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b
4-1. (applied-104-105) A longitudinal sample of adults is followed over 30 years. All of the following findings are hypothesized EXCEPT _________.
a. the average IQ of the whole group remains the same
b. no decline in cognitive functioning occurs
c. decline occurs, but it is not extreme
d. adults compensate for declines
a
4-2. (conceptual-105) What is the major explanation offered to account for the differences in the pattern of IQ stability or decline over adulthood shown in cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies?
a. cohort differences
b. terminal drop
c. subject attrition
d. unrepresentative samples
c
4-3. (factual-104) The latest version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale provides a Full
Scale IQ based on four separate indexes: _____________ each of which consists of a number of different subtests.
a. Verbal Comprehension, College Algebra, Science, and Music
b. Verbal Comprehension, Scientific Knowledge, Working Memory, and Processing Speed
c. Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed
d. Working Memory, Processing Speed, Generic Reasoning, and Word Problems
b
4-4. (applied-106-107) Which of the following would be considered a test of “fluid” abilities?
a. vocabulary
b. response speed
c. social skills
d. reading comprehension
d
4-5. (factual-109-110) What is the term used to describe the amount of information we can hold in mind while performing some type of operation on it?
a. storage
b. sensory memory
c. recognition
d. working memory
d
4-6. (applied-114) Chiante is an older adult who was taught the memory strategy of forming an image in her mind of the people’s faces she met at the party and their names. This is an example of _______.
a. list making
b. an external memory aid
c. an IQ aid
d. an internal memory aid
b
4-7. (conceptual-118) The latest research on age-related changes in judgment and decision-making suggests that older adults utilize less information and take less time to make their choices (when compared to younger adults). However, there were NO differences in the choices made. The authors suggest that this is because _______.
a. older adults utilize better inductive reasoning
b. older adults better utilize deductive reasoning skills
c. younger adults base their decisions on intuition
d. younger adults better utilize their procedural memories
b
4-8. (applied-122-125) Which individual is most likely to have an advantage in cognitive functioning into old age?
a. an unmarried female who elects to return to school for her GED after 15 years of factory work
b. a married female who completed college on the G.I. Bill and is now engaged as a personal trainer
c. a divorced male college professor who devotes 16 hours a day to his solitary research
d. a 24-year-old single male welfare recipient
d
4-9. (factual-125) Exercise has ________ effect on intellectual skill.
a. a negative
b. a minimal
c. no measurable
d. a positive
c
4-10. (conceptual-125) What is the key flaw in studies of the effect of exercise on mental abilities in which comparisons are made between regular exercisers and sedentary adults?
a. The exercisers use so many different forms of exercise that we can’t be sure what works.
b. Sedentary subjects may actually exercise somewhat but not report it.
c. Those who choose to exercise may be different in other significant ways from those who choose to be sedentary.
d. The samples of exercisers are normally younger than the samples of sedentary adults to whom they are compared.
d
4-1. (factual-104) Many definitions of intelligence include the global abilities to _______.
a. act purposefully
b. think rationally
c. deal effectively
d. all of the above
b
4-2. (applied-104-105) A longitudinal sample of adults is followed over 30 years. All of the following findings are hypothesized EXCEPT ________.
a. the average IQ of the whole group remains the same
b. no decline in cognitive functioning occurs
c. decline occurs, but it is not extreme
d. adults compensate for declines
b
4-3. (applied-104-105) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) scores produce a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. This suggests that 2/3 of all adults obtain a score between _______.
a. 70-130
b. 85-115
c. 100-115
d. 85-100
a
4-4. (factual-106-107) On which of the following types of tests do adults retain the most skill well into old age?
a. unspeeded and crystallized
b. crystallized and speeded
c. fluid and non-verbal
d. fluid and verbal
a
4-5. (conceptual-105) What is the major explanation offered to account for the differences in the pattern of IQ stability or decline over adulthood shown in cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies?
a. cohort differences
b. terminal drop
c. subject attrition
d. unrepresentative samples
d
4-6. (conceptual-105) Which of the following best describes the conclusions about changes in average IQ with age drawn from cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies?
a. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional findings show similar significant declines in IQ scores beginning at about age 40 or 45.
b. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional findings show similar maintenance of IQ through old age.
c. Cross-sectional findings indicate maintenance of IQ scores well into old age, while longitudinal data indicate a decline in IQ beginning at about age 50.
d. Cross-sectional findings point to a decline in IQ beginning at about age 35, while longitudinal data point to much longer maintenance of IQ.
a
4-7. (conceptual-105-106) Which of the following is the most probable explanation for the difference in the apparent pattern of decline in IQ from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies?
a. Older cohorts in cross-sectional studies have less education than do younger cohorts.
b. The older samples in cross-sectional studies include more ill subjects.
c. Declines in midlife were only observed in the cohort born between 1910 and 1920.
d. The longitudinal samples have been more representative of the overall population than have the samples studied in the major cross-sectional studies.
c
4-8. (applied-106) Which of the following would be considered a measure of fluid intelligence?
a. a test of vocabulary
b. a test of comprehension of paragraph meaning
c. an abstract reasoning test
d. a measure of social skills
c
4-9. (factual -106) The finding that average IQ has increased steadily over the 20th century is referred to as the _______ .
a. cohort effect
b. sequential effect
c. Flynn effect
d. positivity bias
a
4-10. (factual-106) According to Cattell and Horn’s theory of intelligence, which type of intelligence is thought to reflect the more basic, physiologically based type of ability?
a. fluid intelligence
b. crystallized intelligence
c. verbal intelligence
d. memory
b
4-11. (applied-106) An experimenter reads a series of numbers and requires the subject to repeat those numbers back in the order given. This is a test of what kind of intelligence?
a. crystallized intelligence
b. fluid intelligence
c. dialectical intelligence
d. practical intelligence
b
4-12. (applied-106-107) Which of the following would be considered a “fluid” ability?
a. vocabulary
b. response speed
c. social skills
d. reading comprehension
b
4-13. (conceptual-106-107) Several different distinctions among types of intellectual tests have been suggested. Which set of subtypes appears to be similar in content?
