysterious perseverance in the face of an inhospitable environment resonates with Holden’s understanding of his own situation. In addition, the ducks prove that some vanishings are only temporary. Traumatized and made acutely aware of the fragility of life by his brother Allie’s death, Holden is terrified by the idea of change and disappearance. The ducks vanish every winter, but they return every spring, thus symbolizing change that isn’t permanent, but cyclical. Finally, the pond itself becomes a minor metaphor for the world as Holden sees it, because it is “partly frozen and partly not frozen.” The pond is in transition between two states, just as Holden is in transition between childhood and adulthood.

                 Lexical peculiarities are the most important features of lexico-stylistic analyses and these features are very important for the reader in order easily to understand the whole content of the work. [7]

            2.2 Translation difficulties and all its types in J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”

The main aim is to analyze J. D. Salinger’s literary fiction and his impact on Romanian readers as reflected by the translations of his literary creations into Romanian, mainly centering on his novel: “The Catcher in the Rye”. The research started by using the strategy of creating links between different relevant aspects of J. D. Salinger’s life and work, different contexts involved in the production of his fiction, as well as in the production of the Romanian translations and different major studies on translation theories in order to have a strong starting point contribution in the analytic comparative case study between J. D. Salinger’s novel and its Romanian renditions in order to demonstrate Salinger’s reception, his impact on Romanian readership and the analysis of the need for a retranslation of his novel.

In this chapter it would be tried to focus on drawing a link between some general translation theories and the analysis of Romanian versions of Salinger’s novel, considering the general overview in this chapter a link or a starting point for the case study in the last chapter.

 It was started by trying to define the concept of translation based on significant theoreticians’ points of view but it had not been an easy task. A translation should always include the tasks and the qualities (or even the standards) a translation should perform. It has also expressed my belief that a literary translation should not compete with the original, its main task being that of recreating the same atmosphere and the same effect of the ST on the TT readers and to make the readers understand the original text no matter if they speak or do not speak the SL since it is said that a translation can even make native speakers of a language better understand a SL text.

In this chapter should be tried to focus mainly on the social and cultural contexts from the USA and Romania, as well as on some linguistic problems raised by Salinger’s use of highly colloquial and taboo language in The Catcher.  Here will be discussed the impact Salinger had, and still has, on writers worldwide. This twofold approach, social and cultural, can help better understand the whole context in which Salinger produced his literary masterpiece, which in turn can greatly help in understanding the reception of the novel in the two cultures and its status in contemporary society. I have also tried to briefly present the reception of the novel, the translations and solutions offered to the problems raised by Salinger’s use of colloquial language in other countries. In this chapter also would be tried to present and analyze certain passages from the Romanian versions of The Catcher in order to draw attention to certain problems that may occur in translation, especially when different cultures are involved. The conclusion is that the Romanian translation played an innovatory role and an influential one in the literary system of the native country by breaking the norms of the TL, in order to render the stylistic qualities of the ST, and by introducing the use of slang language into Romanian, as a new and alternative means of expression.

The conclusion is that although such cases of suppression or censure of the ST are not desirable or should never happen, in reality they do exist (and this chapter has offered some examples in point), but the fact that more and more people take interest in such situations may indicate that they may stop occurring in the future.

Analysis of the translation into Romanian of J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”, which represents my major contribution to this research paper it was focused on presenting the Romanian versions of Salinger’s novel in order to find the main translation difficulties translation as well as its impact on Romanian readership. It was tried to achieve this aim by centering on the case study of comparing and analyzing in detail the differences and similarities, the gains and the losses that have occurred both in the English and in the Romanian versions. This has been mainly achieved by the careful and analytical comparison of some identical passages from the ST with its translations. The main strategy used was the practical act of comparing the above-mentioned versions, focusing on the importance of Salinger’s writing style and use of language (already discussed in the first chapters), on discussing mainly the cases of misunderstandings and mistranslations, of problems of equivalence, of losses and gains, of linguistic untranslatability, of the translators’ visibility or invisibility in the TT, on accuracy in translation, adaptability, fidelity and faithfulness or infidelity—all these cases seconded by examples in point and by my personal suggestions of other possible translations of certain (more challenging) words or passages from Salinger’s novel. Furthermore, it should be point out major differences in the translation of Salinger’s use of colloquial and taboo language in the English and Romanian versions, the Romanian version was the farthest because of its abundant use of euphemisms and euphemistic formulations throughout the book. It should be discussed cases of linguistic inconsistency in the Romanian version, such as the rendition of intonational stress. Focused on some of Holden’s linguistic repetitions and their importance, as well as on Salinger’s humor and comic effects and their renditions in the two versions. The conclusion is that generally they have been successfully rendered and they have usually followed the ST. [8]

