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Management

Motivational the forecast initiates, guides and antidisestablishmentarianism. It includes internal and external factors which stimulates the desire and strength to perform a task in order to achieve organizational goals. Use of Hypothesis I have arranged this essay according to the hypothesis approach minored to develop it employees equally important for organizations? In this context examine different motivational theories and explain how managers could use them under different circumstances. “So I have included the following Key elements and the sub elements o develop the hypothesis.

Key elements and sub elements 1 . Having competent and well motivated employees 0 Define who competent employees are? 0 What is meant by motivated employees? 2. How those employees are equally important for the organization? 0 Globalization Competition due to globalization 0 How the competent and motivated employees contribute to the success of the organization? 3. What are the different motivational theories? 0 Content perspectives on motivation 0 Process perspectives on motivation Reinforcement perspective on motivation 4. How managers could use the theories under different circumstances?

Content theories Process theories Reinforcement theories 3 2. Having competent and well motivated employees 2. 1 Define who “competent employees” are Competent employees are the core for a successful organization. Without

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having employees who can perform at a high level, the organizations tend to fail. Through effective recruiting and effectiveness’s process employees can be made competent. Successful recruiting techniques identifies strong candidates while successful training techniques includes providing as much as guidance to new employees before they go to the related position. McKesson,2012,Demand Media) Recruiting and training which makes competent employees 0 Recruiting Step 1: Company should maintain professionalism from advertisements to marketing on social network sites. Step 2: Company should advertise through professional outlets where competent employees surf through. Competent employees try to meet and mingle with employers by posting their resumes. Step 3: Company assess the resumes and dismiss the unsuitable candidates who does not match their criteria. Step 4: Interview the candidates and select candidates who will perform at a high level.

Media) 0 Training Step 1: give a manual which has deadlines, requirements, tips to perform the employees task well. Step 2: Placing the employees in the position that they have been hired for and make them understand how to accomplish tasks and about the problems that are likely to occur. Step 3: Provide training to effective employees. Good trainers create good employees. Step 4: Promoting self-training. (McKesson,2012,Demand Media) 2. 2 What is meant by motivated employees The manager’s Job is getting things done through employees.

For this he should be able to motivate the employees. Well motivated employees are productive and creative. For an effective motivation of employees human behavior must be understood and appreciated. This can be done authoritative management and leadership. (Accelerate,2012 ) So minored to motivate employees managers can use different methods; 0 Pay rises Casual Fridays and fun programmer like parties Giving incentives and rewards like providing a parking space for the vehicle, giving gift cards etc…. Some instances occur where employees are being motivated through punishments.

Providing on the spot praising Creating a good work environment One-to-one coaching to make the employees know they are cared for. 3. How those employers equally important for an organization? 3. 1 Globalization:Globalization is a process of interacting and combining of people, companies and governments of different nations. Globalization mainly occurred due to international trade, investments and development of information technology. (Levin institute,2012) Competition which arise due to globalization:Every organization is facing with high competition nowadays due to the fact that the world has become one global village.

In order to stay in business the organizations have to face competition successfully. Intention arise between personating in the same field, with the same motive. An organization is a social entity which is goal directed and deliberately structured. Efficiency and effectiveness are main criteria in moving towards success of the organization. Well motivated and competent employees are efficient and effective where the organization is directed towards success. In order for current businesses to achieve success they must face with globalization and the competition successfully. 3. Oho competent and motivated employees contribute to the success of the organization? A main aspect of globalization is the development of information technology. An organization must be aware of the changes that happen in the information technology. For the organizations to use the latest technology, they should have people to operate them. A competent employee in the workplace therefore become a must in order to compete with the other organizations and protect the market share which has emerged due to globalization.

But a competent employee should be motivated by the management as there is tendency for the employee to be achieved. Investments are a risky decision taken by organizations. If the organization possess competent employees in the field of operation the risk of failure is minimized thereby investments become successful. For the competent employees to engage in the Job effectively rewards, promotions, pay increases can be offered. As a result the competition occurred due to globalization can be met successfully. International trade in simple terms includes import and export of goods and services (products) between countries.

