Parker Fillet (early 19005) ; One of the first to recognize that organizations could be viewed from perspective of individual and group behavior. – proposed more people-oriented ideas rather than scientific management theories. – thought organizations should be based on group ethic. Lb. Chester Bernard(19305) – He Is actual manager who thought organization were social system that required cooperation. – believed manager’s job was to communicate and stimulate employee’s high level of effort. – First person to argue that organizations were open systems.
Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management? The quantitative approach has contributed in decision making in the areas of planning and control. When manager make budgeting, scheduling, quality control and similar decision may typically rely on quantitative techniques. Example as determining the critical path In a production line; this Is the set of steps where any delays will lead to delays in the entire production process. And also determining the percentage of items produced that have quality errors and the type of errors that are resent.
The example of techniques:- Mathematical forecasting helps make projections that are useful in the planning process. Inventory modeling helps control Inventories by mathematically establishing how and when to order a product. Queuing theory helps allocate service personnel or workstations to minimize customer waiting and service cost. Describe total quality management? Total Quality Management (TXT) Is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to Improve the quality of products and revise through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback.
TXT requirements may be defined separately for a particular organization or may be in adherence to established standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization ISO 9000 series. TXT can be applied to any type of organization; it originated In the manufacturing sector and has since been adapted for use in almost management, and churches. As a current focus of e-business, TXT is based on quality management from the customer’s point of view.