a. speeded, verbal, crystallized
b. speeded, fluid, performance
c. unspeeded, fluid, verbal
d. unspeeded, crystallized, performance
a
4-14. (applied-106) Which of the following would be considered a measure of crystallized intelligence?
a. a vocabulary test
b. a test of spatial ability
c. an analogies test
d. a measure of abstract reasoning
b
4-15. (conceptual-105-107) Suppose you hear someone say, “Intellectual skill is maintained, with no psychologically significant loss, until about age 60 or 65, after which there is a small decline.” You are convinced that this is an overly optimistic view. Which of the following statements would be your most potent counterargument?
a. Cross-sectional data show a decline much earlier than age 60 or 65.
b. In longitudinal studies, earlier declines appear for tests that measure speeded or fluid abilities.
c. Studies of terminal drop indicate that declines occur only within 5 years of death.
d. Declines begin earlier than this for adults with significant health problems.
a
4-16. (conceptual-106) Research has shown that IQ, from childhood into older adulthood:
a. is very stable.
b. is moderately variable.
c. is extremely variable..
d. can not be studied because it is not possible to compare IQ scores in childhood to those in adulthood.
a
4-17. (applied-106-107) You recently compared your mother’s recent IQ scores with those from the test she took 10 years ago. What combination of changes in crystallized or fluid subscale scores would you MOST likely find?
a. mild increase in crystallized tasks, mild decrease in fluid tasks
b. no change in crystallized, no change in fluid
c. no change in crystallized tasks, moderate increase in fluid tasks
d. moderate decrease in crystallized tasks moderate increase in fluid tasks
a
4-18. (conceptual-107) At least 50% of adults aged 80 complete fluid and crystallized tests of intelligence and performance at rates similar to young people. This statement suggests _______.
a. extensive variability within age groups
b. that at least half of older adults have had increases in their IQ scores over time
c. that at least half of younger adults have higher IQ scores than the older adults
d. all of the above are suggested
b
4-19. (factual-106) When speaking of the type of intelligence based on education and experience, Horn and Cattell refer to _______.
a. fluid intelligence
b. crystallized intelligence
c. spatial intelligence
d. deductive reasoning and long-term working memory
a
4-20. (factual-109) Short-term memory is also referred to as ________.
a. primary memory
b. prospective memory
c. declarative
d. working memory
a
4-21. (factual-109) __________ refers to the initial step as information is picked up by the senses and processed briefly by the perceptual system.
a. The sensory store
b. Short-term memory
c. Semantic memory
d. Procedural memory
c
4-22. (applied-109-111) Clarissa is walking through the grocery store and realizes that they only take cash or a debit card. She does not have a debit card, so she starts to add up the cost of her groceries to determine if she has enough money. She is using her ________.
a. declarative memory
b. semantic memory
c. working memory
d. prospective memory
b
4-23. (applied-109-110) When you look up a phone number and say it over to yourself once so that you can dial the whole number without having to check it again, what part of the memory sequence are you using?
a. retrieval
b. short-term memory
c. encoding
d. sensory memory
b
4-24. (factual-109-110) On which type of memory test do adults show the MOST loss of skill with age?
a. short-term memory
b. working memory
c. procedural memory
d. sensory memory
b
4-25. (factual-109-110) You are introduced to someone new, and say his name over to yourself so that you will remember it a minute later when you will have to introduce this new person to someone else. Where is the new name likely to be “located” in your memory system?
a. sensory memory
b. short-term memory
c. long-term memory
d. procedural memory
d
4-26. (factual-109-112) Which pair of memory systems demonstrates the largest decline with age?
a. sensory and primary
b. semantic and primary
c. episodic and semantic
d. working and episodic
c
4-27. (applied-111-112) Your 78-year-old grandfather recently attended his 60th high school reunion, and although he could describe the old gym where he and his teammates won the basketball championship, he had difficulty recalling his teammates’ names. This is an example of age-related changes in ________.
a. procedural memory
b. working memory
c. semantic memory
d. none of the above
b
4-28. (applied-111) Vernice is working on a task that requires her to regulate her attention and to determine what to do with information just gathered. These abilities are referred to as:
a. episodic memory.
b. executive function.
c. semantic memory.
d. “g”.
d
4-29. (applied-112) Roderick arrived at the lab to participate in a study in which he was given two tasks: to remember a list of words and to remember the details of a story. The cognitive psychologist conducting this experiment was measuring his ________.
a. IQ
b. prospective memory
c. nondeclarative memory
d. episodic memory
b
4-30. (applied-112-113) On which of the following kinds of “everyday” memory tasks is an older adult likely to do as well as younger adults?
a. recalling whether she turned off the stove before she left the house
b. recalling whether she voted in the last election
c. recalling the names of all the major streets of the town in which she lives
d. remembering to take medication a specified number of times each day
a
4-31. (conceptual- 113) Word-finding failure and name-retrieval failures are both examples of tasks that require ________.
a. semantic memory
b. prospective memory
c. episodic memory
d. psychometrics
b
4-32. (conceptual-118) The latest research on age-related changes in judgment and decision-making suggests that older adults utilize less information and take less time to make their choices (when compared to younger adults). However, there were NO differences in the choices made. The authors suggest that this is because _______.
a. older adults utilize better inductive reasoning
b. older adults better utilize deductive reasoning skills
c. younger adults base their decisions on intuition
d. younger adults better utilize their procedural memories
d
4-33. (conceptual-112-118) Which of the following is TRUE?
a. The more related the practical problems are to the older participant’s interests and areas of expertise, the better they do solving the problems.
b. Younger adults do better than older adults on traditional problem-solving tasks as measured in a lab.
c. When the “memory” part of the study is de-emphasized, older adults perform better.
d. All of the above are true.
d
4-34. (conceptual-117) Older adults’ reduced performance on declarative memory tasks when they are reminded of the negative age stereotype is probably the result of such reminders:
a. decreasing the positivity bias.
b. taxing their prospective memory.
c. decreasing the Flynn effect
d. consuming more working memory capacity.
