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Management 350 Ch 8

management by objectives (MBO)
program that encompasses specific goals participatively set, for an explicit time period with feedback on goal progress
management by objectives (MBO)
emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable
management by objectives (MBO)
strongly advocates participation, goal-setting theory does not
management by objectives (MBO)
4 ingredients are common to these programs: 1) goal specificity 2) participation in decision making 3) an explicit time period 4) performance feedback
employee recognition programs
intrinsic rewards; range from a spontaneous and private thank you to a widely publicized formal programs in which specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly defined
employee recognition programs
most managers use an informal approach
employee recognition advantage
they are inexpensive because praise is free
employee recognition program
critics argue that they are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management
employee involvement
a participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organizations success
employee involvement
the logic is if we engage workers in decisions that affect them and increase their autonomy and control over their work lives, they will become more motivated, more committed to the organization, more productive and more satisfied with their jobs
employee involvement
two forms: participative management and representative participation
participative management
a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their immediate superiors
participative management
a distinct characteristic is joint decision making
participative management
organizations that institute this have higher stock returns, lower turnover rates, and higher estimated labor productivity although these affects are not large
participative management
participation only has a modest influence on variables such as employee productivity, motivation, and job satisfaction
representative participation
required in almost every country in western europe and is a process in which workers participate in organization decision making through a small group of representative employees
Rob (Re)design
the way elements in a job are organized can act to increase or decrease effort- suggests what these elements are through JCM
job characteristic model (JCM)
model that proposes we can describe a job in terms of 5 core job dimensions 1) skill variety 2) task identity 3) task significance 4) autonomy 5) feedback
skill variety
the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talent
task identity
the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, high task identity-completes something from start to finish, low task identity-has less impact on completion
task significance
the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people ex. nurse-high sweeping floors- low
autonomy
the degree to which a job provides the worker with freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures in carrying it out
feedback
the degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information about your own job performance
job rotation
the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements at the same organizational level
job enrichment
the vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work
job enrichment
combining tasks, forming work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels
job enlargement
increasing the scope of the job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibility
job enlargement
seeks to motivate workers through reversing process of specialization
variable pay programs
a pay plan that bases a portion of an employees pay on some individual and or organizational measure of performance
variable pay programs
rewards individual employees through 7 different ways: piece-rate pay plan, merit based pay plan, bonuses, skill based pay, profit-sharing plan, gainsharing, and ESOP
skill-based pay plan
one of the seven variable pay programs that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skill employees have or how many jobs they can do
skill-based pay plan
for employers, the lure of this type of pay plan is that it increases the flexibility of the workforce: filling staffing needs is easier when employee skills are interchangeable
skill-based pay plan
facilitates communication across the organization because people gain a better understanding of each others jobs
skill-based pay plan
downside is that people can learn all the skills the programs call for them to learn and don’t address level of performance
flexible benefits
a benefit plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation
flexible benefits
three most popular types are: modular plans, core-plus plans, flexible spending plans
modular plans
one of the three types of flexible benefits plans that is a predesigned package of benefits, each of which meets the needs of a specific group of employees
modular plans
predesigned single parent plan, plan for someone with no dependents, etc.
core-plus plans
one of the flexible benefits plans that consists of a core of essential benefits and a menu like selection of other from which employees can select
core-plus plans
typically each employee is given “benefit credits” which allow the “purchase” of additional benefits that uniquely meet his or her neds
flexible spending plans
one of the flexible benefits plans that allows employees to set aside pretax dollars up to the dollar amount offered in the plan to pay for particular benefits such as health care and dental premiums

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