American characteristic of the language’s ability to adapt nouns into adjectives and nouns into adverbs (usually by adding a letter), which is, unfortunately, not possible in Romanian and thus the translators had to find suitable translation adaptation methods since our language’s grammatical patterns do not allow similar adaptations. Another example was Salinger’s use of imitation of spoken English in written. Such situations made the translators’ task and work tremendously difficult because they had to find ways of compensating the loss caused by the inability of recreating a similar effect in the TT because Romanian has a system in which words are written the same way they are read as opposed to English which has a different system. Nevertheless the translators have tried to compensate this loss through distinctive methods. An important conclusion is that the law of compensation always functions in a translation, as also in the case of the discussed versions of Salinger’s novel. The law of compensation is a technique used in translation to make up for the losses present in the TT and it works by (re)creating other effects, similar to the ones specific to the ST but in the TT when possible and using the TL resources, a law applicable in the Romanian versions discussed. Some of the major conclusions, differences or main observations between English and Romanian versions could be summarized as follows:

 The Romanian version uses more diverse ways of rendering Holden’s speech habits or linguistic repetitions. This leads to the interpretation that using the same linguistic pattern denotes a more faithful translation. But it can also be said that a more diversified way of translating the same linguistic structures may indicate a better adaptation to the TL, although the psychological effect on the readers of Holden’s linguistic repetitions is not as strong as in the ST.
Romanian translation has the tendency to skip certain short passages or expressions of the ST in order to adapt them to the TT and Romanian style presented examples in point. Nevertheless such cases are not always losses in translation.
Romanian version imitates indeed the way teenagers speak nowadays and uses more colorful equivalents and expressions than the first version.
The Romanian version faithfully and accurately kept and rendered Salinger’s use of intonational stress and italicized words, which represents an important case of gain.
·         The Romanian version tends to add words or phrases to the TT.

·         The Romanian version always uses euphemisms and euphemistic formulations when translating SL colloquial expressions (mainly explained by the social, political and cultural constraints from the period of its publication), while the second version uses (almost all the time) the same informal, at times vulgar, linguistic register as the ST, managing at the same time to capture the nuances and subtleties of the original.

·         Romanian translation used either obsolete or dialectal / regional words and expressions (or both) through out the novel and this can point out an obvious difference of language use between generations.

·         The general impression is that the Romanian translation is direct, it does not use so many euphemisms, it has more gains, its language is more modern, closer to the contemporary teenage colloquial speech, and more colorful.

Thus, an important conclusion and argument in favor of C. Ionescu’s translation is that the first version is full of examples that lead to the idea of the need for a second translation in Romanian, examples which may not have been obvious without such an analytical comparison. Although the language of the Romanian version is much harsher, stronger and more direct as the original, it is the only way Romanian readers who do not speak English or who did not read the novel in original (depending thus entirely on its translation) can really understand the controversy created around the novel and why so many people censured and banned it. Only by seeing the real function of the language can people understand why Salinger is a master in rendering and imitating teenagers’ colloquial speech and thus come closer to the essence of the novel.[9: p 476]

Another very important conclusion reached is that translations and retranslations are country’s literary system. Another important aspect concerning the importance of translations in general, and of Salinger’s s Romanian version in particular, is that much of the target audience has access to a literary text only through its translation in the TL. To this I can also add the already discussed idea that even native speakers can get more meanings from a ST and its translation than by simply reading the ST in original.

C. Ionescu’s translation has also accomplished its aim by the fact that it addresses young people and it uses 80-90% of their typical language, with very few exceptions (most likely limited by the social and cultural constraints of our modern society).

In conclusion can be said that a translation does not necessarily have to be better than another one, all it has to do is to achieve its goal and reach its target audience successfully. And sometimes some mistakes (losses), as well as some gains, are more visible by comparing two or more translations of the same ST.

