Bulging fat cells in a specific region of the body.
Fat percentage based on heredity and the environment.
Not possible for body fat.
The minimum required to sustain life.
BMR- basal metabolic rate
Will maintain energy balance for a healthy and moderately active adult.
EER- estimated energy requirement
Obesity is defined as a body mass index equal or above:
The number of deaths in the U.S. estimated each year due to excess body weight and lack of physical activity is:
In the last decade alone, the average weight of American adults increased by ___ pounds.
The percent of women and men on a diet at any one time in the United States is:
c. 44% of women, 29% of men
To prevent weight gain, ____ minutes of daily activity is recommended; to maintain substantial weight loss, ____ minutes may be required.
Effective weight management includes _____ hours of sleep a night.
Most people need ____ minutes of exercise per day for weight management.
Under strict caloric reduction, the body makes compensatory metabolic adjustments in an effort to reduce its fat storage.
Compared to low-intensity exercise, high-intensity exercise ____.
raises the metabolic rate longer after exercise
Theoretically, weight is lost when there is a ____.
negative caloric balance
The suggested lower limits of daily caloric consumption are ____ for men and ____ for women (respectively).
Obesity is the _____ cause of preventable death in the United States.
Setpoint is the lowest level of caloric intake necessary to sustain life.
One pound of fat represents ____ calories.
The total cost attributable to obesity-related diseases is estimated to be ____ per year.
Overweight has been defined as a BMI of _____ or higher.
In the United States, _____% of adults ages 20 and over are obese.
In the United States, ____% of adults ages 20 and over are overweight.
Which is presently the most prevalent form of preventable death in the United States?
In 2007, how many states reported obesity rates lower than 20%?
An estimated _____% of cancer deaths have been attributed to obesity in U.S. adults.
Tolerable weight is what:
is acceptable to the individual;
is not ideal but one you can live with.
What percent of all dieters lose weight and also keep the weight off for a significant amount of time?
Body weight is lost fastest when using a(n) ____ weight loss plan.
Very low-calorie diets usually:
If weight management is not a consideration, _____ minutes of daily activity provides health benefits.
Each gram of fat contains ____ calories, while a gram of protein or carbohydrate contains _____ calories.
A study showed that after weight loss due to exercise, most people need to continue exercising _____ minutes each day to maintain the weight loss.
An added pound of muscle raises BMR as much as ____ calories each day.
To prevent weight gain, _____ minutes of daily activity is recommended; to maintain substantial weight loss, _____ minutes may be required.
A combination of _____ and _____ exercise works best in weight loss programs.
The mechanism that seems to regulate how much a person weighs is known as the:
Recent studies have found that sleep deprivation:
-raises gherkin levels
-decreases leptin levels
-appears to be conductive to weight gain
-may interfere with the body’s capability to lose weight.
_____ is the nonfat component of the human body.
lean body mass
Describe three consequences of obesity.
1. coronary heart disease
3. heart failure
What are three hazards of low-carbohydrate/high protein diets?
3. heart failure
Research indicates that individuals who are 30 or more pounds overweight during middle age lose about seven years of life.
According to the energy balancing equation, if caloric intake exceeds output, the person gains weight.
The energy-balancing equation is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health.
false-its much simpler
Researchers theorize that the biological mechanism to maintain fat stores in women is stronger than in men.
Obesity is a chronic diesease characterize by an excessively high amount of body fat (about 20% above recommended weight or a BMI at 30 or above).
On a crash diet, close to half of the weight loss is in lean tissue
The human body doesn’t care how much, or how little, fat is stored.
About 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day provides substantial health benefits.
What factors are included in calculating your Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)?
age, weight, height, gender, how many calories consumed and burned each day
When the individual’s reserves are no longer sufficient to fight the effects of stress, ____.
diseases may develop
Being overly aggressive and sometimes hostile are descriptors of Type ____ individuals.
