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man 4240 chapter 12

process gain
Getting more from the team and then you would expect according to the capabilities of its individual members. -synonymous with synergy
-Is important because it results in useful resources and capabilities that did not exist before the team created them
-critical in situations in which of the work is high or when tasks require members to combine their knowledge, skills, and efforts to solve problems.
Process loss
or getting less from the team and then you would expect based on the capabilities of its individual members.
production blocking
which occurs when members have to wait on one another before they can do their part of the team task.
What factors conspire to create process loss?
-first factor is that in teams, members have to work to not only accomplish their own tasks but also COORDINATE their activities with the activities of their teammates.
-second factor is motivational loss
Coordination loss
consumes time and energy that could otherwise be devoted to task activity. -are often driven by production blocking
Motivational loss
or the loss in team productivity that occurs when team members don’t work as hard as they could.
Why does motivational loss occur in team contexts?
-It’s often quite difficult to gauge exactly how much each team member contributions to the team.
-Members of teams can work together on projects over an extended period of time, and a consequence is that, it’s difficult to keep an accurate accounting of who does what.
-Similarly, members contribute to their team in many different ways, and contributions of some members may be less obvious than others.
-Finally, members of teams don’t always work together at the same time as a unit.
Social loafing
feelings of reduced accountability, that cause members to exert less effort when working on a team task than they would if they worked alone on the same task.
-Can significantly hinder a team’s effectiveness.
team process
Is a term that reflects the different types of communication, activities, and interactions that occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals.
teamwork process
-Refer to the interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the teams work but do not directly involved task accomplishment itself. -Behaviors that create the setting our context in which task force can be carried out.
-Transition processes, action processes, interpersonal processes
three type of teamwork processes
-Transition processes,
-action processes,
-interpersonal processes
transition processes
Are teamwork activities that focus on preparation for future work
-Mission analysis, strategy formulation, goal specification
-are important before and between periods of taskwork
types of transition processes

-Mission analysis, strategy formulation, goal specification

-Each of these transition processes is relevant before the team actually begins to conduct the core aspect of its work.
-These transition processes also may be important between periods of work activity.

Mission analysis
-involves an analysis of the teams task,
-the challenges that face the team, and
-the resources available for completing the teams work
Strategy formulation
refers to the development of courses of action and contingency plans, and then adapting those plans in light of changes that occur in the teams environment.
goal specification
involves the development and prioritization of goals related to the teams mission and strategy.
Action processes
are important as the task work is being accomplished.
-Monitoring progress towards goals, systems monitoring, helping behavior, Cordy nation
types of Action processes
-Monitoring progress towards goals, -systems monitoring,
-helping behavior,
-Coordination
Monitoring progress towards goals
teams that pay attention to goal related information, perhaps by charting the team’s performance relative to team goals, are typically in a good position to realize when they are off-track and need to make changes.
Systems monitoring
involves keeping track of things that the team needs to accomplish its work.
-A team that does not engage in this may fail because it runs out of inventory, time, or other necessary resources.
Helping behavior
involves members going out of their way to help or backup other team members.
-Team members can provide indirect help to their teammates in the form of feedback or coaching as well as direct help in the form of assistance with members task and responsibilities.
-Maybe most beneficial when work load is distributed equally among team members
Coordination
refers to synchronizing team members activities in a way that makes them eash effectively and seamlessly.
-Poor this results in team members constantly having to wait on others for information or other resources necessary to do their part of the teams work
Interpersonal processes
are important before, during, or between periods of task work, and each relates to the manner in which team members manage their relationships.
-Motivating and confidence building, affect management, conflict management,
types of Interpersonal processes
-Motivating and confidence building, -affect management,
-conflict management,
Motivating and confidence building
which refers to things team members do or say that affect the degree to which members are motivated to work hard on team tasks.
-Expressions that create sense of urgency and optimism
Affect management
involve activities that foster a sense of emotional balance and unity.
-If you’ve ever worked in any team in which members got short tempered when facing pressure or blamed one another when there were problems you have first-hand experience with this
Conflict management
which involves the activities that the team uses to manage conflicts that arise in the course of its work. Conflict tends to have a negative impact on a team, but the nature of this effect depends on the focus of the conflict as well as the manner in which conflict is managed.
-relationship conflict
-task conflict
Relationship conflict
refers to disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences.
This type of conflict centers on on issues that are not directly connected to the teams task.
-is not only dissatisfying to most people, it also tends to result in reduced team performance
Task conflict
refers to disagreements among members about the teams task.
-Logically speaking, this type of conflict can be beneficial to teams if it stimulate conversations that result in the development and expansion of new ideas.
-Tends to result in reduced team effectiveness unless two conditions are present: members need to trust one another and be confident that they can express their opinions openly without fear of reprisal’s and team members need to engage in effective of conflict management processes
What does effective conflict management involve?
-First, when trying to manage conflict it’s important for members to stay focused on the teams mission.
-Second, any benefits to task conflict disappear if the level of the conflict gets too heated.
-Third, to effectively manage task conflict, members need to discuss their positions openly and be willing to exchange information anyway that fosters collaborative problem-solving.
Cohesion
for a number of reasons, such as having trusting relationships, members of teams can develop strong emotional bonds to other members of their team and to the team itself.
-Tends to foster high levels of motivation and commitment to the team, and as a consequence, tends to promote higher-level’s of team performance.
Is a cohesive team necessarily a good team?
No. In highly cohesive teams, members may try to maintain harmony by striving toward consensus on issues without ever offering, seeking, or seriously considering alternative viewpoints and perspectives.
-Groupthink
Groupthink
-drive toward conformity at the expense of other team priorities.
-Is thought to be associated with feelings of overconfidence about the teams capabilities.
-Has been blamed for decision-making fiascoes in politics as well as in business.
How do you leverage the benefits of cohesion without taking on the potential cost?
-first, Acknowledge that cohesion can potentially have detrimental consequences.
-second, formally instituted the role of devils advocate.

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