Management and Managers: Fundamentals of Management Essay
Manager cannot fail by systematic management, because science of management is repeatable. Critical Thinking Have organizations and their management changed through the ages? Ancient times? Recent times? Present times? Make up of organizations has become more and more complex. The nature of management has become more and more technical. Let’s go back 500 years. What did a Business look like and how was it Managed? Business Management A Historical Perspective Set goals & find ways to attain them Influence people to work & get results Design work & assign responsibility Owner(s) as manager(s) Staff Functions Globalization Across Boundaries
Monitor work performance & make changes Advisory Functions More locations More products More processes Worker(s) as Line Functions Technological Change Knowledge Management Emergence of the Professional Managers 1840 Era 1910 Era Typically small and medium size Funded & managed by Owners Vertical & Horizontal Integration Funding from the financial markets Positions of professional management making major decisions may own very little of the company’s stock.
Modern firms of Today Write down the DUTIES you think a manager will perform in his / her Job. Write down the SKILLS you think a manager will need to assess in order to do his / her Job
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Three categories of skills: conceptual, human, technical The degree of the skills may vary but all managers must possess the skills The application of management skills change as managers move up the hierarchy 10 11 12 Write down the REASONS you think why manager is even needed in any organization in order to achieve the goals of 0 Write down the critical ROLES a manager plays. Role: Set expectations for a manager’s behavior Manager roles are important to understand but they are not discrete activities Management cannot be practiced as independent parts
Managers need time to plan and think 14 15 16 Studying management history helps your conceptual skills Social forces – aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people Political forces – influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations Economic forces – the availability, production, and distribution of resources 17 18 Emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries 0 Rise of the factory system 0 Issues regarding structure, training, and employee satisfaction Large, complex organizations required new approaches to coordination and control
Three subfields: 0 Scientific management 0 Bureaucratic organizations 0 Administrative principles 19 Improve efficiency and labor productivity through scientific methods Frederick Winslow Taylor proposed that workers “could be retooled like machines” Management decisions would be based on precise procedures based on study 20 Henry Giant developed the Giant chart to measure and plan work The Gilbert’s pioneered time and motion studies to promote efficiency 21 Max Weber, a German theorist, introduced the concepts Manage organizations on impersonal, rational basis Organization depends on rules and scores 24 Focused on the entire organization Henry Payola, a French mining engineer, was a major contributor 14 general principles of management; many still used today.