C. Ionescu’s translation may have been considered “too far-fetched” and direct, but this can be explained as the translator’s desire to make the main character more authentic and closer to the typical Romanian teenager. In the conclusion can be sad that the Romanian version achieved its aim; that of creating a contemporary and updated translation, especially in terms of language and language use.

The general conclusion that can be drawn is that there cannot be a perfect translation, but there can be made efforts to try to find the best version of rendering a text from the SL into the TL. Literary translators can also use the interpretation of other critics, the options of other native speakers of both the SL and the TL, and the help of numerous dictionaries (but this type of support is limited in ideas). The Romanian translation is obviously courageous in the choice of words, modem in the choice of vocabulary and linguistic register.[2]

            2.3 Main Translation Problems

The Romanian version of the Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye” is based the interpretation. From the investigated material can be concluded that in the well-known novel “The Catcher in the Rye” by Salinger can be single out the important features of the translation difficulties which are in a great number in this novel. The following example point out that the writer’s style is so rich and full of different devices from which can be deduced the next translation difficulties which are find out from the novel during the process of analyzing the both variants of the novel English and Romanian:

Use of contractions: you’ll, don’t, they’re, that’s, isn’t, he’s

As there are no equivalent expressions in the target language, the nuances of this kind taken from the whole novel are lost in Romanian translation.

Use of colloquial expressions:

I don’t feel like going into it

that stuff bores me

pretty personal

they’re nice and all

I’m not saying that

take it easy

he just got a jaguar

in case you ever heard of him

if there’s one thing I hate

Use of colloquial idiom (jargon):

kind of crap

touchy as hell

goddam autobiography

madman stuff

crumby place

damn near four thousand bucks

he’ got a lot of dough now

it killed me

Abundance of repetitions:

how my parents were occupied and all […]

they’re nice and all […]

and he’s my brother and all […]

They’re quite touchy about anything like that, especially my father.

They’re nice and all – I’m not saying that – but

they’re also touchy as hell.

Besides, I’m not going to tell you my whole goddam autobiography or anything.

I’ll just tell you about this madman stuff that happened to me around last Christmas before I got pretty run-down and had to come out here and take it easy.

I mean that’s all I told D.B. about, […]

Sometimes repetitions become anaphor as:

He’s got a lot of dough now.

He didn’t use to.

He used to be just a regular writer, when he was home.

He wrote this terrific book of short stories, […]

In some places, the repetitions become even language errors, revealing Holden’s natural, informal style:

and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap

He’s going to drive me home when I go home next month maybe.

Use of short sentences and AND clauses that link short sentences:

I mean that’s all I told D.B. about,

and he’s my brother and all.

He’s in Hollywood.

That isn’t too far from this crumby place,

and he comes over

and visits me practically every week-end.

He’s going to drive me home when I go home next month maybe.

He just got a Jaguar.

One of those little English jobs that can do around two hundred miles an hour.

It cost him damn near four thousand bucks.

He’s got a lot of dough now.

He didn’t use to.

He used to be just a regular writer, when he was home.

He wrote this terrific book of short stories, The Secret Goldfish, in case you never heard of him.

The best one in it was ‘The Secret Goldfish’.

Related with the informal nature stated, it must also point out the absence of any type of logical structure in Holden’s discourse. His monologues are actually a linked association of ideas: he begins talking about his childhood, which leads him to his parents; then, while mentioning his New York adventures, he says that his brother already knows all about it, so he starts talking about his brother, that he has a talent for writing, but now lives in Hollywood wasting his energies in movies, which enables Holden to express his opinion about movies. It could even state that Holden’s personality is more important than the story he is going to tell us. In fact, Holden’s reactions to his adventure are more significant than the adventure itself. Summarizing: “Slinger concentrates on the flow of Holden’s voice, the starts and hesitations that echo his behaviour” [10]

There is another problem while translating the English text into Romanian. Who is Holden talking to? He uses the pronoun you all the time, but as we know this could be translated as tu, c-ati, va.

