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M18CH14

An organizational position is defined as:
a. an employee’s specific work and task activities in an organization
b. a job in relation to other parts of the organization
c. the specific role and expectations with respect to a given job
d. the title given to a certain level within an organization such as vice president
b. a job in relation to other parts of the organization
Effortful, productive activity that results in a product or a service defines:
a. role outcomes
b. role expectations
c. a job
d. work
d. work
A job is defined as:
a. a sequence of experiences
b. effortful, productive activity
c. an activity where value comes from performance
d. specific work and task activities
d. specific work and task activities
According to research on the meaning of work:
a. pattern F people view work least favorably
b. the United States has the largest percentage of people in the pattern F category
c. in the Netherlands, work is defined least positively
d. Japan tends to have the lowest percentage of pattern A persons
a. pattern F people view work least favorably
While there are differences in the meaning of work among countries, similarities appear to exist in:
a. job enrichment and satisfaction
b. determinants of job involvement
c. two common work dimensions: work content and job context
d. two common motivators: positive feedback and valued rewards
c. two common work dimensions: work content and job context
The basic building blocks of an organization are:
a. authority-responsibility relationships
b. integration and differentiation
c. power and influence
d. jobs
d. jobs
The process of subdividing and departmentalizing an organization is _____; whereas, _____ is the process of linking jobs and departments into a cohesive whole.
a. differentiation; authority
b. organizing; controlling
c. differentiation; integration
d. job design; performance
c. differentiation; integration
Contrary to the famous statement made by Harold Geneen, former Chairman of ITT, “If I had enough arms and legs and time, I’d do it all myself,” all organizations must divide work. This quote reflects the understanding that jobs result from:
a. integration
b. differentiation
c. goal setting
d. specialization
b. differentiation
The process of connecting jobs and departments into a coordinated, cohesive whole is known as:
a. structuring
b. lines of authority
c. differentiation
d. integration
d. integration
All of the following are approaches to job design that have been developed over the past century except:
a. robotics
b. scientific management
c. job enrichment
d. job characteristics theory
a. robotics
Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of:
a. complexity associated with job enrichment
b. job ambiguity associated with the Job Characteristics Model
c. boredom associated with scientific management’s approach to jobs
d. motivation associated with a lack of job rotation
c. boredom associated with scientific management’s approach to jobs
The standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers defines:
a. the job description
b. work simplification
c. job enlargement
d. production efficiency
b. work simplification
According to Frederick Taylor, the role of management and the industrial engineer is to:
a. provide the strategic direction of the organization
b. set appropriate strategic and financial goals for the organization
c. insure that the organization adds economic value
d. calibrate and define each task carefully
d. calibrate and define each task carefully
ording to Frederick Taylor, the role of the worker is to:
a. support the goals of the organization
b. provide the necessary effort required in the exchange relationship
c. act as an agent on behalf of the principal
d. execute the task
d. execute the task
Which of the following is an argument used to support the standardized job approach of scientific management in the early days of the American industrial revolution?
a. Job clarity led to more satisfied workers.
b. Workers were basically lazy and not prone to self-motivation.
c. Workers needed the clarity of jobs provided during this period of time given the complexity of the work.
d. Simplifying work allowed workers of diverse ethnic backgrounds to work together in a systematic way.
d. Simplifying work allowed workers of diverse ethnic backgrounds to work together in a systematic way.
Scientific management includes all of the following elements except:
a. the integration of management and work such that workers had to exercise self-management
b. differential piece rate payment systems
c. work simplification
d. scientific selection and job placement of workers
a. the integration of management and work such that workers had to exercise self-management
A shortcoming of work simplification is that:
a. it doesn’t bring about a close match of worker capabilities and demands of the job
b. it removes or reduces managerial authority of supervisors
c. it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity
d. it only works in manufacturing settings
c. it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity
Scientific management focuses primarily on:
a. work simplification
b. definition of management authority
c. worker training for increased job responsibilities
d. standard hour wage payment systems
a. work simplification
Mass production jobs:
a. tend to be nonrepetitive
b. require minimal or surface mental attention
c. are self-paced
d. require craftsman level skills
b. require minimal or surface mental attention
The problem of overspecialization has been addressed by:
a. increasing the variety in jobs
b. increasing participation
c. increasing authority at lower levels
d. a renewed emphasis on integration
a. increasing the variety in jobs
As an office manager, you are trying to find ways to enlarge or expand several clerical jobs that you supervise. One approach is to:
a. reschedule work into a flextime arrangement
b. rotate employees among several positions
c. increase the number of clerical tasks or duties performed by each individual
d. more effectively match worker skills to job requirements