c
4-35. (applied-119) Mr. Rodriguez, a 75-year-old male, was a participant in a study that required him to look at different types of advertisements. These ads featured three types of appeals: emotional, knowledge-related, and neutral. Based on research, it is most likely that:
a. Mr. Rodriguez will remember all the ads equally well.
b. Mr. Rodriguez will remember the neutral items the best.
c Mr. Rodriguez will remember the emotional ads the best.
d. Mr. Rodriguez will remember the knowledge-related ads the best.
b
4-36. (conceptual- 120) In general, older adults are more emotionally ________ than younger adults.
a. negative
b. positive
c. neutral
d. unstable
a
4-37. (conceptual -120) Socioemotional selectivity theory provides an explanation for
a. older people’s positivity bias.
b. older people’s greater vulnerability to stereotype threats involving memory.
c. the Flynn effect.
d. the contextual perspective.
d
4-38. (conceptual-122-123) Which of the following is a valid statement relating to research concerning genetic influence on cognitive abilities?
a. Fraternal twins have higher correlations on scores of cognitive functioning than do monozygotic twins.
b. Different types of cognitive abilities are influenced to the same extent by genetics.
c. For general cognitive ability, heritability decreases with age.
d. Meta-analyses of variance in IQ scores among twins suggest that 50% of the variance can be explained by genetic differences.
b
4-39. (applied-122-125) Which individual is most likely to have an advantage in cognitive functioning into old age?
a. an unmarried female who elects to return to school for her GED after 15 years of factory work
b. a married female who completed college on the G.I. Bill and is now engaged as a personal trainer
c. a divorced male college photographer who devotes 16 hours a day to his work.
d. a 24-year-old single male welfare recipient
d
4-40. (factual-125) Exercise has ____ effect on intellectual skill.
a. a negative
b. a minimal
c. no measurable
d. a positive
a
4-41. (factual-123) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the link between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline with age?
a. People with fewer years of schooling show more cognitive decline.
b. People with more years of schooling show more cognitive decline.
c There is no correlation between number of years of formal schooling and cognitive decline.
d. No researchers have examined this question because so few people in late adulthood went to college.
b
4-42. (factual-123-124) Which of the following is TRUE?
a. Men have a slight advantage over women in episodic memory, verbal tasks, and maintaining brain weight.
b. The rate of decline in cognitive abilities is the same, regardless of how privileged individuals have been in terms of income, professional prestige, and social position.
c. Living with a spouse who is functioning at a high cognitive level is no more likely to ward off cognitive decline than living with one whose cognitive level is low.
d. Reading books, traveling, and attending cultural events do not have any impact on intellectual functioning as people age
d
4-43. (applied-122-125) Which of the following persons is most likely to maintain good intellectual functioning into old age?
a. Sarah, of average intelligence, who does the crossword puzzle every day and takes a brisk one-hour walk each morning
b. Jim, who has a high IQ and reads regularly, but rarely exercises
c. Paul, who has a high IQ, runs three miles each day, and plays handball regularly, but doesn’t read even the daily paper
d. We do not have enough information to make a prediction.
c
4-44. (conceptual-125) What is the key flaw in studies of the effect of exercise on mental abilities in which comparisons are made between regular exercisers and sedentary adults?
a. The exercisers use so many different forms of exercise that we can’t be sure what works.
b. Sedentary subjects may actually exercise somewhat but not report it.
c. Those who choose to exercise may be different in other significant ways from those who choose to be sedentary.
d. The samples of exercisers are normally younger than the samples of sedentary adults to whom they are compared.
c
4.45. (conceptual- 128-129) When it comes to new technologies
a. older adults prefer e-readers to traditional hard copy books.
b. older adults read much slower and comprehend less reading e-books compared to traditional books.
c. older adults showed significant gains in physical fitness and cognitive health after electronic exergame training with the Wii.
d. only men seem to benefit cognitively and physically from electronic exergames.
c
4-46. (factual-129) Which of the following is TRUE regarding research on driving?
a. 20-year-olds have much higher rates of two-vehicle crashes than 70-year-olds.
b. Useful field of view is a constant perceptual ability; it stays the same even when attending to other activities.
c. Older adults’ failure to scan at intersections is a bad habit that can be modified by simulator training.
d. Even after training, older adults do not show increases in useful field of view.
c
4-47. (factual-132) Dixon suggests the cognitive changes that take place as we age should be examined in terms of “gains and losses.” What is one area of gain?
a. increased useful field of view
b. increased traditional problem-solving skills
c. increased compensatory skills
d. increased working memory
a
5-1. (applied-138) A woman’s youngest child starts first grade and she begins working part time. This is an example of a change in a(n) _______.
a. social role
b. biological role
c. gender role
d. age stratum
c
5-2. (applied-138) After dating her boyfriend for only three weeks, thirty-eight-year-old Carla was excited that she was getting married, despite the fact that a few days before, she was not sure if they had much in common. Carla’s decision seems to be ________.
a. an example of the parental imperative
b. evidence of crossover of gender roles
c. dictated by the social clock
d. an example of the marital selection effect
b
5-3. (conceptual-140) Research in different cultures has led to the following conclusion:
a. gender roles are the same for males and females regardless of where they live.
b. gender roles are dynamic.
c. traditional gender roles are the most adaptive.
d. societal changes only affect gender roles in the U.S.
b
5-4. (applied-139) Imagine that you are a business executive and you are about to have a meeting with a rival executive whom you know to be a woman. You know nothing else about her, but you imagine that she must be less competitive than your male colleagues—probably more conciliatory. What process are you demonstrating with such thoughts?
a. intellectualization
b. stereotyping
c. differentiation
d. pragmatics
a
5-5. (factual-138) At which age in the life cycle are adults likely to add the greatest number of new roles?
a. at 20-30 years old
b. at 40-50 years old
c. at 60-70 years old
d. at 80-90 years old
c
5-6. (factual-142-144) Current research in the United States on leaving (and returning) home has shown that _______.
a. more females than males aged 18-24 live with their parents
b. the older they are when they move out, the more likely they are to return
c. the proportion of young adults living in their parents homes has increased from 2005-2011.
