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Management 494 Chapter 5

1. Which of the following businesses is required by law to make its data available to the public?
A.
A restaurant owned and managed by an individual proprietorB.
A premium salon owned by two business partners

C.
A carpet manufacturing unit runs solely by a third-generation entrepreneur

D.
A software company with over 300 shareholders

D
2. _____ precisely indicates how much of a firm’s sales is converted into profits.
A.
Break-even priceB.
Working capital turnover

C.
Return on revenue

D.
Inventory turnover

C
3. Which of the following equations best expresses return on revenue?
A.
Net profits/RevenueB.
Revenue – Cost

C.
Sales/Revenue

D.
Revenue – Gross profits

A
4. True Machine Inc. and One Electrona Inc. are two competing consumer electronics companies. While True Machine’s COGS/Revenue is 66%, One Electrona’s is 74%. What do you infer from this financial data?
A.
One Electrona has a competitive advantage over True Machine.B.
True Machine’s profit margin is higher than that of One Electrona.

C.
One Electrona is more efficient than True Machine by eight percentage points.

D.
True Machine should focus more on driving down costs, while increasing revenues, and One Electrona should focus more on increasing its fixed asset turnover.

B
5. A high percentage of R&D/Revenue ratio indicates a(n):
A.
strong focus on innovation to improve current products and services.B.
inefficiency in the management to focus on new products.

C.
strong focus on marketing and sales to promote products and services.

D.
negligent investment toward research and development.

A
6. _____ is best described as a measure of how effectively capital is being used by a firm to generate revenue.
A.
Return on revenueB.
Risk capital

C.
Working capital turnover

D.
Revenue per employee

C
7. The working capital turnover of Tesva Systems Corp. is 6.0. What does this financial data suggest?
A.
For every $6.00 Tesva Systems puts to work, the company incurs a cost of $1.00.B.
For every $6.00 Tesva Systems puts to work, the company realizes a sales of $1.00.

C.
For every dollar Tesva Systems puts to work, the company realizes $6.00 in loss.

D.
For every dollar Tesva Systems puts to work, the company realizes $6.00 of sales.

D
8. The working capital of a small home-based business is $200,000. The revenues generated account to $600,000, and the profits incurred are $300,000. What would be the company’s working capital turnover?
A.
3, that is, $600,000/$200,000B.
$300,000, that is, $600,000 – $300,000

C.
2, that is, $600,000/$300,000

D.
$100,000, that is, $300,000 – $200,000

A
9. _____ most precisely measures how well a company leverages its fixed assets, particularly property, plant, and equipment (PPE).
A.
Working capital turnoverB.
Fixed asset turnover

C.
Fixed assets to equity ratio

D.
Capital leverage ratio

B
10. The fixed asset turnover of a company is 8.3. What do you infer from this?
A.
Every dollar spent on the company’s fixed assets generates $8.30 of revenue.B.
8.3% of the company’s revenue is invested in fixed assets.

C.
The return on fixed assets will break even in 8.3 years.

D.
The cost of capital invested on fixed assets is 8.3% of the total profit.

A
11. Which of the following best expresses fixed asset turnover?
A.
Current assets/Fixed assetsB.
Revenue/Fixed assets

C.
Fixed assets/Total return to shareholders

D.
Fixed assets/Current liabilities

B
12. Which of the following ratios best expresses inventory turnover?
A.
Inventory/Working capitalB.
Annul profits/Inventory

C.
Inventory/Per unit cost of production

D.
Cost of goods sold/Inventory

D
13. _____ indicates how fast a firm is collecting the credit amount extended by a firm to its customers.
A.
Payables turnoverB.
Receivables turnover

C.
Assets turnover

D.
Inventory turnover

B
14. _____ indicates how much a firm benefits from interest-free loans extended by its suppliers and creditors.
A.
Payables turnoverB.
Receivables turnover

C.
Assets turnover

D.
Inventory turnover

A
15. The payable turnover for Apple and BlackBerry (as of fiscal year 2012) was 7.4 and 24.8 respectively. From this data we can conclude that:
A.
BlackBerry has taken a longer time to pay its creditors as compared to Apple.B.
Apple has been more efficient than Blackberry in paying creditors and generating interest-free loans from suppliers.