c. increase the number of clerical tasks or duties performed by each individual
Job rotation and cross training are variations of:
a. job enrichment
b. job enlargement
c. specialization
d. work specialization
b. job enlargement
Both job enrichment and job enlargement were intended to increase:
a. the productivity of employees
b. the commitment of employees to their job and work
c. the involvement with employee’s work
d. job satisfaction for employees
d. job satisfaction for employees
The job design method aimed at increasing the motivational factors in a job is called:
a. job enrichment
b. job enlargement
c. job rotation
d. cross-training
a. job enrichment
Job enrichment is based on:
a. McClelland’s power motive
b. Vroom’s expectancy model of motivation
c. Maslow’s need for esteem
d. Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory
d. Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory
A significant difference between job enlargement and job enrichment is that:
a. enlargement has a minimal impact on employee motivation
b. enrichment vertically loads a job whereas enlargement horizontally loads a job
c. enrichment can only be successful with supervisory retraining
d. enlargement empowers employees while enrichment does not
b. enrichment vertically loads a job whereas enlargement horizontally loads a job
When a secretarial employee is given the responsibility and authority to handle certain types of correspondence, the job has been:
a. enriched
b. enlarged
c. horizontally loaded
d. rotated
a. enriched
A problem with job enrichment as a strategy for work design is:
a. the overemphasis on individual differences
b. that it is based on a complex motivational theory
c. that increasing variety has its motivational limits
d. that it is based on an oversimplified motivational theory
d. that it is based on an oversimplified motivational theory
A major difference between the job characteristics theory and earlier approaches to job design is:
a. earlier approaches differentiated among individuals
b. the job characteristic theory is a universal approach to the design of work
c. the job characteristic theory emphasizes the interaction between the individual and attributes of the job
d. the manner in which work was defined
c. the job characteristic theory emphasizes the interaction between the individual and attributes of the job
The Job Characteristics Model is a/an:
a. job enrichment approach to job design
b. person-job fit approach to job design and employee job placement
c. task specification approach to job design
d. individual abilities approach to job design
b. person-job fit approach to job design and employee job placement
The JDS refers to:
a. job design satisfaction
b. the survey instrument used to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model
c. the job design survey used to measure the degree of satisfaction with the job due to redesign efforts consistent with the job characteristics theory
d. job enrichment, design of job, and satisfaction with the job
b. the survey instrument used to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model
The degree to which a job entails completion of a whole task or complete sequence of tasks is:
a. autonomy
b. task significance
c. skill variety
d. task identity
d. task identity
Enlarging a job is most closely associated with which of the following core job characteristics?
a. task significance
b. job autonomy
c. task identity
d. skill variety
d. skill variety
Selecting the textbook, formulating course objectives, specifying course requirements, determining instructional methods, preparing exams, and evaluating student performance provide the college professor with:
a. skill heterogeneity
b. task specificity
c. autonomy
d. feedback
c. autonomy
People whose jobs are high on the five core dimensions are generally:
a. managers
b. those with high growth need strength
c. those that have been reengineered
d. more motivated, more satisfied, and more productive than others
d. more motivated, more satisfied, and more productive than others
According to a recent study conducted in Egypt aimed at the disaggregation of the work autonomy component of job design theory, results indicated which of the following were three facets of work autonomy?
a. work method, schedule, and criteria autonomy
b. skill variety, task identity, and task significance
c. work complexity, time constraints, and outcome measurement
d. none of these
a. work method, schedule, and criteria autonomy
When engaged in their work, people employ and express themselves:
a. physically
b. cognitively
c. emotionally
d. all of these
d. all of these
The harnessing of organizational members to their work roles is known as:
a. task identity
b. job involvement
c. job commitment
d. engagement
d. engagement
Which of the following is NOT a basic premise of the social information processing model and the interpersonal aspects of work design?
a. Other people help us judge what is important in our jobs.
b. Other people tell us how they see our jobs.
c. Other people’s positive and negative feedback helps us understand our feelings about our jobs.
d. Other people’s reactions to our job-related behaviors provide us with important cognitive cues as to determine whether we fit the overall culture.
d. Other people’s reactions to our job-related behaviors provide us with important cognitive cues as to determine whether we fit the overall culture.
Research on the social information processing view of job design supports the view that:
a. while objective task complexity may be a motivator, social interaction may be an important additional source of motivation
b. group pressure as being more important in the definition of task complexity than a objective measure
c. daydreaming is more important than objective task complexity as being an additional motivator
d. an objective probability estimate is still the best estimate of a task’s difficulty and consequently a good indicator of the potential motivational properties of a task
a. while objective task complexity may be a motivator, social interaction may be an important additional source of motivation
Ergonomics is used in the _____ approach to job designs.