In short, must take into account all the above mentioned elements while translating the text. Indeed, they force us to look for a set of somehow Romanian equivalent expressions or structures in order to capture all these elements in our own translation. So we take on the following tasks:

To respect, whenever possible, all the syntax and lexical repetitions
To avoid calques translation of jargon
It would be necessary to transfer the original American jargon into target language expressions.  The target-oriented means “[to render] a source text in a form that is as natural as possible for the reader of the target text and that conforms to conventional usage in the target language and culture”. Following the idea of transferring the jargon, it’s adopted an idiomatic translation: “A translation strategy that consists of producing a target text that conforms to the conventions established in the target language and to the spontaneous form of expression commonly used by native speakers.”

This novel is one of the most famous American novels in the 20th century and is strongly bound to American society. But it is necessary to convey some very specific details from the original socio-cultural reality in order to remind the target audience that the source text is written in another culture. For example: it was made a calques translation from miles an hour ; the places mentioned in the source text (Hollywood and New York) stay in the target text, although New York is translated into New York, which is the generally accepted Romanian translation (recognized translation).[11:p 65]

As mentioned above, the language in The Catcher in the Rye contains many American slang expressions. In the following analyses will be given some examples of slangs from the novel with the help of direct quotations. Since The Catcher in the Rye was written in the 1940s, many of the slangy expressions in it are probably nowadays considered old fashioned and not used anymore.

“So I got the ax [from school].” (to get the ax = to get expelled)
“So I shot the bull for a while.”  (to shoot the bull = either to lie and
exaggerate or to chat amiably)

“Boy, was he sore.” (sore = angry, irritated)
“What really knocks me out is…”  (to knock someone out = to delight or
impress someone extremely)

“…so I went down to the can and chewed the rag with him…” (can=toilet;
to chew the rag = to converse)

“I’ll be up the creek if I don’t get the goddamn thing in by Monday, …”
(up the creek = in trouble)

“I got a big bang out of that.” ( to get a bang out of something = to
enjoy something especially)

“Some of the ones he said were flits were even married, for God’s sake”
(flit = male homosexual)

“I mean he didn’t hit the ceiling or anything.”  ( to hit the ceiling = to
become violently angry)

“…I was pretty loaded.”  (loaded = here: very rich, affluent)
“She had very big knockers.”  (knockers = woman’s breasts)
These writing “The Catcher in the Rye” especially the analyzed part the first fifty pages are full of slang. In this part of the novel the author used 25% of slangs which are serious translation difficulties can be illustrate through the following list of slang used in this piece of Salinger’s writing:

Holden’s jargon is consistent and very enlightening. For example, Holden’s use of qualifiers such as “if you want to know the truth,” “I know what I’m talking about,” or “I’m not kidding” serve to emphasize how unsure Holden is of what he’s saying or how well he’ll be received. Holden also has a tendency to use the undefined second-person pronoun, “you.” This ungrammatical usage emphasizes the disillusionment Holden feels because almost no one sees the world like he does-he constantly has to reassure him that others would do the same thing or feel the same way. Finally, Holden senses sometimes that the words he is using are not quite right, that language fails him: “I don’t exactly know what I mean by that,” he says at one point, “but I mean it.” This admission of the difficulties of writing only adds to the realism of the novel. [12:p 77]

1. lousy  = not nice
2. touchy = sensitive
3. crumby = dirty, not well-kept
4. very big deal = important, significant
5. dough = money
6. It killed me = impressed with
7. flunk = fail
8. stiff = dead body
9. madman = crazy person
10. moron = stupid, idiot
11. strictly for the birds = of no interest
12. hot-shot = important person
13. kick out of it = excited by something
14. crap = garbage
15. corny = not cool, old-fashioned
16. phony = hypocrite, two-faced
17. got the ax = thrown out
18. get a bang = excited by something
19. shoot the bull = telling lies, small talk
20. … as hell = very
21. chucked = threw
22. knocks me out = affected by something
23. swanky = very nice, fancy
24. racket = loud noise, commotion
25. made a stink = got upset
26. it stinks = it’s not nice, it’s not good
27. swell = good, nice
28. horse around = play, fool around
29. drove me crazy = got me angry
30. a buzz = phone call

As was pointed out, The Catcher in the Rye contains several words and expressions that are used mainly in American English or have a different meaning in American and British English. There are also expressions that are used in American English only, such as most of the slangy utterances mentioned above.[13]

One of the most important translation difficulties is grammatical translation difficulties which is the hardest one in the identification and in the same time which change the structure and the meaning of the words from the source text into target text.