d. more individuals aged 25 to 34 were living with their parents than those who were between 18 and 24 years of age
d
5-7. (conceptual-153-154) The role of grandparent _______.
a. is less common today than it was in the past
b. is experienced by most at the average age of 65
c. is one that most think they are doing an average job at, but regret not being able to play an important role in their grandchildren’s lives
d. involves more intimacy for women than for men
d
5-8. (conceptual-153) Which of the following conclusions is the most reasonable statement of current data on gender role crossover at midlife?
a. There is no evidence to support the concept of gender role crossover.
b. There is reasonably strong evidence that men become more feminine, but no clear evidence that women become more masculine after midlife.
c. There is clear evidence that women become more masculine, but little indication that men become more feminine after midlife.
d. There is evidence for an expansion of gender role boundaries at midlife, but little indication of a full crossover.
d
5-9. (applied-162) Of the following individuals, who is LEAST LIKELY to remarry?
a. Marshall, a European-American male
b. Jennifer, an Hispanic American female
c. Kim, an Asian-American female
d. Vanessa, an African-American female
d
5-10. (factual-161-162) Which of the following best describes our current research on childlessness?
a. Hispanic women are more likely to be childless than those of other races or ethnic groups.
b. Childless women tend to have lower-level jobs and earn less money than their counterparts with children.
c. The increase in the number of childless women is unique to the U.S.; most other developed countries have seen a decrease in childlessness.
d. The number of childless women has increased since the 1970s.
a
5-1. (applied-138) A woman’s youngest child starts first grade and she begins working part time. This is an example of a change in a(n) _______.
a. social role
b. biological role
c. gender role
d. age stratum
a
5-2. (conceptual-138) Unlike today, early social role theory described adulthood in terms of:
a. the number of roles an individual occupied at different ages.
b. the amount of time an individual spent in each of the different roles.
c. the perceived quality of the roles occupied at different ages.
d. the willingness of the person to transition from one role to another.
a
5-3. (conceptual-139) A brief definition of a gender role is _______.
a. a job description for being a male or a female
b. a rigid stereotype of male and female behavior
c. a typical position taken during sexual intercourse
d. the degree of match between a gender stereotype and behavior
c
5-4. (factual-139) Gender stereotypes refer to sets of shared beliefs about how men and women should behave. This can be harmful when ________.
a. the origins of the roles are studied
b. males are considered equal to females
c. they are used to judge men and women
d. U.S. males and females are similar to other cultures
d
5-5. (conceptual-139) Gender stereotypes
a. in most countries involve instrumental qualities for females.
b. have not been studies in other cultures because they do not assign roles based on one’s biological sex.
c. are inconsistent across cultures.
d. are consistent across cultures.
d
5-6. (factual-139) Research on gender roles around the world shows that _______.
a. gender roles are particularly evident in industrialized cultures
b. gender roles are particularly evident in nonindustrialized cultures
c. only about half the cultures in the world have clear gender roles
d. every culture has some form of gender roles
c
5-7. (applied-139) Proximal causes of the origins of gender roles means _______.
a. exaggerated male/female differences
b. minimal acceptance of gender stereotypes
c. factors present in the immediate environment
d. undifferentiated gender schemas
b
5-8. (applied-139) An adult describes himself as adventurous, daring, independent, rude, stern, and wise. In Williams & Best typology, this individual would be classed as _______.
a. feminine
b. masculine
c. androgynous
d. undifferentiated
c
5-9. (factual-139) Which of the following is NOT consistently part of the male gender role stereotype in Williams and Best’s cross-cultural studies?
a. active
b. independent
c. superstitious
d. enterprising
c
5-10. (factual-139) The school of thought that explains gender roles as dispositional traits we are genetically predisposed to perform is known as _______.
a. learning schema theory
b. social role theory
c. evolutionary psychology
d. none of the above
b
5-11. (factual-139) The term psychologists use to describe the typical collection of female stereotyped qualities is _______.
a. agentic
b. communal
c. instrumental
d. emotional
b
5-12. (conceptual-140) In the U.S., the roles of men and women have changed over the past few decades. Which of the following best describes the relationship between male and female gender roles in our current culture?
a. symmetrical
b. asymmetrical
c. traditional
d. none of the above
b
5-13. (conceptual-139) According to _________ children are taught to view the world and themselves through gender-polarized lenses that make artificial distinctions between what is masculine and what is feminine.
a. social role theory
b learning schema theory
c. the biosocial perspective
d. evolutionary theory
b
5-14. (applied-139) Imagine that you are a business executive and you are about to have a meeting with a rival executive whom you know to be a woman. You know nothing else about her, but you imagine that she must be less competitive than your male colleagues—probably more conciliatory. What process are you demonstrating with such thoughts?
a. intellectualization
b. stereotyping
c. differentiation
d. pragmatics
a
5-15. (factual-140) During which age period is the highest density of shifts in social roles found?
a. young adulthood
b. at the age-30 transition
c. in middle adulthood
d. in late adulthood
a
5-16. (factual-138) At which age in the life cycle are adults likely to add the greatest number of new roles?
a. at 20-30 years old
b. at 40-50 years old
c. at 60-70 years old
d. at 80-90 years old
b
5-17. (conceptual-142) According to Arnett, which of the following is NOT a feature of emerging adulthood?
a. the age of identity explorations
b. the age of settling down
c. the age of feeling in-between
d. the age of possibilities
d
5-18. (factual-142-144) Current studies in the United States on the leaving-home process have shown that:
a. the proportion of young adults living in their parents’ homes has stayed stable since 2005.
b. more 25 to 34-year-olds live with their parents than individuals of ages18 to 24.
c. more females return to fill the empty nest than males.
d. the average age that young people leave their family home is 20.
b
5-19. (factual-144-145) Analyses of marriage and cohabitation rates in the United States over the past several decades suggest that among young people in their early 20s, ________.