As the organizations are aiming the international market, it is a must for the organizations to offer quality products with better standards. For the organizations to provide better quality products employees with qualifications should be recruited and proper training must be given, I. E. Competency should be there with the employees. If the employees are not being treated well in the organization premises, if their work is not being appreciated, if no rewards are given for their achievements the efficiency of the employee can drop.

So in order to keep them working to achieve the specific goals motivation must be implemented. So it is clear that Just having competent employees in an organization will never lead an organization towards success. If the organization needs to achieve the specific goals like market leadership, profitability, provide customer satisfaction, and engage in international trade the employees must be kept efficient and interactive. For this motivation should be implemented by the employees. Finally competent and motivated employees are equally important for the organization. 4. What are the different motivational theories? 4. 1 Content perspective on motivation The Content theory basically emphasizes the needs which motivate people. In an organization the managers design the reward systems according to the extent that the managers understand worker needs minored to meet the worker needs and to reinforce employees for directing energies and priorities towards achievement of organizational goals. (Samson & Daft (2009) p. 482) Hierarchy of needs theory This was introduced by Abraham Moscow.

According to Moscow The humans are motivated by multiple needs and those needs exist in a hierarchical order. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 482) 1 . Physiological needs. These are the basic human physical needs such as food, water. In an organizational view the physiological needs are reflected in the needs for adequate heat, air, and a ease salary to ensure survival. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 482) These are the needs for a safe and secure physical and emotional environment and free from threats. Within organizations, safety needs are the need for a safe Job, fringe benefits and Job security. Samson & Daft , 2009, p. 483) 3. Belongingness needs. The need to be accepted by peers, friendship and be loved . In the organizational setting this is the desire for good relationship with the co-workers, participate in a work group and a positive relationship with supervisors. (Samson & Daft , 2009, p. 483) 4. Esteem needs Organizational esteem needs reflects a motivation for recognition, an increase in responsibility, high status and credit for contribution to the organization. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 483) 5. Self-actualization needs These reflect the need for self-fulfillment.

In organizations they can be met by providing people with opportunities to grow be creative and acquire raining for challenging assignments and advancement. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 483) 8 ERG theory This theory was developed by Clayton Alder. Its a modification of Measles theory. ERG theory includes; 1 . Existence needs: Needs for physical wellbeing. . Relatedness needs: Need for satisfactory relationships with others. 3. Growth needs: Development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 484) Alder reflects “frustration-regression principle”. The failure of meeting a high order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower-order need). Accordingly the individuals may move down as well as up the hierarchy, depending on their ability to satisfy needs. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 484). Two factor theory Two-factor theory was developed by Frederick Herbert. 1 . Hygiene factors: Includes the presence or absence of Job dissatisfies, such as working conditions, episcopacy policies and interpersonal relationships. 2. Motivators: Involve high level needs; achievement, recognition, responsibility and opportunity for growth.

Highly satisfied Personal growth Motivators Motivators influence level influence level of of satisfaction satisfaction Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Area of dissatisfaction Highly dissatisfied ad Hygiene factors Working conditions Pay and Area of security Company policies dissatisfaction n Supervisors Interpersonal relationships Hygiene factors influence bevel of dissatisfaction (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 485 ) 9 Acquired needs theory David McClellan developed the theory. Acquired needs theory suggests that some types of needs are acquired during the lifetime of the individual. Samson & Daft , 2009, p. 486 ) 1 . Need for achievement: The desire to accomplish something difficult, attain success, master complex tasks and surpass others. High need for achievement tends to produce entrepreneurs. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 486 ) 2. Need for affiliation: The desire to make close personal relationships, thereby avoiding conflicts and establishing warm friendships. High need for affiliation leads to be successful integrators, where their Job is to coordinate the work of several departments in an organization.

Brand managers and project managers are examples for integrators who has people skills. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 487 ) 3. Need for power: The desire to control, influence others, be responsible and have authority over others. High need for power is associated with those who want successful attainment of top levels. (Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 487 ) 4. 2 Process perspectives on motivation Process theory includes a group of theories which explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine if their choices were successful. (Samson & Daft, 2008, p. 89) Equity theory Developed by J. Stacy Adams. The equity theory suggests that in return for a input of effort, skill or production the employees receive an outcome in terms of any combination of salary, status and fringe benefits. This creates a ratio of input to outcome and equity is achieved when the ratios are the same for everyone in organization. (Warrior. , 2011) Further it was found that if inequalities occur these outcome will happen. 0 0 0 Reduce their effort and productivity to better match the rewards they are receiving Ask for more money or maybe take legal action Change denomination. Warrior. ,2011) 10 Expectancy theory Developed by Victor Broom. This explain that as we are constantly attempting to predict potential future outcomes, we create what western to be as realistic expectations about future events. (Warrior. , 2011) If things look reasonably likely and attractive, if we know what to be done to reach there, also if we believe we can actually do it, then this will motivate us to act to make this future come true. Warrior. , 2011) Victor Broom explains that individual motivation depends on three variables; 1.

