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Man 320F Unit 7 – Chapter 10

occurs when parties disagree over substantive issues or when emotional antagonisms create friction between them.
types of Conflict: (2)
1. substantive conflict
2. Emotional conflict
Substantive conflict
involves fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.
Emotional conflict
involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like.
Levels of conflict:
1. interpersonal conflict
2. Intrapersonal conflict
3. Intergroup conflict
4. Interorganizational conflict
Interpersonal conflict
occurs between two or more individuals in opposition to each other.
Intrapersonal conflict
occurs within the individual because of actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations.
Approach-approach conflict
occurs when a person must choose between 2 positive and equally attractive alternatives.
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
occurs when a person must choose between 2 negative and equally unattractive alternatives.
Approach-avoidance conflict
occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences.
Inter group conflict
occurs among groups in an organization.
Interorganizational conflict
occurs between organizations.
The two faces of conflict:
1. functional
2. dysfunctional
Dysfunctional conflict (destructive conflict)
works to the group’s or organization’s disadvantage.
– too much and too little conflict= bad for performance.
Functional conflict (constructive conflict)
results in positive benefits to the group.
– moderate conflict levels = good for performance
Conflict resolution
occurs when the reasons for a conflict are eliminated.
– removing or correcting the antecedents
There are how many stages of conflict?
1. Antecedents condition
2. Perceived conflict
3. Felt conflict
4. Manifest conflict
Conflict antecedents conditions
Set the conditions for conflict
Perceived conflict
Substantive or emotional differences are sensed
Felt conflict
Tension creates motivation to act
Manifest conflict
Addressed by conflict resolution or suppression
Conflict suppression:
– No chance in antecedent condition occur
– superficial
– temporary state
– Leaves situation open for future conflict over similar issues.
Hierarchical causes of conflict:
1. vertical conflict
2. horizontal conflict
3. Line-staff conflict
4. role ambiguity conflicts
Vertical conflict
occurs between levels and commonly involves supervisor-subordinate and team leader-team member disagreements over resources, goals, deadlines, or performance results.
Horizontal conflict
occurs between persons or groups working at the same organizational level.
Line-staff conflict involves
disagreements between line and staff personnel over who has authority and control over decisions on matters such as budgets, technology, and human resource practices.
Contextual causes of conflict:
1. Task and workflow interdependencies
2. structural differentiation
3. Domain ambiguities
4. resource scarcity
5. Power or value asymmetries
Task and workflow interdependencies
cause disputes and open disagreements among people and teams who are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals.
Conflict escalates with structural differentiation,
when different teams and work units pursue different goals with different time horizons
Conflict also develops out of domain ambiguities,
when individuals or teams lack adequate task direction or goals and misunderstand such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority.
– —When people aren’t sure what they are supposed to do, conflict with others is likely; task uncertainties increase the odds of working at cross-purposes at least some of the tim
Actual or perceived resource scarcity can foster destructive conflict.
Working relationships are likely to suffer as individuals or teams try to position themselves to gain or retain maximum shares of a limited resource pool.
Power or value asymmetries in work relationships can also create conflict. They exist when
interdependent people or teams differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values.
Indirect conflict management strategies:
1. reduced interdependence
2. appeal to common goals
3. hierarchical referral
4. alterations in the use of mythology and scripts
Managers can adjust the level of interdependency among teams or individuals by:
1. Decoupling: taking action to eliminate or reduce the required contact between conflicting parties. In some cases, team tasks can be adjusted to reduce the number of required points of coordi- nation. The conflicting parties are separated as much as possible from one another.
2. Buffering: is to build an inventory, or buffer, between the teams so that any output slowdown or excess is absorbed by the inventory and does not directly pressure the target group.
3. linking-pin roles: Conflict can sometimes be reduced by assigning people to serve as liaisons between groups that are prone to conflict.
– are expected to understand the operations, members, needs, and norms of their host teams. They are supposed to use this knowledge to help the team work better with others in order to accomplish mutual tasks.