Stress vulnerability is ____.
buffered by social support
_____ is sometimes referred to as “meditation in motion,”
Progressive muscle relaxation is a mental exercise in which the objective is to gain control over one’s attention, clearing the mind and blocking out stressors.
Stress prepares the organism to react to the stress-causing event, called the stressor.
Which statement best reflects the correlation between Type A individuals and disease?
Type A individuals who are chronically angry and hostile are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Suggestions to release anger include ____.
seeing the anger source as a minor irritation
As a stress management technique, exercise increases ____.
A common symptom of stress.
A common time killer.
A theoretical model of how the body responds to stress.
Stage of effective coping with the challenge of a stressor.
The body attempts to maintain this equilibrium by reacting to external forces.
The mind/body connection:
both is a link to the body’s immune system an an involve giving up or fighting.
Positive stress is also referred to as:
Hans Selye explained stress as:
a nonspecific response.
The stress response does not occur unless the:
individual perceives a stressor
When stress levels reach mental, emotional, and physiological limits:
diseases may develop.
As eustress increases:
health and performance improve.
During the alarm reaction stage of the general adaptation syndrome:
many body systems are activated.
According to the GAS, exhaustion from stress occurs when:
body resources are insufficient
The structure interview is used to:
identify behavioral patterns
Being laid-back and easygoing are descriptors of Type ____ individuals.
Being overly aggressive and sometimes hostile are descriptors of Type _____ individuals.
Ways to change Type A personality include:
Learn to treasure unplanned suprise
Greater risk for disease has been found for Type ____ individuals.
Stress vulnerability is not:
increased as people integrate into society.
If a stressor cannot be removed, the next best coping strategy is to use ____ techniques
Healthy and successful people post often attribute success to:
Time management skills do not include:
eliminating the chance of “overtimes”
____ is not considered a common time killer
Progressive muscle relaxation should be done:
paying attention to contraction intensity.
During progressive muscle relaxation, muscles should be tightened about ___% maximally.
The focus with breathing exercises is to:
“breathe away” the tension
Breathing exercises to reduce stress do not include:
about 15 minutes each session
The purpose of meditation is not to:
concentrate on the time left in the session
Yoga exercises have NOT been successful in treating:
Yoga is NOT
performed with some discomfort.
Distinguish between stress, distress, and eustress.
stress: a demand on a human organism
distress: decrease health and performance
eustress: increase health and performance
Indicate thee ways that physical activity contributes to the reduction of distress.
1. decrease negative feelings
2. reduces muscle tension
3. provides social contract
Describe the physiological response to stress known as “fight or flight.”
Stress response begins with the acknowledgement of a stressor. That begins activation f the hormonal and nervous system pathways. The result is increased heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood flow, and general awareness. Where the stress is released determines the end result of relaxation with decrease in health and performance.
“Fight or flight” is a theoretical model that explains the body’s adaptation to sustained stress; it includes three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion/recovery.
1. alarm reaction-burst of energy
2. resistance-body attempts to resist or adapt to the stressor
3. exhaustion/recovery-energy is depleated
people with a fighting spirit tend to live longer
Negative or harmful stress under which health and performance begins to deteriorate is called eustress.
Experts have indicated that individuals classified as Type A have a significantly higher incidence for disease, especially cardiovascular conditions.
Progressive muscle relaxation is a mental exercise in which the objective is to gain control over one’s attention, clearing the mind and blocking our stressors.
Yoga is mental visualization of relaxing images and scenes to induce body relaxation in times of stress or as a aid in the treatment of certain medical conditions such as cancer, hypertension, asthma, chronic pain, and obesity.
Physical exercise is one of the simplest tools to control stress.
The immediate response to a stressor is known as the alarm reaction.
Homeostasis is a natural state of equilibrium.
Hypertension is chronically elevated blood pressure.
CHD is the first leading cause of death in the United States.
Atherosclerosis is fatty/cholesterol deposits in the walls of the arteries leading to formation of plaque.