a. marriage rates have risen, and cohabitation rates have declined
b. marriage rates have declined, and cohabitation rates have risen
c. marriage rates have remained about the same, and cohabitation rates have risen
d. marriage rates and cohabitation rates have both risen
b
5-20. (applied-145) Who is most likely to be cohabiting?
a. Oksana, from Russia
b. Sarah, from Sweden
c. Karly, from the U.S.
d. Marika, from Switzerland
a
5-21. (factual-146) Early gender roles in partnerships, before children are born, are more ______ than they will be when the partners are parenting.
a. egalitarian
b. traditional
c. male-oriented
d. female-oriented
b
5-22. (conceptual-146) Miguel and Sara, who live in New York, have been together for six years and now have two children, aged 1 and 3. According to research, at what period in their relationship might they have had egalitarian gender roles, or equal gender roles?
a. before they began dating
b. at the beginning of a marriage or partnership, before children are born
c. when they have at least one child
d. American men and women are incapable of equal gender roles
d
5-23. (factual-147) According to the marital crisis effect:
a. women benefit more from marriage than do men.
b. people in poor mental and physical health are not as likely to marry as those who are better off.
c. people seek out committed relationships more when they are experiencing stress in their lives.
d. it is not marriage that provides good health, but rather, the trauma of being widowed or divorced that brings poor health.
c
5-24. (factual-148) Which of the following groups showed poorer health outcomes such as, higher heart rates, blood pressure, and changes in immune function?
a. couples who did not show emotion during discussions
b. couples in which the man spoke more than the woman during discussions
c. couples who were high in conflict and hostility during discussion
d. couples who used sarcasm and joking during heated discussions
a
5-25. (factual-149) David Gutmann refers to the magnification of gender role differences after the birth of the first child as _______.
a. the parental imperative
b. a species-specific imperative
c. a legacy from our distant ancestors
d. sexual determinism
b
5-26. (applied-149) Before they married, Bill and Tanya were determined to have an egalitarian relationship, sharing household tasks and childcare. But after the birth of their first child, Jason, Tanya found herself doing the majority of the childcare, and Bill found himself working longer hours at his job than ever. This is an illustration of what theoretical principle or concept?
a. androgyny
b. the parental imperative
c. the biological clock
d. gender-role crossover
b
5-27. (applied-149) Dion and Lucetta have just had their first child. According to Gutmann’s principle of the parental imperative, what effect (if any) will this new arrival have on Dion’s behavior?
a. He will spend more time at home than he did before the child’s birth.
b. He will spend more time focused on his work than he did before the child’s birth.
c. He will spend more time interacting with his own parents.
d. It will have no effect.
c
5-28. (factual-149) Which of the following theories explains gender role differences among new parents by saying that men and women function as a couple to swap goods and services?
a. the parental investment theory
b. the parental imperative theory
c. economic exchange theory
d. social role theory.
b
5-29. (applied-150) Which of the following people is likely to spend the LEAST time on child care?
a. gay parents
b. parents who work more hours outside the home
c. lesbian parents
d. parents who were raised by a working mothers
d
5-30. (applied-150-153) A researcher asks couples in their 70s to think back on their marriages and say which period had been the happiest in their married lives. Which period, on average, are these adults likely to say was the happiest?
a. right after their first child was born
b. when they had young children
c. when their youngest child began kindergarten
d. when all the children left home
c
5-31. (factual-150) Which new adult role is accompanied by a decrease in marital happiness and satisfaction?
a. engagement
b. marriage
c. becoming parents
d. becoming an empty nester
b
5-32. (factual-151) Based on Gottman’s interview research, which of the following is considered the glue that holds the marriage together for couples who experienced the transition to parenthood?
a. passion
b. fondness and admiration spouses expressed for each other
c. the expression of the commitment to stay together “no matter what”
d. attraction and a sense of dependence on one another
d
5-33. (factual-153) The concept of gender role crossover suggests that at some point in the life cycle, men begin to take on aspects of the women’s role and women take on aspects of the men’s role. At what stage does Gutmann think this occurs?
a. newlywed couples
b. young couples with infants
c. couples with school-aged children
d. couples in midlife
c
5-34. (factual-152-153) Which of the following is the most commonly acquired new role in the postparental period?
a. regular care of aging parent
b. community volunteer
c. grandparent
d. mentor
b
5-35. (factual-150-153) Which two groups, among families at different stages of the family life cycle, show the highest levels of marital satisfaction?
a. couples with infants and couples at retirement age
b. newlywed couples without children and couples at retirement age
c. newlywed couples without children and couples with adolescents
d. couples with preschoolers and couples with adolescents
d
5-36. (conceptual-153) Which of the following conclusions is the most accurate statement of current data on gender roles at midlife?
a. Expansion of gender roles has been found only among European-Americans.
b. There is reasonably strong evidence that men become more feminine, but no clear evidence that women become more masculine after midlife.
c. There is clear evidence that women become more masculine, but little indication that men become more feminine after midlife.
d. There is evidence for an expansion of gender role boundaries at midlife.
d
5-37. (conceptual-152-153) Which of the following hypothetical or actual pieces of evidence would provide the best support for the existence of a gender role crossover in midlife?
a. cross-sectional comparisons of young and middle aged adults showing higher levels of androgyny among middle-aged men and women
b. cross-sectional comparisons of levels of independence in women showing that women in their 50s are more independent than women in their 20s
c. longitudinal analysis of men’s work roles showing that some men acquire the role of mentor at midlife
d. longitudinal analysis of behavior in married couples between age 30 and age 50 showing women becoming more assertive and men becoming more passive.
a
5-38. (conceptual-155) Which of the following is most accurate in regard to research on grandparents as surrogate parents?
a. One of the major areas of stress came from problems with the grandchildren’s parents.
b. Surrogate parenting is decreasing among white and Hispanic families.
c. African-American surrogate parents report more difficulties with this role than white surrogate parents.
d. There is no research on surrogate grandfathers; all the research is on surrogate grandmothers..
b
5-39. (factual-155-156) Which of the following is TRUE regarding recent national survey data on unpaid caregivers of aging parents?
a. More men than women are now taking care of their parents because of more women entering the work force.
