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What is Motivation
Process by which a person’s efforts are directed & sustained toward attaining a goal.
Maslow’s Hierachy of needs theory
Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, Self-actulalization
Physiological needs
the most basic human needs to be satisfied- water, food, shelter, and clothing
Safety needs
A person’s needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Social needs
A person’s needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
Esteem Needs
A person’s needs for internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
Self actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential
Goal setting theory
A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Increase perfomance and motivation.
Equity Theory
Employees compare what they get from a job (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their inputs/outcomes ratio with inputs/outcomes ratio of other people.
Expectancy Theory
People tend to act a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome.
First of expectancy theory
How hard do I have to work to achieve a certain level or performance and can I actually achieve that level
Second level of expectancy theory
What reward performing at that level get me?
Third level of expectancy theory
How attractive is the reward to one and does it help me achieve my own personal goal.
Recognition Programs
recognition (most important), points based, personally congratulate
What are leaders?
Someone who can influence others and who has mangerial authority
What is leadership?
Is what leaders do. It’s a process of leading a group and influencing that group to achieve its goals.
What behaviors do leaders exhibit ?
Drive, desire to lead, honesty & integrity, self confidence, intelligence, job relevant knowledge, extraversion
University of Iowa studies?
Autocratic Style, Democratic Style, Democractic-consultative, democratic-participative & Laissez-Faire
Autocratic Style
A leader who typically tends to centralize authority, limits employee participation
Democratic Style
Involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation, uses feedback as an opportunity to coach.
Democratic-participative leader
Let’s employees have a say in what’s decided
Laissez-Faire Style
A leader who lets the group make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit
What did the Ohio State study show?
Initiating structure, High initiating structure, Consideration, High consideration
Initiating Structure
The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment
High Initiating Structure
Assigns group members tasks, expects standards of performance & deadlines to be met
The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings
High Consideration
Helps employees with personal problems, is friendly, approachable, treats employees as equals shows concern for followers comfort, well-being, status & satisfaction.
University of Michigan studies
Employee oriented, production oriented
Employee oriented
Emphasizes interpersonal relations takes a personal interest in needs of employees & differences between members
Production oriented
Emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the job, mainly concerned with groups accomplishing their tasks and regards group members as a means to an end.
How do leaders help followers
Directive leader, Supportive leader, participative leader, achievement oriented leader
Directive leader
lets others know what is expected; gives directions, maintains standards
supportive leader
Shows concern for the needs of followers and is friendly
Participative leader
Consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision
Achievement oriented leader
sets challenging goals; expects high performance, shows confidence
Path Goal Theory
The belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls
Transactional leader
leads primarily by using social exchanges or transactions they motivate by setting goals and exchanging rewards.
Transformational Leader
a leader that stimulates, inspires and transforms followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes
Transactional vs tranformational leaders
Transformational leaders have been found to be more effective, higher performers and more promotable
Essence of leadership
the belief in the integrity, character and ability of a leader
A leaders honesty, competence, and ability to inspire
Five dimensions of leadership
Integrity, competency, consistency, loyalty, openness
What is Control
The management function that involves monitoring activites to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correctin any significant deviations
Why is control important?
its the only way managers know whether organizational goals are being met & if not they reasons why.
How do managers measure
Personal observation (walking around), Statistical reports, Oral reports, written reports
How do managers compare actual performance to planned goals?
Range of variation
How do you correct actual performance?
immediate corrective action, basic corrective action, revise the standard
What managerial actions can be taken?
do nothing, correct the actual performance or revise the standards
Feed Foward Control
Anticipates problems, prevents problems because it takes place before the actual activity
Why is Feedback control so popular?
Takes place after the activity is done. Has 2 advantages, check planning efforts, show variance between standard and actual performance
Which element of motivation is a measure of intensity or drive?
An individual who wants to buy a home in a neighborhood with a low crime rate is satisfying which need?
Maslow argued that once a need is substantially satisfied,
The next need becomes dominant
The key to motivation, according to Maslow, is to identify
A person’s level in the needs hierarchy
Setting goals definitely seems to
increase performance and motivation
A theory that suggests employees compare their inputs and outputs from a job to the ratio of relevant other is known as
equity theory
Equity theory is based primarily on ideas about which of the following?
The first variable in expectancy theory involves how much effort a person must exert to
attain a certain level of perfomance
The second variable in expectancy theory requires the worker to ask him or herself: If I perform at a given level, how likely is that I will
attain the reward or outcome I am looking for
The third variable in expectation theory requires that worker to ask him-or herself which question?
How important is this outcome to me?
Because leading is one of the four basic managerial functions, _____ leaders
all managers should be
The promise of behavioral theories of leadership held that this woudl be possible.
being able to train a person to be a leader
The University of Iowa studies discussed all of the following leadership styes EXCEPT ______ leadership.
Jared’s boss encourages employees to participate in the decision-making process but does not give them complete freedom to do as they like. She has this kind of leadership style.
Monica’s boss allows her employees to make any decisions she thinks is important on the spot without consulting anyone. Monica’s boss has this kind of leadership style.
Laissez-faire style
In the Ohio State studies, ______ refers to how strict a leader’s standards are.
Initiating structure
According to the University of Michigan studies, leaders who were ______ were associated with higher group prodcutivity and higher job satisfaction.
Employee oriented
The path-goal theory sees the job of an effective leader as ____.
clearing the path between followers and their goals.
Transactional leaders are leaders who guide by _______.
offering rewards to followers
Transformational leaders are leaders who guide by
inspiring followers
The control management function ensures that ____ in an organization.
goals are met
The value of the controlling function is seen in three specific areas: planning, ___________.
empowering employees, and protecting the workplace
Controlling compares _______ to see if goals are being achieved
actual performance to planned performance
The first step in he control process is to
measure actual performance
MBWA stands for management by
walking around
This type of performance measurement format would be most likely to include graphs, tables, and computer outputs.
statistical report
In the second step of the control process, actual performance can be considered acceptable as long as the performance doesn’t fall
outside an acceptable range of variation
The third step in the control process is to
take action
Immediate corrective action is designed ___________
to get performance back on track
Which kind of control takes place before the actual work is carried out?

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