A sunburn you get in one hour without SPF 30 sunscreen lotion will occur in ____ hours with the lotion.
____ particles act as “scavengers,” removing cholesterol from the body and preventing plaque from forming in the arteries.
Altruism seems to enhance health and longevity.
____ health provides a unifying power that integrates the other dimensions of wellness.
Blood cholesterol can be raised by ____.
consuming hydrogenated vegetable oils
_____ refers to true concern for and action on behalf of others
A person who exercises and exhibits good lifestyle choices will ____.
decrease their physiological age
___ can predict cardiovascular events.
The “good” cholesterol.
High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
Cellular resistance to insulin.
The “bad” cholesterol.
Low-Densiy Lipoprotein (LDL)
The most deadly type of skin cancer.
Of all deaths in the U.S., _____% are caused by cardiovascular disease and cancer, and _____ could be prevented by following a healthy lifestyle.
Which of the following is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
An abnormal cholesterol profile contributes directly to:
An increased risk for CHD has been established in people with low levels of.
reduced by folate.
C-reactive protein is not:
increased with statin drugs.
Most successful ex-smokers have:
increased with substantial weight gain.
Cancer results from:
cell division problems
Carcinoma in stiu is a critical turning point for cancer because it is when:
a tumor reaches about 1 million cells.
Diabetes mellitas is:
a problem with cell cholestrol
results in low HDL-cholesterol.
Nearly ___% of the 1 million basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers each year in the United States could have prevented using sun protection.
Alcohol intake stimulates:
Common among alcoholics is
The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is:
Marijuana effects include
Tobacco use is responsible for an estimated ____% of lung cancer reported.
The average life expectancy for a chronic smoker is _____ years less than for a nonsmoker
Cocaine abuse is not associated with increased risk for:
Methamphetamine effects include:
is usually combined with dangerous additives
MDMA (Ecstasy) is not:
More than ____% of all Americans will acquire at least one STI in their lifetime.
AIDS is thought to be:
the end result of HIV infection
People with aids are more susceptible to ____ diseases.
the cause of death for HIV infected.
About 80% of people who died with AIDS were in this age group:
HIV is not thought to be transmitted by ____ of the infected person.
What types of behavior might be seen when a person is altruistic?
1. Tobacco use
2. Alcohol abuse
3. poor diet and inactivity
Give five of the dietary guidelines for lowering LDL-cholesterol.
1. Consume 25-30 grams of fiber daily
2. 200 milligrams of dietary cholesterol
3. Eat red meat fewer than 3 times per week
4. Eat fish instead of red meal
5. Avoid foods that contain transfatty acids
What is the difference between metastasis, benign, and malignant?
metastasis: the spreading of the cells to other parts of the body
benign tumor: a mass of replicated cells that stay together and it is non-cancerous
malignant tumor: identical cells that don’t stay together, and are cancerous
Altruism is a sense of meaning and direction in life and relationship to a higher being.
Systolic blood pressure is taken during the heart’s relaxation stage, when no blood is being ejected.
HDL is considered the “bad” cholesterol.
Atherosclerosis is fatty/cholesterol deposits in the wall of the arteries leading to formation of plaque.
Tryglercerides are proteins whose levels in the blood increase with inflammation.
Diabetes mellitus is an array of metabolic abnormalties that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis triggered by resistance to insulin.
The stress causing event is known as the stressor.
Sicknesses it’s okay to workout with
Sicknesses it’s not okay to workout with
Depletion of electrolytes
Dizzy, cold sweat, headache, weak pulse
When body reaches 10-106 degrees
6-8 Oz. For every 15-20 minutes
Cool water absorbs faster
Differences in genders
Men: 3-4 inches taller, 25-30 pounds heavier, body fat =12-16%, aerobic capacity is 15-30% greater because of hemoglobin
Different types of breathing
-Complete natural breathing
Type one diabetes
Insulin dependent diabetes
Type two diabetes
Non insulin dependent diabetes
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