planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals
what is the goal of management?
managers minimize the amount of input resources needed to produce goods/services
managers choose appropriate goals and achieve them
first line manager
level of manager called a supervisor. Daily supervision of non managerial employees. Work in all departments.
supervise first line managers. Organize human and other resources to achieve goals. Reduce costs and improve services. Make suggestions for improvement.
manager who is responsible for all departments. Responsible for success or failure of the department. Scrutinized by people in and out.
ability to analyze and diagnose, distinguish cause and effect, focus on the big picture, and focus on the long term
ability to understand, alter, and lead others. Ability to communicate
job specific skills required to perform a particular type of work at a high level
usually in low cost abroad
increases efficiency by lowering cost
scientific management theory
late 19th century
increasing efficiency of worker task mix
job specialization is the best way
key individuals: Frederick Taylor and Frank/Lillian Gilbreth
father of scientific management theory
organize and control the work process to maximize the advantages of job specialization
goal: increase efficiency
time and motion study
simplified jobs and allowed each worker to perform fewer tasks
refined Taylor’s analysis of work movements. Made contributions to time and motion study by applying management efficiency principles to daily activities with 12 children
administrative management theory
turn of the 20th century
creating the most efficient and effective organizational structure
key concept: the bureaucracy
key individuals: Max Weber and Henri Fayol
created the Theory of bureaucracy
a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness
behavioral management theory
first half of 20th century
how managers should behave
key focus: feelings and thoughts also affect performance
key individuals: Mary Follett, Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger, Douglas McGregor
concerned that Taylor ignored the human side because it 1) didn’t involve workers and 2) didn’t ask how they felt
argued workers know the most about their jobs. Advocated “cross functioning.” Took horizontal view of power/authority (which contrast Fayol’s vertical chain). Considered radical.
workers attitudes toward managers affect performance
Douglas McGregor’s theory that employees are lazy, dislikes work, managers should closely supervise and create strict rules
Douglas McGregor’s theory that employees will do what is good, create opportunities, and decentralize authority
assumptions about works attitudes and behavior affect managers behavior
management science theory
second half of the 20th century
key focus: quantitative techniques used make max. use of organizations resources
key concept: contemporary extension of scientific management
organizational environment theory
second half of the 20th century
key focus: how managers control the organizations relationship with it’s external environment
key concept: open systems and contingency theory
1. input stage
2. conversion stage
3. output stage
mechanic structure that is centralized authority, verbal communication, and strict rules
mechanic structure that is decentralized, horizontal communication, and cross departmental cooperation
openness to experience
internal locus of control
a personality trait in which people feel they at every much in charge of their own destiny
(generally more successful and motivated)
external locus of control
a personality trait in which people believe events in their life are due to luck or fate
need for achievement (nAch)
prefer to work alone with moderate degree of risk. Desire unambiguous feedback. Money is a weak motivator. Successful entrepreneurs are usually high in this.
need for affiliation (nAff)
prefer working with others than alone. Better at attendance records. Better at mediating conflict. Less effective at allocating scarce resources.
need for power (nPow)
exercise control of others
personal conviction about lifelong goals
personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving
ability to understand and manage emotions in ourselves and others
duties organizations must perform to retain society’s respect and support
various groups of people who may benefit or be harmed by how managers make decisions
ex: Milton Freedmon
ethical decision that produces the greatest good for the greatest amount of people
moral right rule
ethical decision that maintains and protects the fundamental right of people (rights to vote, life, safety, privacy, etc)
ethical decision distributes benefits and burdens in a fair way and impartial way
employees who are similar in skill and performance should receive the same pay
not based on gender, race, religion, etc
ethical decision in one a manger could easily share with others
there is no one best way
McCellands learned needed
secondary needs that come from our childhood experiences, parental styles, and social norms
actively embrace the need to behave in socially responsible ways
acknowledge needs to support social responsibility, try to balance different stakeholders, typical approach for large companies
behave unethically and illegally, attempt to hid behavior, example: tobacco company
stay within the law, but have no attempt to stay within social responsbility
scientific and administrative management
Which of the following are the two major components of classical management theory?
________ is the systematic slowdown in work by laborers in order to keep their managers ignorant of how fast the work can actually be done.
The view of management that stresses understanding the importance of peoples’ needs and attitudes within an organization is the basis of the _______.
good social relationships
The Hawthorne studies wanted to find what elements in the workers’ environment had the greatest effect on worker performance. At the end of the nine-year study, they concluded that ______ had the greatest effect.
______ used organizations as sets of interrelated parts to be managed as a whole with the purpose of achieving a common goal.
______ is known for introducing continuous improvement and statistical process control to improve quality.
The phrase “it depends” characterizes the ______.
______ involves identifying key variables, understanding their relationships, and recognizing the causes and effects of managerial decisions.
Respect for employees, being an open communicator, and commitment to employee well-being are examples of Mark Wilson’s __________.
Wilson’s desire to create a new type of customer service business where employees would feel “it’s the best job they’ve ever had” represents a ___________.
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