b. The average age of caregivers was 48.
c. The age of caregivers has decreased in the past five years.
d. The age of care receivers has decreased in the past five years.
b
5-40. (factual-157) _______ who provide care for elderly relatives are less apt to experience caregiver burden and depression than ________ .
a. Hispanic-American family caregivers; White caregivers
b. African American; White caregivers
c. Women; men
d. High SES individuals; Middle SES individuals
a
5-41. (applied-155-156) Gretta is 81 and has four children. Her husband, Ronald, recently died. When asked who would be most likely to care for her if she became disabled or ill, she would most likely:
a. name her daughter.
b. say that it would be the adult child who was most available to help.
c. say that it would be the child who had not helped as much in the past because she would not want to burden those who have already helped her a lot.
d. say that she did not know who she would ask for help.
d
5-42. (conceptual-157) In the final stage of the family life cycle, roles become _______.
a. more clearly defined and more dominant
b. more clearly defined but less dominant
c. less clearly defined and more dominant
d. less clearly defined and less dominant
b
5-43. (applied-158) The proportion of 65 years or older living with relatives other than spouses depends on:
a. type of chronic illness.
b. ethnic background.
c. socioeconomic status.
d. personality traits of the elderly individual.
a
5-44. (factual-158) Most elderly individuals without a spouse in the U.S. prefer to:
a. live alone.
b. live with another elderly woman.
c. live with their son.
d. live with their daughter.
d
5-45. (applied-158) Seventy-six-year-old Elizabeth, a white woman in the U.S., has been recently widowed. She is thinking about her choices of living arrangements. What is her first choice most likely to be?
a. to live with her daughter
b. to live with her son
c. to move in with her sister
d. to live alone
a
5-46. (applied-160) In the U.S., which of the following individuals over the age of 65 is most likely to be single and never married?
a. Loreto, a Hispanic-American male.
b. Jerry, a European-American male.
c. Jon, an Asian-American male.
d. Jim, a Native-American male.
c
5-47. (applied-161-162) Kirsten is a 40-year-old, married, childless woman. What reasonable guess might you make about other facets of Kirsten’s life?
a. she has been a full-time housewife since her marriage
b. she has struggled with depression for most of the past 20 years
c. she has had a strong commitment to a career
d. she is the oldest child in her family
b
5-48. (factual-161-162) In comparison to women with children, childless women are _______.
a. less work committed
b. more work committed
c. happier in old age
d. less happy in old age
a
5-49. (factual-162) Which of the following is TRUE?
a. Men are more likely to remarry than women.
b. African-American women are more likely to remarry than European-American women.
c. Women with more children are more likely to remarry than women with fewer children.
d. Less than 10% of people who remarry eventually divorce.
d
5-50. (factual-164) Heckhausen’s theory of social timing suggests that the stronger the correlation between people’s social role sequence and developmental norms,
a. the larger their friendship network is likely to be.
b. the better chances they will have of remarrying.
c. the higher their socioeconomic status is likely to be.
d. the less stress they will have in life.
d
6-1. (factual-171) Theorists of attachment suggest that in childhood we each create a sort of template of relationships that is applied to later interactions. Such a template is called _______.
a. an attachment model
b. an insecure attachment
c. a secure attachment
d. an internal working model
b
6-2. (applied-174, 196-197) Bernice is a 68-year-old female who lives in the southeast near one of her three children and her only two grandchildren. It is most likely that:
a. the size of her friendship network is about the same as it was in young adulthood.
b. she has less contact with her friends than she did when she was younger.
c. she has a smaller friendship network than her husband.
d. she sees this part of her life as a time to seek information and new relationships.
c
6-3. (factual-172) What term does Antonucci use to describe the set of relationships with family and friends that surrounds each of us throughout our adult lives?
a. cohort
b. lineage
c. convoy
d. social support network
c
6-4. (applied-176) If you ask a group of young men which quality is most important to them in choosing a mate, which of the following qualities is likely to be ranked first?
a. level of the woman’s education
b. the social class of the woman’s family
c. the woman’s attractiveness
d. the woman’s social status
d
6-5. (conceptual-182-183) Your friends Jeff and Lucia are considering living together as a kind of trial run, to see if they want to get married. They know you are studying psychology, and ask you whether psychologists know anything about couples who live together. Which of the following would best describe the current information?
a. Cohabitation before marriage is generally a good way to prepare for marriage; those who have cohabited later have more lasting and satisfying marriages.
b. Cohabitation before marriage appears to be helpful for some couples, especially those with higher levels of education.
c. Cohabitation appears to be most helpful for people who have experienced the divorce of their parents.
d. Couples who are engaged before moving in together tend to have marriages as successful as those of couples who did not cohabit before marriage.
a
6-6. (factual-183-184) Research on same-sex partnerships shows that_________.
a. more people in the U.S. now support same-sex marriages than oppose them
b. same-sex partners take on “male” and “female” roles
c. same-sex couples and different-sex couples are more different than alike
d. in the early years of the relationship, lesbian couples have more sex than do gay or heterosexual couples
c
6-7. (conceptual-187-188) Assuming that Shealeen is similar to other adult children, one would expect that she:
a. has very different opinions from those of her parents.
b. does not have much contact with her parents.
c. feels emotionally close to her parents.
d. has not receive any financial support from them since she graduated from high school.
c
6-8. (applied-195-196) Which of the following is TRUE regarding sibling relationships in the U.S.?
a. The overwhelming majority of siblings reported becoming more emotionally distant from their siblings with time..
b. Brothers tend to be closer with one another than are sisters.
c. People who are single tend to have stronger relationships with their siblings than those who are married.
d. People who have children tend to have stronger relationships with their siblings than those who are childless.
d
6-9. (conceptual-196-197) Rebecca says that she is content with her current friendships and not motivated to add new relationships. Based on the research evidence, what would be the best guess about Rebecca’s age?
a. 15-20
b. 20-30
c. 30-40
d. 40-50
b
6-10. (factual-197) Research has shown that people who attribute human thoughts, feelings, and motivations to their pets report ________ when compared to pet owners who do not do this.