An appeal to common goals
can focus the attention of conflicting individuals and teams on one mutually desirable conclusion.
Upward referral uses
the chain of command for conflict resolution.
Altering Scripts and Myths
scripts or myths cause conflicts. rituals that allow the conflicting parties to vent their frustrations and recognize that they are mutually dependent on one another.
Direct Conflict Management Strategies:
1. lose-lose conflict
2. win-lose conflict
3. win-win conflict
Lose-lose conflict
occurs when nobody really gets what he or she wants in a conflict situation.
– avoidance
– accommodation
– compromise
involves pretending a conflict does not really exist.
Accommodation (or smoothing)
involves playing down differences and finding areas of agreement.
occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other.
In win-lose conflict,
one party achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires.
– competition
– authoritative command
seeks victory by force, superior skill, or domination.
Authoritative command
uses formal authority to end conflict.
Win-win conflict
is achieved by a blend of both high cooperativeness and high assertiveness.
– collaboration and problem solving
Collaboration and problem solving
involve recognition that something is wrong and needs attention through problem solving.
Know when to use Alternative conflict management strategies:
• Avoidance may be used when an issue is trivial, when more important is- sues are pressing, or when people need to cool down temporarily and regain perspective.
• Accommodation may be used when issues are more important to others than to yourself or when you want to build “credits” for use in later disagreements.
Compromise may be used to arrive at temporary settlements of complex issues or to arrive at expedient solutions when time is limited.
• Authoritative command maybe used when quick and decisive action is vital or when unpopular actions must be taken.
• Collaboration and problem solving are used to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit.
is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.
In a two-party negotiation,
the manager negotiates directly with one other person.
In a group negotiation,
the manager is part of a team or group whose members are negotiating to arrive at a common decision.
In an intergroup negotiation,
the manager is part of a team that is negotiating with another group to arrive at a decision regarding a problem or situation affecting both.
In a constituency negotiation,
each party represents a broader constituency—for example, representatives of management and labor negotiating a collective bargaining agreement.
Negotiation goals and outcomes:
1. substance goals
2. relationship goals
Substance goals deal with outcomes that
relate to the content issues under negotiation.
Relationship goals deal with outcomes that
relate to how well people involved in the negotiation and any constituencies they may represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded
Effective negotiation
occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved.
Criteria of effective negotiation: (2)
1. Quality of outcomes: —The negotiation results in a “quality” agreement that is wise and satisfactory to all sides.
2. Harmony in relationships: —The negotiation is “harmonious” and fosters rather than inhibits good interpersonal relation
Negotiation strategies:
1. distributive negotiation
2. integrative negotiation
Distributive negotiation
focuses on positions staked out or declared by the parties involved, each of whom is trying to claim certain portions of the available pie.
– my way or the highway
Integrative negotiation (principled negotiation)
focuses on the merits of the issues, and the parties involved try to enlarge the available pie rather than stake claims to certain portions of it.
– let’s find a way to make this work for both of us.
Approaches to distributive negotiation: (2)
1. “Hard”– takes place when each party holds out to get its own way. This leads to competition, whereby each party seeks dominance over the other and tries to maximize self-interests.
2. “soft”– takes place when one party or both parties make conces- sions just to get things over with. This soft approach leads to accommodation—in which one party gives in to the other—or to compromise—in which each party gives up some- thing of value in order to reach agreement.
The bargaining zone
is the range between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum.
How to gain integrative agreements:
1. attitudinal foundations
2. behavior foundations
3. informational foundations
There are 3 attitudinal foundations of integrative agreements.
1. Willingness to trust
2. willingness to share information with the other party
3. willingness to ask concrete questions.
Behavioral foundation/ how to gain integrative agreements:
? Separate people from the problem.
? Don’t allow emotional considerations to affect the negotiation.
? Focus on interests rather than positions.
? Avoid premature judgments.
? Keep the identification of alternatives separate from their evaluation.
