Workforce Diversity Entrepreneurship Managing in an E-Business World Knowledge Management and Learning Organizations Quality Management Since the birth of modern management theory in the early sass, management experts have developed theories to help organizations and their managers coordinate and oversee work activities as effectively and efficiently as possible. In presenting the history of modern management, Chapter Two explores the evolution of management thought and practice during the twentieth century.
Students discover how knowledge of management history can help us better understand rent management practices while avoiding some mistakes of the past. The practice of management has always reflected historical times and societal conditions. For instance, innovation, global competition, and general competitive pressures reflect a reality of today’s business world: “Innovate or lose. ” As Chapter Two opens, “A Manager’s Dilemma” relates how John R. Hook Ill, vice president of global footwear design for Nikkei, leads an international design team in creating hundreds of innovative, sustainable footwear designs every year.
Design team members find inspiration for their new styles through activities that include aging trips to the zoo to observe the structure of animals’ feet and devoting time to studying the Japanese art of origami. What can other managers learn from Nikkei about
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Regardless of the titles given to managers throughout history, someone has always had to plan what needs to be accomplished, organize people and materials, lead and direct workers, and impose controls to ensure that goals were attained as planned. B. Examples of early management practices can also be seen by studying the Arsenal of Venice. Assembly lines, accounting systems, and personnel functions are only a few of the processes and activities used in business in the fifteenth century that are common to today’s organizations as well. C.
Adam Smith, author of the classical economics doctrine The Wealth of Nations, argued brilliantly for the economic advantages that he believed division of labor (the breakdown of Jobs into narrow, repetitive tasks) would bring to organizations and society. D. The Industrial Revolution is possibly the most important pre-twentieth-century influence on management. The introduction of machine powers combined with the division of labor made large, efficient factories possible. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling became necessary activities.
E. Exhibit 2-1 and Powering slide 2-7 illustrate the development of management theories. NOTES Materials I Plan to Use: 2. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Scientific management is defined as the use of the scientific method to determine the “one best way’ for a Job to be done. A. Important Contributions 1. Frederick W. Taylor is known as the “father” of scientific management. Tailor’s work at the Medieval and Bethlehem Steel companies stimulated his interest in improving efficiency. A.
Taylor sought to create a mental revolution among both workers and managers by defining clear guidelines for improving production efficiency. He defined four principles of management (Exhibit 2-2). B. His “pig iron” experiment is probably the most widely cited example of his scientific management the “one best way’ for doing each Job. D. Frederick W. Taylor achieved consistent improvements in productivity in the range of 200 percent. He affirmed the role of managers to plan and control and the role of workers to perform as they were instructed. 2. 2 It sure seems like Frederick W.
Taylor viewed people negatively. Is that true? 2. Frank and Lillian Gilberts were inspired by Tailor’s work and proceeded to study and develop their own methods of scientific management. A. Frank Gilberts is probably best known for his experiments in reducing the number of motions in bricklaying. B. The Gilbert’s were among the first to use motion picture films to study hand and body motions in order to eliminate wasteful motions. C. They also poised a classification scheme to label 17 basic hand motions called thrillers (Gilberts spelled backward, with the the transposed).
B. How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management? Guidelines devised by Taylor and others to improve production efficiency are still used in today’s organizations. However, current management practice is not restricted to scientific management practices alone. Elements of scientific management still used include: 1. Using time and motion studies 2. Hiring best qualified workers 3. Designing incentive systems based on output 2. 3 Why was scientific management even a management theory when it concentrated n laborers’ Jobs? 3.