a. higher self-esteem
b. higher levels of stress
c. lower levels of depression
d. lower perceived social support
d
6-1. (factual-171) Theorists of attachment suggest that in childhood we each create a sort of template of relationships that is applied to later interactions. Such a template is called _______.
a. an attachment model
b. an insecure attachment
c. a secure attachment
d. an internal working model
b
6-2. (conceptual-170-171) Which of the following behaviors toward another person would be LEAST LIKELY to be considered an attachment behavior?
a. hugging
b. shaking hands
c. writing a letter
d. smiling
d
6-3. (conceptual-171) Adults with a secure attachment
a. have a healthy skepticism and believe the world is an unsafe place.
b. never feel discouraged.
c. never feel threatened.
d. welcome life’s challenges
d
6-4. (factual-171) Which of the following is NOT a key underlying feature of attachment according to Weiss’s conceptualization?
a. association of the attachment figure with feelings of security
b. increased likelihood of attachment when the child is under stress or threat
c. attempts to avoid, or to end, any separation from the attachment figure
d. pushing the attachment figure away to assert independence and sense of self
b
6-5. (applied-172) Although Justine considers herself an extravert, now that she is approaching 50, she is no longer interested in attending the girls’ night out her friend is planning. She would much rather spend her free time with a smaller group of close friends or members of her family. Justine’s preference supports
a. intergenerational solidarity theory.
b. socioemotional selectivity theory.
c. filter theory.
d. exchange theory.
b
6-6. (factual-172-173) Carstensen’s “socioemotional selectivity theory” suggests that over adulthood, our relationships with friends should become _______.
a. more frequent and more intimate
b. more selective and more intimate
c. more frequent and less intimate
d. more expanded
a
6-7. (conceptual-172) The limited data we have suggests that personal convoys _______ over time.
a. contract gradually in size, but include more and more intimate relationships
b. remain about the same size, with relationships becoming more intimate
c. increase in size, with more friends added in each decade
d. increase in size, but with fewer intimate relationships
c
6-8. (applied-172) Dr. Jennings is doing research that entails a mapping technique in which participants report on three levels of relationships. They are asked to write the names of people within three concentric circles. Dr. Jennings’ research is using the:
a. internal working model.
b. filter theory.
c. convoy model.
d. exchange theory.
b
6-9. (factual-172) “A protective layer of individuals who surround a person and help in the successful negotiation of life’s challenges” is, according to Antonucci, a definition of _______.
a. a family
b. a convoy
c. a cohort
d. a generation
a
6-10. (applied-172) If I ask you to make a list of all the people who are most important to you, including those you cannot imagine living without and those who are important but not quite that close, this list would describe your _______.
a. convoy
b. family
c. friends
d. cohort
d
6-11. (conceptual-170-172, 177-179) Longitudinal research shows that an infant’s attachment classification _______.
a. changes significantly until stabilizing in young adulthood
b. is related to their siblings’ attachment classification
c. is unrelated to attachments formed later in life with intimate partners
d. corresponds to their parents’ attachment classification
a
6-12. (conceptual-173) According to __________ theory, today’s members of our species have biological systems that foster the formation and maintenance of social relationships, and this is manifested in a universal “need to belong.”
a. evolutionary
b. social learning
c. internal working model
d. intergenerational solidarity
d
6-13. (factual-175) Anthropologist Helen L. Fisher (2000, 2004) suggests that mate
selection depends on three distinct emotional systems: __________, ___________, and _______________.
a. attraction, closeness, and attachment
b. attraction, friendship, and love
c. lust, friendship, and love
d. lust, attraction, and attachment
b
6-14. (factual-175) Researchers showed participants a photo of their loved one and asked them to think about a pleasurable event that had occurred when they were together. As a control, they were shown a photo of a neutral person and asked to think about pleasurable events with that person. When viewing the loved one and thinking about pleasant interactions with them, regions of the brain that are rich in _______ were activated.
a. AcH receptors
b. dopamine receptors
c. gabba receptors
d. GAMA receptors
c
6-15. (factual-176) Dr. Mendez was giving an invited address on the topic of dating among college students. She stated that people begin with a large pool of potential mates and gradually eliminate those who do not fit our specifications. She was clearly describing ________ of mate selection.
a. the social convoy theory
b. exchange theory
c. the filter theory
d. evolutionary theory
d
6-16. (conceptual-176) Researchers have used a number of theories to explain the topic of what attracts one person to another or two people to each other. Which of the following theories below best exemplifies the trade-off we often make with intimate partners such as a sense of humor offsetting a physical unattractive trait, for example, being overweight.
a. filter theory
b. socioemotional theory
c. evolutionary theory
d. exchange theory
c
6-17. (applied-176) If you ask a group of young men which quality is most important to them in choosing a prospective wife, which of the following qualities is likely to be ranked first?
a. level of the woman’s education
b. the social class of the woman’s family
c. the woman’s attractiveness
d. the woman’s prospective earning power
a
6-18. (factual-178) When researchers measured adult attachment styles, they found that almost have rated themselves as ________.
a. secure
b. dismissing
c. fearful
d. preoccupied
d
6-19. (conceptual-178) Which of the following is TRUE regarding adult romantic attachment styles?
a. Two-year-olds who had a secure attachment to their mothers were no more likely to, at age 20 or 21 years, rebound from romantic relationship conflicts than their counterparts who were insecurely attached.
b. Males almost always showed a more secure attachment style than females.
c. The dismissing style was the most common adult attachment style overall.
d. Partners of securely attached 20-year-olds rebound faster from relationship conflicts regardless of their own attachment history.
c
6-20. (applied-178) In his relationship with his wife, Clarence is often jealous, anxious about whether she returns his feelings, and generally unsure of himself. Such a pattern is characteristic of individuals with what kind of internal model of attachment?
a. secure
b. unstable
c. preoccupied
d. distressed
a
6-21. (conceptual-179-180) Which of the following is TRUE regarding Markman and colleagues’ research on relationship quality?
a. Some risk factors for divorce can be changed.