? Judge possible agreements by set criteria or standards.
Negotiators need to guard against some common negotiation pitfalls:
1. Myth of the fixed pie: the assumption that in order to gain your way, something must be subtracted from the gains of the other party. (distributive approach)
2. escalating commitment: parties stating extreme demands
3. overconfidence: believe their positions are the only correct ones.
4. tell problem when parties don’t talk to each other
5. hearing problem, when they don’t listen
Third party roles in Negotiation:
1. arbitration
2. mediation
In arbitration
a neutral third party acts as judge with the power to issue a decision binding for all parties.
In mediation
a neutral third party tries to engage the parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.
A/an ___ conflict occurs in the form of a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals and the means for accomplishment.
(a) relationship
(b) emotional
(c) substantive
(d) procedural
(c) substantive
The indirect conflict management approach that uses the chain of command for conflict resolution is known as ___.
(a) upward referral
(b) avoidance
(c) smoothing
(d) appeal to common goals
(a) upward referral
Conflict that ends up being “functional” for the people and organization involved would most likely be ___.
(a) of high intensity
(b) of moderate intensity
(c) of low intensity
(d) nonexistent
(b) of moderate intensity
One of the problems with the suppression of conflicts is that it ___.
(a) creates winners and losers
(b) is a temporary solution that sets the stage for future conflict
(c) works only with emotional conflicts
(d) works only with substantive conflicts
(b) is a temporary solution that sets the stage for future conflict
When a manager asks people in conflict to remember the mission and purpose of the organization and to try to reconcile their differences in that context, she is using a conflict management approach known as ___.
(a) reduced interdependence
(b) buffering
(c) resource expansion
(d) appeal to common goals
(d) appeal to common goals
An ___ conflict occurs when a person must choose between two equally attractive alternative courses of action.
(a) approach-avoidance
(b) avoidance-avoidance
(c) approach-approach
(d) avoidance-approach
(c) approach-approach
If two units or teams in an organization are engaged in almost continual conflict and the higher manager decides it is time to deal with matters through managed interdependence, which is a possible choice of conflict management approach?
(a) compromise
(b) buffering
(c) appeal to common goals
(d) upward referral
(b) buffering
A lose-lose conflict is likely when the conflict management approach is one of ____.
(a) collaborator
(b) altering scripts
(c) accommodation
(d) problem solving
(c) accommodation
Which approach to conflict management can be best described as both highly cooperative and highly assertive?
(a) competition
(b) compromise
(c) accommodation
(d) collaboration
(d) collaboration
Both ___ goals should be considered in any negotiation.
(a) performance and evaluation
(b) task and substance
(c) substance and relationship
(d) task and performance
(c) substance and relationship
The three criteria for effective negotiation are ___.
(a) harmony, efficiency, and quality
(b) quality, efficiency, and effectiveness
(c) ethical behavior, practicality, and cost-effectiveness
(d) quality, practicality, and productivity
(a) harmony, efficiency, and quality
Of the following statements, only ___ is true.
(a) Principled negotiation leads to accommodation.
(b) Hard distributive negotiation leads to collaboration.
(c) Soft distributive negotiation leads to accommodation or compromise.
(d) Hard distributive negotiation leads to win-win conflicts.
(c) Soft distributive negotiation leads to accommodation or compromise.
Another name for integrative negotiation is ___.
(a) arbitration
(b) mediation
(c) principled negotiation
(d) smoothing
(c) principled negotiation
When a person approaches a negotiation with the assumption that in order for him to gain his way, the other party must lose or give up something, the ___ negotiation pitfall is being exhibited.
(a) myth of the fixed pie
(b) escalating commitment
(c) overconfidence
(d) hearing problem
(a) myth of the fixed pie
In the process of alternative dispute resolution known as ___, a neutral third party acts as a judge to determine how a conflict will be resolved.
(a) mediation
(b) arbitration
(c) conciliation
(d) collaboration
(b) arbitration

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