Because there are some positive aspects of bureaucracy, as proposed by Max Weber, Tammy, a restaurant manager, is interested in implementing certain aspects of the bureaucratic approach to management within her restaurant. Like Weber, Tammy feels bureaucracy is a ____.
rational, efficient, ideal organization based on principles of logic
In a low-context culture ____.
shared meanings are primarily derived from written and spoken words
Tom, who owns a successful business with two locations and a few international clients, was approached by a large organization about dramatically expanding his company. Tom later told his wife that he is happy with his success, but he wants to stay small because if he decides to add new products, small companies ____.
can get started more easily and maneuver faster
To maintain a competitive advantage, the top management of a national furniture store made the decision to increase employee training, add rewards that motivate employees, and look at improving procedures related to disciplining workers. These decisions are part of the ______ role.
Don has managed several restaurants for over 50 years and is close to retirement. With his maturity, his decisions are sound, based on solid, proven values. Don tends to be an independent thinker who focuses on empowering his employees. Don manages at Kohlberg’s ______ level of personal moral development.
Kohlberg has proposed three levels of personal moral development: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Only about a fifth of American managers reach level 3, the postconventional level, when managers are guided by internal values. It is the farthest along in moral development, and Level 3 managers are independent souls who follow their own values and standards, focusing on the needs of their employees and trying to lead by empowering those working for them.
According to the findings of the GLOBE project, the assertiveness dimension represents the extent to which a society values ____.
confrontation and competitiveness
Corporate governance is the system ____.
Corporate governance is the system of governing a company so that the interests of corporate owners and other stakeholders are protected.
of governing a company so that the interests of corporate owners and other stakeholders are protected
Susan, from Iowa, arrived in Saudi Arabia and immediately noticed that the way Saudi men treat women is vastly different than how men in the U.S. treat women. Susan was feeling uncomfortable because she was experiencing ___.
When Randy, a general manager of a national retailer, moved to a different store in his company that was having difficulty, he knew that sales were low and after talking to his employees, he found morale was also low. At first Randy thought attitudes were poor due to low sales, but after working closely with employees, he realized that the poor attitudes were actually the cause of poor sales. Randy was able to discover the cause of the problem by utilizing ______ skills.
To increase profitability, top management of a national retailer needs to decide if it will close several stores. Management knows that by closing the locations, it will save the company millions of dollars and benefit many stockholder groups and individuals, compared to keeping those stores open and benefiting fewer people. This logic is an example of the ___ approach.
Globalization is the trend ___.
Globalization is the trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system.
of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system
A tax on automobiles imported into the United States that raises prices on imported vehicles to make the price of cars produced here more competitive is a(n) ______; a tax on all oil imported into the United States, which is implemented to raise money for the American government, is known as a(n) ____.
There are two types of tariffs: One is a protective tariff, which is intended to raise the price of imported goods to make the prices of domestic products more competitive. The other, a revenue tariff, is designed simply to raise money for the government, such as a tax on all oil imported into the United States.
protective tariff; revenue tariff
A local farmer grows and sells tomatoes and beans to the local grocers. Using the systems viewpoint, the tomatoes, beans, and profits that are earned from the sales are known as a(n) _____.
Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization. Whatever comes out of the system is an output.
Joe, owner of ABC Electronics, just discovered that his trusted friend Paul, his accountant for over 30 years, has been mishandling the company books and stealing from the company bank account. Joe must decide whether to publicly ignore his friend’s actions and avoid bad publicity for the firm, an example of ____.
An ethical dilemma is a situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization, but that is unethical or even illegal.
an ethical dilemma
Hannah, an engineer for an oil company, is interested in working overseas at this stage of her life because she knows that foreign work experience demonstrates ____ to potential employers.
Foreign experience demonstrates independence, resourcefulness, and entrepreneurship, according to management recruiters.
independence, resourcefulness, and entrepreneurship
China has been accused by shrimpers in South Louisiana of selling shrimp in the United States at a lower price than U.S. suppliers to drive down the price of American shrimp. The U.S. shrimpers are accusing the Chinese of ___.
Dumping is the practice of a foreign company’s exporting products abroad at a lower price than the price in the home market or even below the costs of production to drive down the price of the domestic product.
Local livestock farmers could allow the runoff of manure nutrients into a stream that feeds a local lake because this helps farmers in the short term. However, farmers will act ethically in the short run to avoid harming others in the long run because this is also in the farmer’s best long-term interests; this is reflected by the _____ approach to deciding ethical dilemmas.
Ethical behavior in the individual approach is guided by what will result in the individual’s best long-term interests, which ultimately are in everyone’s self-interest. The assumption here is that you will act ethically in the short run to avoid others harming you in the long run.
Quality Air, a company that builds airplanes, typically utilizes other production companies that specialize in certain parts for its jets; this practice is known as ____.
Outsourcing, a common practice of many companies, is defined as using suppliers outside the company to provide goods and services.
To focus on improving company customer service this year, the CEO outlined a list of stakeholders to concentrate on: distributors, local communities, and the mass media. These three groups are ____.
External stakeholders are people or groups in the organization’s external environment that are affected by it. The external task environment consists of 11 groups that present the organization with daily tasks to handle: customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employee associations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special-interest groups, and the mass media.
When Bernard Madoff used money from newer investors to pay off older ones, this was an example of ____.