b. Those who eventually got divorce or experienced marital distress were overly complimentary to each other to hide their feelings of frustration.
c. Their findings conflicted with those of other researchers because they did not find that negative interactions impacted the quality of marriage or whether people got divorced.
d. It has been criticized for being cross-sectional and not including data from both members of the couple.
b
6-22. (factual-180) In Gottman’s research, he asks couples to “tell the story of us.” Based on _______, he found that the couple will almost certainly be together four years later.
a. whether the couple uses sarcasm rather than being brutally honest
b. whether the positive outweighs the negative
c. whether each person talked for an equal amount of time
d. whether each person explicitly apologized for past transgressions
a
6-23. (factual-180) Which of the following is most likely to be a feature of the relationship or interaction pattern of partners in an unhappy or dissatisfying marriage?
a. high ratio of displeasing to pleasing interactions
b. high levels of arguments
c. low levels of self-disclosure
d. low levels of “cross-complaining”
d
6-24. (factual-180) The key feature of unsuccessful marriages (those most likely to end in divorce), according to Gottman’s research, is _______.
a. a high level of squabbles or disagreements
b. a low level of laughter
c. an inability to resolve conflicts by discussion or argument
d. a high ratio of displeasing to pleasing interactions
d
6-25. (conceptual-182) Research on cohabitation has shown that:
a. people in the U.S. who cohabit before marriage have an increased likelihood of separation than those who do not cohabit, but this pattern has not been found in other countries.
b. regardless of whether they are engaged before cohabiting, they are more likely to separate than those who do not cohabit.
c. people in traditional cultures who cohabit before marriage have an increased likelihood of separation than those who do not cohabit, but this pattern has not been found in the U.S.
d. one factor in the success of cohabiting couples is how well it is accepted in one’s culture.
d
6-26. (conceptual-182) Your friends Jeff and Lucia are considering living together as a kind of trial run, to see if they want to get married. They know you are studying psychology, and ask you whether psychologists know anything about couples who live together. Which of the following would best describe the current information?
a. Cohabitation before marriage is generally a good way to prepare for marriage; those who have cohabited later have more lasting and satisfying marriages.
b. Cohabitation before marriage appears to be helpful for some couples, especially those with higher levels of education.
c. Whether cohabitation prepares people for later marriage depends on their ethnic background.
d. People who cohabit before marriage have an increased likelihood of separation than those who do not cohabit.
a
6-27. (conceptual-183-184) Research on same-sex partnerships shows that__________.
a. more people in the U.S. now support same-sex marriages than oppose them
b. same-sex partners take on “male” and “female” roles
c. same-sex couples and different-sex couples are more different than alike
d. in the early years of the relationship, lesbian couples have more sex than do gay or heterosexual couples
b
6-28. (factual-185) _________ often have a more open partnership or nonexclusive agreement.
a. Members of heterosexual couples
b. Men in same-sex relationships
c. Lesbians in same-sex relationships
d. Transgender women in same-sex relationships
b
6-29. (factual-185) One study showed that compared to their heterosexual siblings, gay and lesbian adults reported:
a. higher earnings and higher prestige jobs over their lifetimes.
b. experiencing more violence over their lifetimes.
c. happier romantic relationships.
d. greater overall life satisfaction..
c
6-30. (conceptual-187-188) Assuming that Shealeen is similar to other adult children, one would expect that she:
a. has very different opinions from those of her parents.
b. does not have much contact with her parents.
c. feels emotionally close to her parents.
d. has not receive any financial support from them since she graduated from high school.
c
6-31. (conceptual-188) African-American baby boomers give more assistance of all types to their parents compared to their white counterparts because
a. African-American parents have more need.
b. African-American parents have more disability.
c. of their personal beliefs about parent-child obligation.
d. they are more emotionally close to their parents.
d
6-32. (conceptual-189-190) Based on existing research, which of the following is TRUE of adult children of divorce?
a. They are at less risk of divorce than those whose parents did not divorce.
b. They are less reluctant to enter marriage than those whose parents did not divorce because they feel they have learned from their parents’ mistakes.
c. The majority (90%) reported no change in their relationship with one or both parents.
d. They are as affected emotionally by parental divorce as young children.
b
6-33. (conceptual-190) Late-life divorce usually results in what change for the adult daughter?
a. less contact with her mother
b. serving as “family social director” for her father
c. serving as her father’s confidant.
d. isolating herself from both of them for about a year until the situation got better.
b
6-34. (applied-191) Wayne is a married 71-year-old grandfather. Based on existing research, we can conclude that:
a. Wayne spends more time with his grandchildren now that they are teenagers than when they were younger.
b. he has more interaction with his grandchildren than his widowed brother has with his grandchildren.
c. he discusses more personal concerns with his grandchildren in middle school than he does with his grandchildren who have graduated from high school.
d. being a playmate and advice giver benefits grandchildren’s mental health, but does not have a significant effect on his own mental health.
a
6-35. (applied-192) Nona, a college student, was asked to rank her grandparents according to the time she spent with them and the closeness she felt to them. Based on research, we would expect Nona to rank ________ the highest.
a. her mother’s mother
b. her mother’s father
c. her father’s mother
d. her father’s father
c
6-36. (factual-194) The grandmother effect can be explained best by _______.
a. social learning theory
b. psychoanalystic theory
c. evolutionary psychology
d. exchange theory
a
6-37. (factual-195-196) Which sibling relationships are the closest?
a. sisters
b. brothers
c. sisters and brothers
d. sisters and brothers-in-law.
d
6-38. (factual-195-196) Sibling relationships are most significant _______.
a. in childhood
b. in adolescence
c. in early adulthood
d. in late life
c
6-39. (factual-195-196) In what period of adulthood do siblings become more significant?
a. early
b. middle
c. late
d. There is no change in significance.
b
6-40. (factual-197-198) When it comes to Facebook,
a. men use it more than women.
b. older adults’ Facebook friends consist of more family members and fewer friends compared to their younger counterparts.
c. a strong positive correlation has been found between amount of time spent on Facebook and clinical depression among emerging adults.
d. less than 10% of those aged 65 and older use it.

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