There are certain elements in every language which make reference to something else within the text or context of situation for their interpretation. These elements, in English are: personals, demonstratives, and comparatives. A list of personal pronoun is provided here:

Personal Reference: I, you, he, she, we, you, they- used by the author in the writing are not equivalent with the Romanian example of this writing.

In Romanian variant of the “The Catcher in the Rye” by J. D. Salinger is presented the tendency to omit the subject pronouns or to use their presupposed noun, because the verb carries an enclitic subject.

Every translation activity has one or more specific purposes and whichever they may be, the main aim of translation is to serve as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples. In the past few decades, this activity has developed because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. For this reason, the translator plays an important role as a bilingual or multi-lingual cross-cultural transmitter of culture and truths by attempting to interpret concepts and speech in a variety of texts as faithfully and accurately as possible. [14]

Written translation as well as oral one presents itself a complex and manifold process. Translation from English into another language is not just a simple substitute of words from the English language by the words from another language. In translation from English to other languages it is faced the conflict of two completely different cultures, levels of development, customs and traditions. The main task of a translator is to remember and take into account all the difficulties of translation and render the author’s thought as accurate as possible using different literal devices employed originally by the author. [15]

For identification of the translation difficulties and all the types that are presented in the novel are taken two parts of Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye” one in English and one in Romanian for better understanding of the basic elements of the investigation.

I. J. D. Salinger “The Catcher in the Rye” ,. Chapter 3 p.14-19;.

II.http://www.scribd.com/doc/9711270/the-Catcher-in-the-Rye-1945-De-Veghe-in-Lanul-de-Secara-Jdsalinger., Capitolul 3 p.11-19

From these two parts in different languages could be resulted that were used different types of translation difficulties in order to give the smallest basic elements that couldn’t be seen without analyzing these two parts and taking into account the main element that mast be discussed – translation difficulties.

The author used a great variety of the types of translation difficulties and these types could be well seen in the third chapter of J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye” that was chosen in order to point out those types of translation difficulties that exist in the novel.

The first type of translation difficulty that is presented in this chapter is the distinguishing between various meanings of a word of general vocabulary. This type is seen from the beginning of the third chapter in the phrase “…terrific liar….” (J. D. Salinger: p.14) was translate into Romanian such as “…mare mincinos…” (http://www.script.com:p.12). Through this example is pointed out that the author used not the firs meaning of the word “terrific” that is: excellent, wonderful, but the second one that is: very large, very great.

Another important type of translation difficulty that was used by the author J. D. Salinger in “The Catcher in the Rye” is textual (syntagmatic) equivalence. This type is presented through the same structure, form and shape of J. D. Salinger’s context of “The Catcher in the Rye” in English “… It’s terrible! ….” (J. D. Salinger: p.14) and the same text into Romanian “… E îngrozitor! …” (http://www.script.com:p.12).

The Stylistic (translational) equivalence that is presented through the next example in English “Then, the next morning, in chapel, he made a speech that lasted about ten hours” (J. D. Salinger: p.14) and into Romanian “Dup? aceea, în diminea?a urm?toare, la capel?, ne ?inea un discurs care dura vreo zece ceasuri!” (http://www.script.com:p.12) these two examples pointed out the presence of the functional equivalence of the elements in both languages with the identification of an invariant of identical meaning. [15]

The type of difficulty in which the grammar is an important feature is paradigmatic equivalence which is faced through the following phrase “My favorite author is my brother D. B., …” (J. D. Salinger: p.15)-“Autorul meu preferat e fratele- meu D.B., …” (http://www.script.com: p.12). Through this example is shown the same type of pronoun in both languages and the same thing is with the using of present simple and the same punctuation in the translation.

The author J. D. Salinger in his work “The Catcher in the Rye” used a lot of idioms that are an important type of translation difficulties that was identify during the investigation which could be easily seen in the second chapter through the next example “Life is a game…” (J. D. Salinger: p.7) and into Romanian it has the same meaning but it is changed because some idioms are imaginative expression such as proverbs and sayings like “– P?i…c? via?a e un joc de noroc ?i a?a mai departe…” (http://www.script.com:p.5) through this example is well seen that the translation into Romanian of this idioms the life is compared with a lucky game in which somebody is lucky and somebody not. [