C.
BlackBerry has a clear advantage over Apple as its credits are paid much faster than that of Apple.

D.
BlackBerry can extend its payment periods, while Apple is required to pay its creditors more quickly.

B
16. The receivables turnover of GD Products Inc. is 13.6 and that of its competitor, AP Goods Inc., is 6.0. What does this financial data primarily imply?
A.
GD Products is less efficient than AP Goods in collecting accounts receivables.B.
AP Goods pays its creditors more quickly as compared to GD Products.

C.
GD Products collects accounts receivables faster than what AP Goods does.

D.
AP Goods has a larger value gap as compared to GD Products.

C
17. In the fiscal year 2012, BlackBerry’s Cost of goods sold (COGS)/Revenue ratio was higher than that of its competitor, Apple. This implies that BlackBerry needs to work toward:
A.
driving down its costs.B.
lowering its inventory turnover.

C.
increasing its fixed costs and decreasing its variable costs.

D.
reducing its return on revenue.

A
18. Which of the following statements is true of accounting data?
A.
Accounting data focus mainly on intangible assets, rather than tangible assets.B.
Accounting data are historical data and thus backward-looking.

C.
Accounting data do not have to be adjusted in any manner to compare companies with different capital structures.

D.
Accounting data consider off-balance sheet items, such as pension obligations of a firm.

B
19. Which of the following competitively important assets is typically excluded from a firm’s balance sheet?
A.
Land and buildingB.
Accounts payable

C.
Patents

D.
Customer experience

D
20. _____ are the legal owners of public companies.
A.
EmployeesB.
Shareholders

C.
Category captains

D.
Creditors

B
21. Which of the following is an external performance metric?
A.
Return on revenueB.
Fixed assets turnover

C.
Inventory turnover

D.
Total return to shareholders

D
22. From an investors’ or shareholders’ perspective, the measure of competitive advantage that matters most is the _____.
A.
return on risk capitalB.
economic value created

C.
consumer surplus

D.
inventory turnover

A
23. Which of the following is NOT true of risk capital?
A.
From the shareholders’ perspective, the measure of competitive advantage is primarily based on return on their risk capital.B.
Risk capital invested in a firm can be legally recovered if the firm goes bankrupt.

C.
A person who provides capital to a firm gets equity shares in return.

D.
Return on risk capital includes stock price appreciation plus dividends received over a specific period.

B
24. Return on risk capital primarily includes:
A.
stock price appreciation plus dividends received over a specific period.B.
consumer surplus plus firm profit.

C.
account receivables plus account payables.

D.
economic value created by a firm plus reservation price.

A
25. _____, which is the return on risk capital, includes stock price appreciation plus dividends received over a specific period.
A.
Total return to shareholdersB.
Earnings per share

C.
Receivables turnover

D.
Dividend yield

A
26. A firm has 30 million shares outstanding, and each share is traded at $100. Also, each shareholder gets a dividend of $2000 annually. In this case, the market capitalization is _____.
A.
30,000 shares, that is, 30 million shares/$100B.
$200,000, that is, $2000 × $100

C.
$3 billion, that is, 30 million shares × $100

D.
20:1, that is, $2000/$100

C
27. The market capitalization of a public company is $5 billion. Each share of the company is traded at $200. What do you infer from this financial data?
A.
The firm’s number of outstanding shares is 25 million.B.
The firm pays an annual dividend of 10 percent.

C.
The firm’s total return to shareholder is $5 billion.

D.
The firm’s economic value created is $5 billion.

A
28. Which of the following expressions accurately describes market cap?
A.
It is the product of the number of outstanding shares and the share price.B.
It is the difference between the book value and the market value of a firm’s assets.

C.
It is the ratio of a firm’s equity finance and its debt finance.

D.
It is the difference between a firm’s account receivables and account payables.

A
29. Unlike the financial ratios based on accounting data, total return to shareholders is:
A.
backward-looking and historic in nature.B.
an external performance metric.