Financier Bernard Madoff, who confessed to a $50 billion Ponzi scheme, used cash from newer investors to pay off older ones
an ethical dilemma
Tom and his managers are discussing the unemployment, inflation, and interest rate trends that might affect his chain of coffee shops over the next 12 months and the projected growth in the areas where his stores are located. The managers are studying the ______ forces in their organization’s general environment.
Economic forces consist of the general economic conditions and trends like unemployment, inflation, interest rates, and economic growth that may affect an organization’s performance.
Don’s Carpet installed carpet at no cost for City Office Supply, in exchange for $1,000 of office supplies. This is an example of ____.
Countertrading is bartering goods for goods.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 established requirements for ____, and for noncompliance, penalties of ______.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies and penalties of as much as 25 years in prison for noncompliance.
proper financial record keeping for public companies; as much as 25 years in prison
Tom, a restaurant general manager, carefully watches his costs by reusing some items that in the past were immediately thrown away. Tom is an example of a(n) _____ manager.
Efficiency is the means of attaining the organization’s goals. To be efficient means to use resources such as people, money, and raw materials wisely and cost-effectively.
The city government of Pleasantville promised significant tax breaks to a large retailer if it expanded its presence, which would result in nearly 200 new local jobs. However, the retailer found another location better for expansion. As a result, the city of Pleasantville instituted clawbacks by _____.
If a community gives a company tax breaks in return for the promise of new jobs and the firm fails to do so, the community may do clawbacks, which means rescinding the tax breaks when firms don’t deliver promised jobs.
rescinding the tax breaks
A nation’s culture is ________.
A nation’s culture is the shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people.
the shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to its people
Tom, the manager of floral shop, is interested in implementing the principles of administrative management, which involves ____.
Administrative management is concerned with managing the total organization. Among the pioneering theorists were Henri Fayol and Max Weber.
managing the total organization
Patsy, a nurse, has decided to start a home health care service to assist with the medical, meal preparation, and light housecleaning needs of older adults. To grow her business, Patsy is focusing her marketing efforts on the older adult population; as she does this, she is involved with the _____ environment.
Age is part of the demographic force, and demographic forces are part of an organization’s general environment.
Wanda, a CEO, has been encouraging her managers to study and utilize theoretical perspectives of management because this approach _____.
Studying management theory provides understanding of the present, a guide to action, a source of new ideas, clues to the meaning of your managers’ decisions, and clues to the meaning of outside events.
provides clues to the meaning of your managers’ decisions
When Cheyanne, the manager, was discussing a difficult competitive problem with the owner, she asked, “What management approach do you think will work best in this situation?” Asking this question to determine a solution is utilizing ____.
The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to, or be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation.
the contingency viewpoint
Amy, a successful banker and educator, has decided to retire, but she is very interested in staying involved with a company “that cares.” So when asked to be on its board of directors, she gladly accepted the invitation. As a member of the board, Amy will be involved with the organization’s ____.
Members of the board of directors are very important in setting the organization’s overall strategic goals and in approving the major decisions and salaries of top management.
overall strategic goals and approval of major decisions
The IMF has ____.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations. In recent times, the IMF has become more high profile because of its role in trying to shore up some weaker European economies, including making loans to Greece, Portugal, and Ireland and considering how to assist Italy and Spain.
helped support some weaker European countries during the recent financial crisis
Mr. Jones, a wealthy businessman who made his fortune in the oil industry, understands the importance of a college education, so he has given over $10 million over the last several years to colleges and universities. This is an example of _____.
Philanthropy is defined as making charitable donations to benefit humankind.
As the CEO of a company that produces products for schools, Hannah feels that her company needs to not only produce a profit but also do things that benefits society. This type of company attitude is an example of ____.
Social responsibility is a manager’s duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization.
John, a construction manager, has been having problems finding quality employees in some of his foreign offices. While speaking with his attorney, Alisha, he mentioned that “in our locations overseas, many of our good employees have been quitting, and as you know, we have numerous lawsuits over personnel policies.” Alisha explained that historically, these types of issues are a result of ____ policies.
A survey of 918 companies with home offices in the United States, Japan, and Europe found that ethnocentric policies were linked to such problems as recruiting difficulties, high turnover rates, and lawsuits over personnel policies.
The multiplier effect states that a manager’s influence on the organization ___.
In being a manager you have a multiplier effect: your influence on the organization is multiplied far beyond the results that can be achieved by just one person acting alone.
has implications far beyond the results that can be achieved by one person acting alone
Last week Paul, CEO of Quality Furniture in South Carolina, traveled to Europe to visit customers. While overseas, Paul checked his e-mail daily and visited his company’s website to show to customers. After visiting the last customer Friday morning, Paul was able to return to the corporate office to meet with his board of directors that night. This “shrinking” of time and space with air travel and electronic media defines ____.
Global village refers to the “shrinking” of time and space as air travel and the electronic media have made it easier for the people around the globe to communicate with one another.
the global village
When faced with a business problem, Sally, a young grocery store owner, discusses business problems with Don, the assistant manager and an employee for over 30 years. Sally believes Don “has seen it all” and knows there are few really new ideas; plus the business has done many simple things, such as offering friendly service, to have a competitive edge. This is an example of _____ management.
Evidence-based management means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.
One way to think of management is ___.
Management, said one pioneer of management ideas, is “the art of getting things done through people.”
the art of getting things done through people
As a store manager, Liandra has to play the role of negotiator, such as purchasing products at a fair price for her company. As she handles this responsibility, Liandra is playing the ____ role.
In their decisional roles, managers use information to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities. The four decision-making roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
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