“The Catcher in the Rye” is a work written by J. D. Salinger that from different points of view combine some types of translation difficulties. The first type of translation difficulties that could be seen in J. D. Salinger’s novel “The Catcher in the Ray” is distinguished between various uses of a word of general vocabulary. The examples for this type of translation difficulties could be seen from the first page of the novel where the author uses all the meanings of the word hell such as:

1. Hell (noun)

The place or state of punishment of the wicked after death; the abode of evil and condemned spirits;
Any place or state of torment or misery;
Something that causes torment or misery;
The abode of the dead;
Extreme disorder or confusion; chaos.
the hell, Informal:

Used as an intensifier to express surprise, anger, impatience, etc.;
Used sarcastically or ironically to express the opposite of what is being stated. [16]
This word is one of the first words that is used with a lot of meanings and that is one of the type of translation difficulties in “The Catcher in the Rye”. All these meanings of this word could be seen in the third chapter in the example “…dirty hell…” in English that is translated into Romanian as “…îngrozitor de murdare…” that point out that the author used not only the main meaning of the word in his novel but and the secondary meanings of the word.

The word kid is one of the numerous words which is used in the context with all his meanings such as “…Ackley kid? ….’(J. D. Salinger: p. 18) with the translation into Romanian like “… Ackley, pu?iule? …”( http://www.script.com:p.15) from this example is well seen that the author used one of the meanings of the word kid.

2. Kid(s) may refer to

human children or young people;
Young goats, their meat, or leather made from their hides.
3. Stuff is a collection of junk or a group of items or matter. Stuff may also refer to:

Stuff (cloth), a type of cloth or fabric used to fill pillows and other items
Stuffing, a substance which is often placed in cavities of food items
Stuffed animal, a child’s soft toy.
Stuffed or preserved animals, created through the art of taxidermy
Drugs, used so as to be inconspicuous, but euphemistic.
Stuff, in reference to one’s privates. The state of one’s endowment. E.G. She’s got the stuff. [17]
This word appear in the novel from the first pages ofthe noveland the author used the all

meanings of the word stuff. The example for this wrd with its meanings could be like ”…I left the goddam foils andstuff on the subway…” (J. D. Salinger: p.170  in English and “…Am uitat blestmatele aleade florete ?i tot echipamentul in metrou….” ( http://www.script.com:p.15) and throughthis example ispinted out that the author used not only the main meaning of the word. [13]

All this explanations or meanings of these words were used in the novel and through these exemples the it could be resulted that the author’s vocabulary in this novel is very rich.

From this type of the translation difficulties used in this novel point out one of the main feature of author’s style which is that the message of the novel could be better reproduse and easily understand by the reader.

Another important type of translation difficulty that was used by the author in his writing “The Catcher in the Rye” is abbreviation that is a kind of shortening of the words through cutting one of the part of the word and using the apostroph for joining two words, that is the type which create a lot of problem in the prosses of translation..

This type of translation difficulties is a well-known feature of regionalismthat was used by the author in order to point out that in his novel are presented some important features of the previous period.There are different exemples of abreviation in the novel: one of the abreviation tatis presented in the third chapter of the novel is “Think they make you pay for’em” (J. D. Salinger: p. 18) that s translated into Romanian like “Crezi c-o s? te puna s? le pl?te?ti?’ (http://www.script.com: p15) .

Therse exemples of translation difficulties used by the author in his vovel “The Catcher in the Ray” shows to the reader  that the writer tried to combine in his work different features of the period in which he activated that is Modernism and some important features of the previous period which is Realism. [18]

The difficulties while translating are connected most of all with conveyance of national character of one or another work: the brighter it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic situations the more difficult for the translator to find adequate functional figurative means.

It will be enough to recollect the difficulties that the translator faced with translating wonderful works of outstanding American writer J.D.Salinger. Salinger is not only a deeply national, original writer but also a modern writer. His creative work could appear only in our days. Many translators mark out originality of his feature world and that is why the originality of his language and style and the specific usage of popular speech and dialectisms.