Valence; The value of the anticipated outcome (What is in it for me? ) 2. Instrumentality; The belletrist if I complete certain actions then I will achieve the outcome. (Acceptability) 3. Expectancy; The belief that I am able to complete the actions. (confidence in my capability) (Warrior. , 2011) Goal setting theory Edwin Locke and Gary Lethal described this theory. They proposed that managers can increase motivation by setting specific, challenging goals that are accepted as laid by subordinates, then helping people to track their progress towards goal achievement by providing timely feedback. Samson & Daft, 2009, p. 492) The four key components of goal-setting theory; 0 0 0 0 Goal specificity: The extent to which goals are concrete and unambiguous. Goal difficulty: Highly ambitious but achievable goals are more motivating than easy ones. Goal acceptance: The employees have to buy into and be committed to goals. Feedback: This provides information about how well they are doing in moving towards the goal achievement. (Samson & Daft , 2009, p. 493 ) 11 4. Reinforcement perspective on motivation Reinforcement theory was introduced by BE Skinner.

It examines what happens to an individual when he takes a certain action. According to Skinner the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively to motivate the employee. (Misunderstandings. Com, 2008-2012) Managers use the following methods to control the behavior of employees; 1 . Positive reinforcement: This means giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behavior which stimulates the occurrence of a behavior. 2. Negative enforcement: Rewarding an employee by removing negative/undesirable consequences. 3.

Punishment: Applying undesirable consequences for showing undesirable behavior. Egg:- Suspending an employee for breaking organizational rules. 4. Extinction: Lowering the probability of undesired behavior by removing reward for such behavior. (Misunderstandings. Com, 2012) 5. How managers could use the theories under different circumstances? Content theories ERG theory:- Achievement, affiliation, and power needs can be used in the selection process for better placement. Managers could create challenging goals cause the need for achievement is positively related with the goal commitment. ( Grittier, 2008, p. 13) Two factor theory:-Managers can motivate individuals by incorporating strong effort and good performance into an individuals task. Through Job design managers can motivate employees using the Herrings theory. (Grittier , 2008, p. 214) Process theories Equity theory:-The individual-organizational relationship’s vital in the formation of employee equity and inequity which is used by managers. The managers can use practical implication of the equity theory by conducting interviews, informal investigations or attitude surveys. For customer satisfaction climate of Justice is vital. ( Greeter, 2008, p. 19) Expectancy theory:- This theory is used by managers to correctly predict organizational choice. Expectancy theory has important practical implication for individual managers and the organization as a whole. Helps in identifying good performance thereby giving rewards. (Grittier, 2008, p. 222) Goal-setting theory:-To achieve high performance for an organization goal setting theory can be used. This keeps managers away from goal-irrelevant situations. Motivates the employees to perform a task on time. N achieving goals strategies are made using this theory. Also at circumstances where feedback is needed the managers use this theory. Grittier, 2008, p. 224) Reinforcement theory The reinforcement theory is used in circumstances where the managers need to shape the employees behavior very effectively. For successful Job performance identifying, measuring, analyzing, interviewing and evaluating critical performance is needed. (Grittier, 2008, p. 225) 13 6. Conclusion According to the topic that I have chosen, it focuses on the topic motivation. It includes the equal importance of motivated employees and competent employees ho contribute in different ways to the achievement of organizational goals of the organization.

If the employees are competent but they are not being motivated by the management, then the efficiency of the employee drops, thereby leading the employee to not achieve the related tasks which could lead the organization to failure. For effective motivation of employees human behavior must be understood employees can be made competent. There are three motivational theories named content theory, process theory and reinforcement theory. The Content theory basically emphasizes the needs which motivate people.

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