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Management Essay

Some have suggested that cohesiveness among group members develops from a heightened ensue of belonging, teamwork, interpersonal and group-level attraction. Attraction, task commitment and group pride are also said to cause group cohesion. Each cause Is expanded upon below. Attraction[deleted] Festering and colleagues (1950) proposed the theory of group cohesiveness that suggests that cohesiveness can be considered as attractiveness to individuals within the group and attractiveness to the group as a whole. 7] Lott and Lott argue that interpersonal attraction within the group is sufficient to account for group cohesion. [8] In other words, group cohesion exists when its members have mutual positive feelings towards one another. Other theorists believe that attraction to the group as a whole causes group This concept of being attracted to the group itself is reminiscent of the social Identity theory. According to Hog (Bibb group cohesiveness Is based on social attraction, which refers to “attraction among members of a salient social group”(p.

Hog uses self-categorization theory to explain how group cohesiveness develops from social attraction. The theory states that when looking at others’ similarities and differences, individuals mentally categorize themselves and others as part of a group, in-group members, or as not part of a

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group, out-group members. From this type of categorizing, the stereotypes of their group becomes more prominent in the individual’s mind. This leads the individual to think and behave according to group norms, thus resulting in attraction to the group as a whole. This process is known as diversification of self-perception.

The social attraction (as used in Hog’s theory) refers to the liking of depredations characteristics, the prototype of the group, which is distinct from interpersonal attraction among Individuals within the group. It Is also Important to note that group cohesiveness Is more associated with group attraction than with attraction to Individual members. [10] Many theorists believe that group cohesion results from a deep sense of “we-news,” or belonging to a group as a By becoming enthusiastically involved in the efforts of the group and by recognizing the similarities that exist among group members, more cohesion is formed.

Furthermore, group pride creates a sense of community that strengthens the bonds of unity that link group members to one another. Task Commitment[edit] Other theorists stress that cohesion comes from group members’ commitment to work together to complete their shared tasks and accomplish their collective tasks or Members of task-oriented groups typically exhibit great interdependence and often possess feelings of responsibility for the group’s outcomes. The bonds of unity that develop from members’ concerted effort to achieve their common goals are considered indicative of group cohesion.

Factors influencing group cohesion[edit] The forces that push group members together can be positive (group-based rewards) or negative (things lost upon leaving the group). The main factors that influence group cohesiveness are: members’ group entry difficulty, [18] group and external competition and threats. [21][22] Often, these actors work through enhancing the identification of individuals with the group they belong to as well as their beliefs of how the group can fulfill their personal needs.

Similarity of group members[edit] Similarity of group members has different influences on group cohesiveness depending on how to define this concept. Lott and Lott (1965) who refer to interpersonal attraction as group cohesiveness conducted an extensive review on the literature and found that individuals’ similarities in background (e. G. , race, ethnicity, occupation, age), attitudes, values and personality traits have generally positive association with group cohesiveness. 8] On the other hand, from the perspective of social attraction as the basis of group cohesiveness, similarity among group members is the cue for individuals to categorize themselves and others into either an ingrown or outgrow. [10] In this perspective, the more prototypical similarity individuals feel between themselves and other ingrown members, the stronger the group cohesiveness will be. [10] In addition, similar background makes it more likely that members share similar views on various issues, including group objectives, communication methods and the type of desired leadership.

In general, higher agreement among members on group rules and norms results in greater trust and less dysfunctional conflict. This, in turn, strengthens both emotional and task cohesiveness. [citation needed] Difficult entry criteria or procedures to a group tend to present it in more exclusive light. The more elite the group is perceived to be, the more prestigious it is to be a member in that group[citation needed]. As shown in dissonance studies conducted by Aaron’s and Mills (1959) and confirmed by Gerard and Matheson (1966), this effect can be due to dissonance reduction (see cognitive dissonance).

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