References:

1.      Alex Gross, The Theories of Translation. From History to Procedures, Zainurrahman 2009;

2.      http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary;

3.      http://lobeckta.tripod.com/carnavaldebinche/id7.html;

4.      http://www.wikipedia.org;

5.      http://www.semaview.com/archives/10;

6.      http://www.magicessay.com;

7.      http://www.directessay.com;

8.      Roderick A. Jacobs, English Syntax, A Grammar for English Language Professionals, Oxford University Press 1995;

9.      Crystal, David, The English Language. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1988.

10.  http://www.accurapid.com;

11.  Printice Hall Literature American Experience, Second Edition, Printice Hall Edgewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Needham Massachusetts 1991;

12.  Salinger J. D. , The Catcher in the Ray, Penguin Book/Group 1958;

13.  Thesaurus of American Slang. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

14.  Crystal, David, The English Language. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1988.

15.  http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/catcher.html;

16.  http://www.ttt.org/theory/difficulties.htlm;

17.  Volume 17, The World book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc a Scott Fetzer Company Chicago London Sydney Toronto 1997;

18.  http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/catcher/facts.html

19.  http://www.wikitionary.org;

Conclusion

In this Research  Paper we have investigated various translation difficulties of from English into Russian. It was tried to give a detailed study of the features of translation difficulties.

From the investigated material it can be concluded that:

 Lexical peculiarities – are the techniques, methods, elements used by the author that are characteristic for the Modernist Period;

Translation difficulties are the problem that appear during the process of translation from the cause that the author uses different meaning of the words and some types of translation difficulties that are specific for such process.

Modernism as a literary movement is seen, in large part, as a reaction to the emergence of city life as a central force in society.

Researching this paper is established that:” J. D. Salinger is one of the main representatives of the Modern literature which is experimented with a wide variety of new approaches and techniques, producing a remarkably diverse body of literature. Modernists shared a common purpose. They sought to capture the essence of modern life in the form and content of their work. The Modernists constructed their works out of fragments, omitting the exposition, transitions, resolutions, and explanations used in traditional literature.”

Many scientists investigated J. D. Salinger’s novel “The Catcher in the Ray” expressed their points of view such as: ” In 1961, the critic Alfred Kazin explained that Salinger’s choice of teenagers as a subject matter was one reason for his appeal to young readers, but another was “a consciousness [among youths] that he speaks for them and virtually to them, in a language that is peculiarly honest and their own, with a vision of things that capture their most secret judgments of the world.” Salinger’s language, especially his energetic, realistically sparse dialogue, was revolutionary at the time his first stories were published, and was seen by several critics as “the most distinguishing thing” about his work…”

During the investigation of this paper was identifying that J. D. Salinger’s style was marked by different themes, techniques that were used for achieving a good work such as J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Ray.”

 After researching this paper it was established that: “Lexical peculiarities – are the stylistic devices used by the author in his work. In literature and writing, a stylistic device is the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written.” Also after such investigations was pointed out all the types of lexical peculiarities in J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Ray.”

 From the investigated material was defined that:” A translation difficulty is a problem that could be met in the process of translation because a translation is the same text in a different language. Every statement made about the work by a reader of the translation should also be true of the original text. This is not possible. Not with poetry, and not even with prose, where the difficulty is generally assumed to be less. But it is what we aim at. The real thing, with the curtain of language somehow made transparent.” The researched material showed all the types of translation difficulties used in the work “The Catcher in the Ray” by the author.

In the end of researching this paper was established two interesting facts, the first is :” The Catcher in the Rye can be strongly considered as one of the greatest novels of all time and Holden Caulfield distinguishes himself as one of the greatest and most diverse characters.”

The second is: “Written translation as well as oral one presents itself a complex and manifold process. Translation from English into another language is not just a simple substitute of words from the English language by the words from another language. In translation from English to other languages it is faced the conflict of two completely different cultures, levels of development, customs and traditions. The main task of a translator is to remember and take into account all the difficulties of translation and render the author’s thought as accurate as possible using different literal devices employed originally by the author.”