a. biological
b. mechanistic
c. perceptual/motor
d. motivational
c. perceptual/motor
The interdisciplinary approach to job design by Michael Campion and Paul Thayer does not emphasize social aspects of the work environment because:
a. social dimensions are too difficult to measure accurately
b. social dimensions have not been able to predict very accurately how individuals respond to job characteristics
c. no one approach can solve all performance problems caused by poorly designed jobs
d. poorly designed jobs need a biological approach and the emphasis on the physical aspect of the job
c. no one approach can solve all performance problems caused by poorly designed jobs
The mechanistic and motivational approaches to job design are most similar to:
a. job enlargement and the Job Characteristics Model, respectively
b. scientific management’s work simplification and social information processing approaches to job design, respectively
c. scientific management’s work simplification and the Job Characteristics Model, respectively
d. scientific management’s work simplification and the Job Enrichment Model, respectively
c. scientific management’s work simplification and the Job Characteristics Model, respectively
The interdisciplinary approach to job design emphasizing the person’s interaction with physical aspects of the work environment and concern with physical exertion is the:
a. biological approach
b. mechanistic approach
c. perceptual/motor approach
d. motivational approach
a. biological approach
An analysis of medical claims at Chaparral Steel Co. identified lower back problems as the most common problem experienced by steelworkers and managers alike. The interdisciplinary approach most appropriate for this problem would be:
a. mechanistic
b. biological
c. perceptual/motor
d. motivational
b. biological
Within the interdisciplinary approach to job design, the motivational approach is grounded in:
a. developmental psychology
b. sociology
c. social psychology
d. industrial psychology
d. industrial psychology
Lower job satisfaction, motivation, and higher absenteeism will be negative outcomes that should be anticipated with which one of the following interdisciplinary approaches to job design?
a. perceptual/motor approach
b. biological approach
c. motivational approach
d. mechanistic approach
d. mechanistic approach
All of the following are important components or approaches to the interdisciplinary approach to job design except:
a. social aspects of the work environment
b. biological aspects of the work environment
c. mechanistic approach
d. motivational approach
a. social aspects of the work environment
The sociotechnical system gives:
a. equal attention to technical and social considerations in job design
b. technology and engineering the most weight in job design decisions
c. human considerations the most importance in job design decisions
d. industrial efficiency the greatest weight and is used most often in Scandinavia
a. equal attention to technical and social considerations in job design
A negative outcome of the mechanistic approach to job design is:
a. higher absenteeism
b. greater chance of errors
c. greater chance of mental overload and stress
d. significantly greater financial resources required
a. higher absenteeism
The anthropocentric job design approach places:
a. engineering considerations first in specifying job tasks
b. emphasis on union-management cooperation in designing jobs
c. emphasis on individual worker skills
d. human considerations at the center of job design decision
d. human considerations at the center of job design decision
In the design of jobs and work organizations, Germans:
a. emphasize personal identity and social benefits of work
b. value hierarchy and authority relationships
c. focus on collectivism
d. strongly endorse unionism
b. value hierarchy and authority relationships
If you were to redesign jobs to increase the health and well-being of your workforce, similar to Scandinavian concerns, which of the following set of job characteristics would be the most beneficial?
a. increase worker control, job enlargement, and job enrichment
b. reduce worker uncertainty, increase worker control, and job enlargement
c. reduce worker uncertainty, increase worker control, and manage conflict
d. increase pay, reduce worker uncertainty, and job enlargement
c. reduce worker uncertainty, increase worker control, and manage conflict
Which of the following statements regarding telecommuting is most accurate?
a. Telecommuting is neither a cure-all nor a universally feasible alternative.
b. The Real World feature describing job sharing and flexibility at Baxter Export Corp. used telecommuting extensively.
c. Many telecommuters have not felt a sense of social isolation as frequently predicted.
d. Telecommuting does not have the potential to create sweatshops of the 21st century.
a. Telecommuting is neither a cure-all nor a universally feasible alternative.
An alternative work arrangement in which employees must be present to perform job duties during a required core time but starting and ending work times can vary is:
a. job sharing
b. compressed workweek scheduling
c. task restructuring
d. flextime
d. flextime
The J.A. Counter & Associates firm has implemented a ROWEing work environment which is a reflection of:
a. job sharing
b. the four day work week
c. flextime
d. telecommuting
c. flextime
Which of the following IS NOT a key to the successful execution of a ROWE?
a. 360 degree evaluations
b. set measurable goals
c. eradicate toxic language
d. leaders set positive examples
a. 360 degree evaluations
Employees may experience technostress when:
a. flextime is used
b. electronic performance monitoring is used
c. job tasks are certain
d. job enrichment is successful
b. electronic performance monitoring is used
A mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services is called:
a. a network
b. a virtual office
c. flexible technology
d. an intranet
b. a virtual office
The following are guidelines which can help make electronic workplace monitoring of performance less distressful except:
a. using performance records to improve performance
b. having employees participate in the introduction of workplace monitoring
c. using state-of-the-art monitoring equipment
d. insuring performance are perceived as fair
c. using state-of-the-art monitoring equipment

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