C.
an absolute measure of competitive advantage.

D.
unaffected by market volatility or macroeconomic factors.

B
30. Which of the following is a disadvantage of measuring firm performance through total return to shareholders and firm market capitalization?
A.
Market volatility makes it difficult to assess firm performance through these measures, particularly in the short term.B.
These tools fail to indicate how the stock market views all available public information about a firm’s expected future performance.

C.
These tools measure competitive advantage in absolute terms rather than relative terms.

D.
Only the book value of the share prices is taken into account when applying these measures, and not the market value.

A
31. _____ is best described as the difference between a buyer’s willingness to pay for a product or service and a firm’s total cost to produce it.
A.
Economic value createdB.
Break-even point

C.
Consumer surplus

D.
Cost of capital

A
32. A firm incurs $400 to manufacture a television. In the market, customers are willing to pay a maximum of $600 for the television priced at $500. The difference of $200 ($600 minus $400) is the _____.
A.
consumer surplusB.
total return to shareholders

C.
customer lifetime value

D.
economic value created

D
33. Both Vibrant Phones Inc. and Oryxo Inc. incur a cost of $200 to manufacture a single unit of a cell phone. However, Vibrant Phones creates more economic value than what Oryxo does. What does this imply?
A.
Vibrant Phones and Oryxo have achieved a competitive parity.B.
Oryxo has a competitive advantage over Vibrant Phones.

C.
Vibrant Phones sells its products at a better price than Oryxo.

D.
Oryxo’s offering has greater total perceived consumer benefits than Vibrant Phones’s offering.

C
34. A watch-making company has priced one of its wrist watches at $210. Most of its competitors sell similar watches at $180. Selling anything less than $150 would result in a loss for the company. However, the absolute maximum a customer is willing to pay for it is $170. In this scenario, what is the reservation price of the wrist watch?
A.
$150B.
$180

C.
$170

D.
$210

C
35. A firm incurs $100 to manufacture an office table. It fixes the market price of the table as $250, and discounts the price to $200. However, the maximum a person is willing to pay for it is $180. What is the amount of total perceived consumer benefits in this scenario?
A.
$250B.
$200

C.
$180

D.
$100

C
36. The difference between the price charged for a product and the cost to manufacture it is referred to as the _____.
A.
consumer surplusB.
break-even price

C.
producer surplus

D.
reservation price

C
37. _____ denotes the dollar amount a consumer would attach to a good or service.
A.
UtilityB.
Value

C.
Consumer surplus

D.
Economic contribution

B
38. The value a consumer attaches to a product or service is captured in the:
A.
least price a consumer is willing to pay for it.B.
consumer’s maximum willingness to pay for it.

C.
expenses incurred by the firm in manufacturing it.

D.
difference between the price charged for it and the cost to produce it.

B
39. After trying on a dress, a consumer assesses it to be worth a maximum of $100 and is willing to pay that amount for the dress. However, the dress was priced at $80. What is the amount, $100, referred to as?
A.
The producer surplusB.
The firm’s cost (C) in manufacturing the dress

C.
The consumer surplus

D.
The value (V) the consumer attaches to the dress

D
40. How does a firm capture its producer surplus for a good or service?
A.
As cost per unit soldB.
As profit per unit sold

C.
As earnings per share

D.
As market price per share

B
41. Gina paid $900 for a camera that she thought was worth $1100 for all the features included in it. For the consumer electronics firm selling the camera, however, the cost of producing the camera was only $350. What is the consumer surplus in this scenario?
A.
$900B.
$1100

C.
$550

D.
$200

D
42. Economic value creation is best expressed as _____.
A.
producer surplus minus consumer surplusB.
consumer surplus minus cost of production

C.
consumer surplus plus firm profit

D.
producer surplus plus firm profit

C
43. Osion Electronics Inc. incurs a cost of $350 to produce one unit of a cell phone. The company’s management has priced the product at $600 in the market. Considering the technological advancement of the cell phone, customers perceive its value to be around $800. What is the economic value created in this scenario?
A.
$350B.
$450

C.
$800

D.
$200

B
44. By selling a laptop at $1000 for which consumers are willing to pay up to $1200, a consumer electronics firm makes a profit of $400 per unit. In this scenario, the amount $600, that is ($1200 – $1000) + $400, is the _____.
A.
opportunity costB.
economic value created

C.
reservation price

D.
consumer surplus

B
45. Which of the following is NOT an accurate expression of the economic value created per unit of a product sold?
A.
The sum of consumer surplus and producer surplusB.
The difference between consumer’s reservation price and firm’s cost

C.
The sum of consumer surplus and firm profit

D.
The difference between the price charged and the firm’s cost

D
46. In an economic context, strategy for producers is primarily about:
A.
distributing the economic value created equally between consumers and themselves.B.
reducing the difference between consumer’s willingness to pay for a product and the cost to produce it.

C.
capturing the economic value created as much as possible.

D.
lowering producer surplus and increasing consumer surplus.

C
47. Competitive advantage goes to the firm that achieves the:
A.
largest economic value created.B.
lowest producer surplus.

C.
highest payable turnover.

D.
highest Cost of goods sold/Revenue ratio.

A
48. In order to achieve a competitive advantage, a firm should be able to:
A.
increase its payable turnover.B.
keep its producer surplus low.

C.
increase the difference between the value created and the cost to produce it.

D.
increase the difference between consumer surplus and its profits.

C
49. The cost of capital to create a product is a fixed cost because it is:
A.
directly proportional to the output level.B.
uniform throughout all firms and industries.

C.
not a part of the profit calculations.

D.
unaffected by consumer demand.

D
50. _____ are best described as the value of the best forgone alternative use of the resources employed.
A.
Variable costsB.
Opportunity costs

C.
Social costs

D.
Switching costs

B
51. Samantha is a recent fashion graduate. She started her own apparel store with an investment of $300,000. In the first year she made a profit of $60,000. If she had taken up a job as a fashion editor for a magazine, she would have earned $50,000 as salary per year. Also, she could have invested her capital, $300,000, in treasury bonds and earned an interest of $12,000. Thus, the amount $62,000 ($50,000 + $12,000) would be Samantha’s _____.
A.
social costB.
break-even price

C.
reservation price

D.
opportunity cost

D
52. Andrew invested $200,000 in the shares of a company. At the end of a year, he had earned $7,000 as dividends on his shares along with a $1,000 appreciation in the overall value of his shares. However, if Andrew had invested the same amount on an asset, like gold, the appreciation in its value would have earned him $10,000 at the end of the year. In this scenario, which of the following is Andrew’s opportunity cost?
A.
$7,000B.
$10,000

C.
$2,000

D.
$200,000

B
53. When GD Inc. declared a dividend of $20,000,000, its market value increased from $8 billion to $8.5 billion. However, it lost a chance to reinvest $20,000,000 in the research and development of a new product which would have earned a profit of $200 million. Thus, this $200 million is referred to as GD Inc.’s _____.
A.
producer surplusB.
consumer surplus

C.
opportunity cost

D.
social cost

C
54. Which of the following is an advantage of applying the economic value creation perspective to assess a firm’s performance?
A.
When the need for “hard numbers” arises, managers and analysts rely on economic value creation perspective to measure competitive advantage.B.
In economic value perspective, analysts not only consider historical costs, but also opportunity costs.

C.
Arriving at the economic value created is easy because determining the value of a good in the eyes of consumers is a simple task.

D.
It is the most efficient tool for assessing corporate-level competitive advantage of highly diversified companies with large product portfolios.

B
55. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of the economic value creation framework?
A.
The framework falls short when managers are called upon to operationalize competitive advantage.B.
The framework is not as effective as accounting profitability or shareholder value creation when the need for “hard numbers” arises.

C.
The framework fails to provide the foundation that will help firms decide between cost-leadership or differentiation strategies.

D.
The framework cannot be effectively applied for assessing corporate-level performance of diversified conglomerates.

C
56. When using the balanced scorecard approach to assess a firm’s performance, which of the following is NOT a key question that managers need to answer?
A.
How do customers view us?B.
How do we reduce the economic value created?

C.
What core competencies do we need?

D.
How do shareholders view us?

B
57. Which of the following frameworks used to measure competitive advantage relies on both an internal and an external view of a firm?
A.
The economic value creation modelB.
The accounting profitability model

C.
The shareholder value creation model

D.
The balanced scorecard model

D
58. Which of the following statements is true of the balanced scorecard?
A.
It is a more or less a one-dimensional metric of measuring competitive advantages of a firm.B.
It is one of the traditional approaches of measuring firm performance.

C.
Its primary focus is to base a firm’s strategic goals entirely on external performance dimensions.

D.
It attempts to provide a holistic perspective on firm performance.

D
59. Which of the following is an advantage of the balanced scorecard?
A.
It is a tool for both strategic formulation and strategic implementation.B.
It allows managers to translate a firm’s vision into measureable operational goals.

C.
The balanced scorecard is independent of the skills of the managers responsible for its implementation.

D.
Its implementation is a one-time effort and does not require continuous tracking of metrics or updating of strategic objectives.

B
60. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the balanced scorecard approach to assess firm performance?
A.
It allows managers to communicate and link the strategic vision to responsible parties within an organization.B.
It helps managers to implement feedback and organizational learning in order to modify and adapt strategic goals when indicated.

C.
It provides a concise report that tracks chosen metrics and measures and compares them to target values.

D.
It is a tool which can be effectively used by managers for both strategic implementation and strategic formulation.

D
61. Which of the following approaches to assess competitive advantage is based on the view that noneconomic factors can have a significant impact on a firm’s financial performance?
A.
The triple-bottom-line approachB.
The economic value creation framework

C.
The accounting profitability approach

D.
The balanced scorecard

A
62. Which of the following statements is true of the triple bottom line?
A.
It is more or less a one-dimensional metric of measuring competitive advantage of a firm.B.
Its primary focus is to base a firm’s strategic goals entirely on external performance dimensions.

C.
According to this approach, achieving positive results in any one of the dimensions, economic, social, and ecological, can lead to a sustainable strategy.

D.
Three dimensions, economic, social, and ecological, make up the triple bottom line.

D
63. The tenet behind the triple bottom line is that:
A.
a firm should solely focus on increasing the economic value created to/for its customers.B.
a firm’s primary objective should be increasing the total returns to its shareholders.

C.
a firm should achieve positive results along the economic, social, and ecological dimensions to gain a sustainable strategy.

D.
a firm’s return on revenue can be broken down into three ratios: COGS/Revenue, R&D/Revenue, and SG&A/Revenue.

C
64. How does a sustainable strategy typically help a firm?
A.
It helps the firm focus solely on its financial goals.B.
It reduces the need for corporate social responsibility within the firm.

C.
It facilitates the firm in effectively isolating its external stakeholders.

D.
It helps the firm achieve positive results along the social and ecological dimensions.

D
65. Using the _____ approach, managers audit their company’s fulfillment of its social and ecological obligations to stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, and communities as conscientiously as they track its financial performance.
A.
triple-bottom-lineB.
economic value creation

C.
accounting profitability

D.
shareholder value creation

A
66. Which of the following is an advantage of a triple-bottom line approach?
A.
The approach takes an integrative and holistic view in assessing a company’s performance.B.
The approach does not rely on an external view of a firm to assess its performance.

C.
The approach is more of a quantitative performance metric rather than a mere conceptual framework.

D.
The framework can help managers assess a firm’s competitive advantage without taking into account the firm’s performance along noneconomic dimensions.

A
67. The top management at BioTrue Pharma Inc. through rigorous testing ensures that the company develops and sells drugs that are free of harmful side-effects. Also, the company ensures that the chemical waste generated in the manufacturing process is kept to a bare minimum and is disposed of according to the regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency. The management assesses its overall performance based on these dimensions. Thus, the managers at Bio True Pharma are applying the _____ approach to measure firm performance.
A.
economic value creationB.
shareholder value creation

C.
triple bottom line

D.
accounting profitability

C
68. Janet is a 23-year-old employee at DR Products Inc. As a millennial, she will tend to:
A.
view superior financial performance as the sole objective of her firm.B.
expect her company to be socially responsible.

C.
be much more like Generation Xers than Baby Boomers.

D.
work for companies with values that are contradictory to her own values.

B
69. At present, _____ make up the oldest cohort of the workforce.
A.
Baby BoomersB.
Generation Xers

C.
Millennials

D.
Generation Yers

A
70. The translation of strategy into action primarily takes place in a firm’s _____.
A.
mission statementB.
executive summary

C.
business model

D.
code of conduct

C
71. During the process of formulating an effective business model, a firm’s managers should first:
A.
transform their strategy of how to compete into a blueprint of actions and initiatives.B.
implement their strategy at corporate, strategic business unit, and functional levels.

C.
implement their blueprint of actions and initiatives through structures, processes, culture, and procedures.

D.
evaluate the firm’s strategy already in effect and take corrective actions if necessary.

A
72. _____ is best described as a process in which a group of people voluntarily performs tasks that were traditionally completed by a firm’s employees.
A.
BootstrappingB.
Outsourcing

C.
Amalgamating

D.
Crowdsourcing

D
73. Red Ink Electronics Inc. faced a serious technical problem when developing a microprocessor for a high-tech medical device. The employees of the company including those in the research and development department were unable to solve the issue. Thus, an open call was made to the general public, mainly technicians and product engineers, on the company’s website to volunteer to solve the technical problem the company faced. Which of the following does the scenario best illustrate?
A.
CrowdsourcingB.
Vertical integration

C.
Bootstrapping

D.
Amalgamating

A
74. Which of the following scenarios best illustrates crowdsourcing?
A.
A company uses a team consisting of employees from different functional departments to complete a project.B.
A company hires an external firm to look into its legal matters.

C.
A company hires low-cost manufacturers in less-developed nations to produce its merchandise.

D.
A company encourages the general community to post new product ideas on its official website.

D
75. Threadless is a community-centered online apparel store that leverages user-generated content. The idea is to turn consumers into prosumers, a hybrid between producers and consumers. Members of the Threadless community do most of the work, which they consider fun: They submit T-shirt designs online, and community members vote on which designs they like best. The designs receiving the most votes are put in production, printed, and sold online. It can be said that Threadless uses the _____ technique.
A.
offshoringB.
product diversification

C.
crowdsourcing

D.
horizontal integration

C
76. Blue Ego Inc. is a market leader in the cell phone industry. To gain competitive advantage, the company has a post on its official site requesting its suppliers and customers to contribute ideas about the kinds of features and technology they think should be included in the next smartphone. This has helped the company reduce the burden of innovation on its employees, effectively meet customers’ needs, and also include the larger community in product development. This process best exemplifies:
A.
offshoring.B.
product diversification.

C.
crowdsourcing.

D.
horizontal integration.

C
77. In the _____ business model, the initial product is often sold at a loss or given away for free in order to drive demand for complementary goods.
A.
subscription-basedB.
razor-razor-blade

C.
pay-as-you-go

D.
direct sales

B
78. True Vibgyor Inc. sells its e-book readers at the cost price of $15 each. However, the company makes its profits when users have to download or buy books online. Which of the following business models is True Vibgyor implementing?
A.
Subscription-basedB.
Razor-razor-blade

C.
Pay-as-you-go

D.
Direct sales

B
79. Manufacturers of electric fragrance diffusers sell the electric outer device at an extremely low price, sometimes even at a loss. However, they make their money on the product by charging a premium on the perfume refills that have to be replaced regularly. Which of the following business models does this best illustrate?
A.
Razor-razor-bladeB.
Subscription based

C.
Freemium

D.
Pay-as-you-go

A
80. Which of the following business models has been traditionally used by the magazine and newspaper industry?
A.
Subscription-basedB.
Razor-razor-blade

C.
Pay-as-you-go

D.
Freemium

A
81. A defining characteristic of the subscription-based business model is that the:
A.
user pays for only the services he or she consumes.B.
user pays for access to a product or service whether he or she uses it during the payment term or not.

C.
basic features of a product or service are provided free of charge, but the user must pay for premium services such as advanced features or add-ons.

D.
initial product is often sold at a loss or given away for free in order to drive demand for complementary goods.

B
82. Master’s Health Club, a chain of gyms and spas, requires its customers to pay a quarterly or an annual fee to use its services. Irrespective of whether they frequently use the services during the payment period or not, members have to pay in advance. Which of the following business models does this best illustrate?
A.
Razor-razor-bladeB.
Pay-as-you-go

C.
Subscription-based

D.
Freemium

C
83. Mia has purchased an Internet package for three months, in which she can use 30 mbps Internet speed. However, for the service, she needs to pay a fee of $50 in advance irrespective of whether she uses the Internet during the service period or not. This arrangement best illustrates the _____ strategy.
A.
razor-razor-bladeB.
subscription-based

C.
pay-as-you-go

D.
freemium

B
84. A defining characteristic of the pay-as-you-go business model is that the:
A.
users pay for only the services they consume.B.
users pay for access to a product or service whether they use it during the payment term or not.

C.
initial product is often sold at a loss in order to drive demand for complementary goods.

D.
the basic features of a service are provided free of charge, but the user must pay for premium services.

A
85. Maverick Communications Inc. is a cellular service provider that charges its customers $1 for three hours of talk time. So, if a customer’s talk time for a month is 60 hours, the company charges him or her $20 at the end of the month. Which of the following business models does this best illustrate?
A.
Razor-razor-bladeB.
Subscription-based

C.
Pay-as-you-go

D.
Freemium

C
86. In the freemium business model, the:
A.
initial product is sold at a premium price and the complementary goods are given free.B.
users are free to pay for the services in advance or after using the services.

C.
users are not charged for the basic features of a product or service, but the user must pay for premium advanced features or add-ons.

D.
users pay for access to a product or service whether they use it during the payment term or not.

C
87. Photohome is a file hosting service that allows users to store up to 5GB of data with no restrictions or charges. However, users have to pay a fee for advanced features on the cloud storage system and additional storage space. Which of the following business models does this best illustrate?
A.
Subscription-basedB.
Freemium

C.
Pay-as-you-go

D.
Razor-razor-blade

B
88. Pilot Games Inc. allows users to play the trial versions of its games without any charge. However, users have to purchase the games to access the upgraded version of the games with advanced features. Which of the following business models is Pilot Games using in this scenario?
A.
FreemiumB.
Subscription-based

C.
Pay-as-you-go

D.
Razor-razor-blade

A
89. Blue Horizon Inc. is an Internet service provider. It provides a router free of charge when users sign up for a two-year wireless service plan. In this plan, users pay in advance irrespective of whether they use the Internet package during the two-year period or not. Which of the following business models does this scenario best illustrate?
A.
A combination of the razor-razor-blade model and the subscription-based business modelB.
The pay-as-you-go business model

C.
A combination of the freemium business model and the pay-as-you-go business model

D.
The direct sales business model

A
90. Which of the following statements about competitive advantage is true?
A.
Competitive advantage is an absolute measure; it is not relative.B.
Competitive advantage is a one-dimensional concept.

C.
Competitive advantage is permanent and not transitory; once gained by a firm it stays with the firm.

D.
Competitive advantage can be assessed by measuring accounting profit, shareholder value, or economic value.

D
91. Which of the following statements is NOT true of competitive advantage?
A.
Competitive advantage is reflected in superior firm performance.B.
Competitive advantage is a multifaceted concept.

C.
Competitive advantage is an absolute measure.

D.
Competitive advantage has been linked to a firm’s triple bottom line.

C

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