“Analysis of the translation into Romanian of J. D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”, which represents my major contribution to this research paper it was focused on presenting the Romanian versions of Salinger’s novel in order to find the main translation difficulties translation as well as its impact on Romanian readership. It was tried to achieve this aim by centering on the case study of comparing and analyzing in detail the differences and similarities, the gains and the losses that have occurred both in the English and in the Romanian versions. This has been mainly achieved by the careful and analytical comparison of some identical passages from the ST with its translations. The main strategy used was the practical act of comparing the above-mentioned versions, focusing on the importance of Salinger’s writing style and use of language (already discussed in the first chapters), on discussing mainly the cases of misunderstandings and mistranslations, of problems of equivalence, of losses and gains, of linguistic untranslatability, of the translators’ visibility or invisibility in the TT, on accuracy in translation, adaptability, fidelity and faithfulness or infidelity—all these cases seconded by examples in point and by my personal suggestions of other possible translations of certain (more challenging) words or passages from Salinger’s novel. Furthermore, it should be point out major differences in the translation of Salinger’s use of colloquial and taboo language in the English and Romanian versions, the Romanian version was the farthest because of its abundant use of euphemisms and euphemistic formulations throughout the book. It should be discussed cases of linguistic inconsistency in the Romanian version, such as the rendition of intonational stress. Focused on some of Holden’s linguistic repetitions and their importance, as well as on Salinger’s humor and comic effects and their renditions in the two versions. The conclusion is that generally they have been successfully rendered and they have usually followed the ST.”

In addition it can be concluded that the given paper may serve as didactic material for those students and teachers who are interested in the process of tranlation and in the identification of the translation difficulties in a conten from source language into target language and in the work with the lexical peccularities, also this research paper may be used durin the courses tied with translation.

  It should  be mention   that  this  research  work  represents  a   great theoretical value for those willing to take up their future carrier  in  the field of translations as invaluable reference to the methods  and  the  ways of translation of literary masterpieces.

.

Bibliography

Books

20.  Alex Gross,The Theories of Translation. From History to Procedures, Zainurrahman 2009;

21.  Breit, Harvey. Rev. of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. The Atlantic Bookshelf, Vol. CLXXXVIII, No. 2, August 1951, 82.

22.  Cay Dollerup, Basics of Translation Studies, Institutul Europa;

23.  Ccrowther Jonathan and Cavanagh Katchryn, Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press 2003;

24.  Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers. London 1995

25.  Crystal, David, The English Language. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1988.

26.  J. D. Salinger: [USA]

27.  The Catcher in the Rye, L, Penguin, 1958

28.  Franny and Zooey, NY, Bantam1964: Goodman, Anne.

29.  “Mad about Children.” Rev. of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. The New Republic, Vol. 125, No. 3, 16 July 1951, 20-1.

30.  Michael Cart, “Famous Firsts. (young-adult literature)”, 2007;\

31.  New Dictionary of American Slang, Harper & Row, Publishers 1986

32.  Printice Hall Literature American Experience, Second Edition, Printice Hall Edgewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Needham Massachusetts 1991;

33.  Roderick A. Jacobs, English Syntax, A Grammar for English Language Professionals, Oxford University Press 1995;

34.  .Salinger J. D. , The Catcher in the Ray, Penguin Book/Group 1958;

35.  Salinger, J.D. The Catcher in the Rye. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1994;

36.  Stern, James. “Aw, the World’s a Crumby Place.” Rev. of The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. New York Times Book Review 15 July 1951, 5.

37.  The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press 2007;

38.  Thesaurus of American Slang. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

39.  Volume 17, The World book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc a Scott Fetzer Company Chicago London Sydney Toronto 1997

Web sites:

40.  http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary;

41.  http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary;

42.  http://www.accurapid.com;

43.  http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/catcher.html;

44.  http://books.guardian.co.uk/adaptations/story/0,,1767434,00.html

45.  http://www.digischool.nl/ckv1/literatuur/salinger/salinger1.htm

46.  http://www.directessay.com;

47.  http://docs.google.com

48.  http://www.levity.com/corduroy/salinger1.htm

49.  http:// litjourn.yahoo.com.

50.  http://lobeckta.tripod.com/carnavaldebinche/id7.html;

51.  http://www.magicessay.com;

52.  http://www.ttt.org/theory/difficulties.htlm;

53.  http://www.salinger.org/index.php?title=Main_Page

54.  http://www.semaview.com/archives/10;

55.  http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/catcher/facts.html;

56.  http://www.scribd.com/doc/9711270/the-Catcher-in-the-Rye-1945-De-Veghe-in-Lanul-de-Secara-Jdsalinger;

57.   http://www.ttt.org/theory/difficulties.htlm;

58.  http://www.wikidionary.org;

59.  http://www.wikipedia.org;

 

Read full document

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
×
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register
Signup & Access Essays

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
|
Complete Buyer Protection
|
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy