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Management and Staffing

Staffing is that part of the process of management which is concerned with obtaining, utilizing and maintaining a satisfactory and satisfied work force. It is the process of Identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating and developing Individuals at work. Staffing is a very Important function of the management. No organization can be successful unless it can fill and keep filled the various positions with the right type of employees. Definition & Meaning “Managerial function of staffing Involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the oleos designed into the structure”. Kenton & O’Donnell “Staffing pertains to recruitment, selection, development and compensation of subordinates. ” Thee Hellman, “Staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through recruitment, selection and development of individuals as capable employees. Mac Farmland * Goal of Staffing The goal of staffing Is to provide an adequate number and mixture of personnel to give proper care to the patients in the nursing units at a particular time. * Philosophy of staffing In nursing; Nurse administrators of a hospital nursing department might adopt the following tapping philosophy: * Nurse administrators believe that it is possible to match employees’ knowledge and

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skills to patients care needs in a manner that optimize Job satisfaction and care quality. Nurse administrators believe that the technical and humanistic care needs of critically Ill patients are so complex that all aspects of that care should be provided by professional nurses. * Nurse administrators believe that the health teaching and rehabilitation needs of chronically ill patients are so complex that direct care for chronically ill patients should be provided by professional and technical nurses. Nurse administrators believe that patients assessment, work quantification and job analysis should be used to determine the number of personnel in each category to be assigned to care for patients of each type. Nurse administrator believes that a master staffing plan and policies to Implement the plan In all units should be developed centrally by the nursing heads and staff of the hospital. ; Nurse administrator believes that staffing plan should be administered at the unit level by the head nurse, so that selected plan details , employees assigned to each shift can be modified to accommodate the unit workload ND workflow. Staffing Policies The word ‘policy has a greater significance in the organization for giving a direction to the activities in the field of finance, marketing, production, personnel, etc. Policy is a predetermined and accepted course of thoughts and actions established as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives. The two important terms generally confused with policy are procedures and practices. While procedures are the channel by which policies are activated, practices mean what is actually done in the organization.

Policies are framed by the board of directors or higher management while reoccurred are framed by high officials. Personnel policy is one of the policies of the organization which lays down the decision making criteria in line with overall purpose in the area of manpower management. * This is a predetermined course of rules or actions. * Policies guide the performance of objectives. * Policies provide the standard or ground for the decision. Formulation of Personnel Policy The steps of formulating policy includes: * Fact finding * Reporting of proposed policy * Writing the proposed policy * Discussing the proposed policy * Adopting and launching policy * Communicating of policy Appraising the policy * Factors influencing personnel policy * Law of the country * Social values and customs * Management philosophy and values * Stage of development * Financial position of the firm * Union objectives and practices * Type of workforce * Advantages of personnel policies * Helps managers at various levels of decision centers to act with confidence without the need for consulting the superiors every time. * Ensures prompt action for taking decision within the overall framework of the objectives of the organization whenever any situation arises. * Provides a rational and continuous system of achieving results through better control. * Clear lays down and liberates the management from their personal bias and self-interest. Ensures long term welfare of employees and makes good relation between management and workers. Confidence in them. * Purposes of staffing * Appropriate numbers and mix of nursing staff. * Delivery of effective and efficient nursing care. * Increase productivity. * Avoid role confusion, communication problems and time waste. Stability in team work. * Nature of Staffing * Maintain Staffing is the process of filling all positions in the organization with adequate and qualified personnel. The staffing function assumed great importance due to increase in size of organizations, rapid advancement of technology and growing complexity of human behavior.

In recent years there has been considerable development of knowledge in the field of staffing. The overwhelming role resources in organizations have been recognized. As a result management of human resources has become a vital area of management. 1 . Staffing is an important managerial function- Staffing function is the most important managerial act along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The operations of these four functions depend pong the manpower which is available through staffing function. 2. Staffing is a continuous activity- This is because staffing function continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place. 3.

The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel- Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure, that is, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, providing remuneration, etc. 4. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right Job. It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally electing the most suitable candidate as per the Job requirements. 5. Staffing is performed by all managers Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business, size of the company, qualifications and skills of managers, etc. In small companies, the top it is performed especially by the personnel department of that concern * Significance of staffing * Staffing provides man power which is the key input of an organization. It helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various Jobs * It makes for higher performance by placing right persons on the right Job * It improves Job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and fair compensation of their contributions * It facilitates optimum utilization of human resources and in minimizing costs of manpower * It ensures the continuity and growth of organization through the development of organization * It enables an organization to cope with the shortage of executive talent * Scope of Staffing * Hiring * Remuneration * Motivation * Employee maintenance * Human relations * Importance of staffing * Filling organizational positions: Concerned with filling of good systematic staffing. * Developing competencies: Right Job according to right person. * Retaining personnel: Continuing them in the organization. * Important Factors of Staffing * Quality and quantity of nursing personnel: This factor depends on the appropriate education or training provided to the nursing personnel for the kind of service they are being prepared for, I. E. Professional, skilled, routine or ancillary work. Utilization: Utilization means that the nursing personnel must be assigned work in such a way that her/his knowledge and skills learnt are best used for the purpose she was educated or trained. In addition, she/he is able to maintain a costive attitude towards her/his nursing work and the people she/ he serve. Staffing is a nightmare for any nurse manager keeping in mind quality, quantity and utilization. * Other factors affecting staffing: * Acutely ill: Where the life saving is the priority or bed ridden condition which might require 8-10 hours per patient per day. I. E direct nursing care in 24 hours and nurse patient ratio may be 1:1 3:1. * Moderately ill: Where he requires to be assisted in meeting his human needs conducive to faster recovery and rehabilitation. Mildly ill: Where the patient has the minimum dependency needs because he is able to take care of himself for most of the biological needs. His educational and emotional needs to be cared for by the nurses. * Staff classification I-professional nurse: Bachelor degree. Auxiliary: messenger and transport personnel. * Components of Staffing 1- Staffing pattern: it is the number and mix of personnel that should be on duty per each unit per shift, per day. 2- Staffing plan: It determines the number of nursing personnel that must be hired to deliver nursing care on the nursing units. * Methods of determining the staffing pattern 1- The traditional system 1 – The number of beds per unit ( one ruse per 4-6 beds), or 2- The average census of patients per unit ( one nurse per 4 patients).

The distribution of nurses is based on the nurse manager’ opinion of the proportion of care that is needed on each shift and the adequate staff number to provide that care. Example: Days: 45% of the staff Evenings 35% of the staff Nights 20% of the staff The traditional system ignored that the group of patients might need more care than another group of the same number. 2-The Advanced System A- Patient classification. B- Task Quantification. Focuses on patient needs. Patients are grouped according to the acuity of their needs ND the degree of their dependency on nurses. The patients grouped according to their nursing needs into 3 or more groups: Group 1: Self care Group 2: Partial or intermediate care Group 3: Intensive or total care Task quantification system Focuses on nursing tasks. To be performed.

Common nursing tasks are either direct nursing care ( in the presence of the patient as in giving medication, measuring vital sign) or indirect nursing care ( away from the patients as in preparing medication , documentation in patients’ files, giving instructions or educative session) * Factors affecting staffing pattern determination Nursing organization factors: I-patient care objectives. 2-Determined level of patient care. 3-Assignment system. Patient factors 1- Acuity and general health status 2-Length of stay 3-Patient number. 4-Age group (pediatrics or adult) Staff factors 1 -Educational level of the nurses. 2-Experience level of the nurses. 3-Staff number. 4-Job description of each category of nurses. Health organization factors 1 -Budget available. 2-Personnel policies regarding work time. 3-Support services with the organization. 4-Number of beds. 5-Architecture design of the units. * The staffing plan Methods of determining the staffing plan

Using calendar days Divide the number of days in a year by the number of days actually worker per nurse per year. Nurses are not working the 364 days of the year , but actually working 272 days only in a year, because the rest 92 days are considered as follows: – Number of days off (1 day off per week) 52 days. – Number of vacation days 20 days. – Number of ill days ( hose. Policy) days. – 92 days 10 days. – Number of holidays 10 * Total actual work days = 364-92=272 days * Number of nurses needed to fill one position of staff nurse= Number of days in year Number of actually worked days * 364/ 272= 1. 3 nurses that means you will need 1. 33 nurse to fill one position.

Then calculate the total number needed for staffing pattern for all units. A system of shift differential is established to compensate for hours worked in evening and night (30% more salary). The same compensation applies to work during holidays. * Staffing Process * Manpower * Recruitment * Selection * Orientation and Placement * Performance Evaluation * Promotion and transfer * Manpower Planning Manpower planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and the kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives”. Features of manpower planning : * To ensure right people at right place at right time. * To ensure future needs of manpower in the light of organizational planning and structure. * Making the current manpower inventory suitable for future managerial positions * Importance of manpower planning Key to managerial functions- The four managerial functions, I. E. , planning, organizing, directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. Therefore, staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions. ; Efficient utilization- Efficient management of personnel becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today.

Setting of large scale enterprises requires management of large scale manpower. It can be effectively done through staffing function. ; Motivation- Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right Job, but it also comprises of motivational programmed, I. E. , incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. Therefore, all types of incentive plans come an integral part of staffing function. ; Better human relations- A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop and are strong. Human relations become strong trough effective control, clear communication, effective supervision and leadership in a concern.

Staffing function also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-operation and better human relations. ; Higher productivity- Productivity level increases when resources are utilized in best possible manner. Higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time, money, efforts and energies. This is possible through the staffing and it’s related activities ( Performance appraisal, training and development, remuneration) * Job analysis “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific Job. The immediate products of this analysis are Job descriptions and Job specifications”. Uses of Job analysis * Organizational design (building internal relationships) * Acquisition of personnel (planning, recruitment, orientation) * Human resource development (career planning & training & development) * Job evaluation & insemination (determining relative worth of Job) * Performance appraisal (promotion, pay increase, training needs) * Safety & health (environmental & operational conditions) * Employee counseling (choice of careers and Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. * Selection : Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a Job. * Types of Recruitment 1.

Internal Recruitment- is a recruitment which takes place within the concern or organization. Internal sources of recruitment are readily available to an organization. A)Transfers b)Promotions c)Re-employment of ex-employees 2. External Recruitment- External sources of recruitment have to be solicited from outside the organization. But it involves lot of time and money. A)Employment at factory level b)Advertisement c)Employment exchanges d) Employment agencies e)Educational Institutions f)Recommendations )Labor contractors * Employee Selection Process Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right Job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people.

Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required Job, the organization will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required Job, organization will also save time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes lace during selection procedure. All the potential candidates who apply for the given Job are tested. But selection must be differentiated from recruitment, though these are two phases of employment process. Recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more of candidates to apply for the Job.

It creates a pool of applicants. It is Just sourcing of data. While selection is a negative process as the inappropriate candidates are rejected here. Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process. Selection involves choosing the best candidate with best abilities, kills and knowledge for the required Job. The Employee selection Process takes place in following order- 1 . Preliminary Interviews- It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria laid down by the organization. The skills, academic and family background, competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during the final interviews.

The candidates are given a brief up about the company and the job profile; and it is also examined how much the candidate knows about the company. Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews. 2. Application blanks- The candidates who clear the preliminary interview are required to fill application blank. It contains data record of the candidates such as details about age, qualifications, reason for leaving previous Job, experience, etc. 3. Written Tests- Various written tests conducted during selection procedure are aptitude test, intelligence test, reasoning test, personality test, etc. These tests are used to objectively assess the potential candidate. They should not be biased. 4.

Employment Interviews- It is a one to one interaction between the interviewer and the potential candidate. It is used to find whether the candidate is best suited for the required Job or not. But such interviews consume time and money both. Moreover the competencies of the candidate cannot be Judged. Such interviews may be biased at times. Such interviews should be conducted properly. No distractions should be there in room. There should be an honest communication between candidate and interviewer. 5. Medical examination- Medical tests are conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential employee. It will decrease chances of employee absenteeism. 6.

Appointment Letter- A reference check is made about the candidate selected and hen finally he is appointed by giving a formal appointment letter. * Placement and Orientation Once the candidates are selected for the required Job, they have to be fitted as per disqualifications. Placement is said to be the process of fitting the selected person at the right Job or place, I. E. Fitting square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Once he is fitted into the Job, he is given the activities he has to perform and also told about his duties. The freshly appointed candidates are then given orientation in order to familiarize and introduce the company to him.

Generally the information given during the orientation programmer includes- 0 Employee’s layout 0 Type of organizational structure 0 Departmental goals 0 Organizational layout 0 General rules and regulations 0 Standing Orders 0 Grievance system or procedure In short, during Orientation employees are made aware about the mission and vision of the organization, the nature of operation of the organization, policies and programmed of the organization. The main aim of conducting Orientation is to build up confidence, morale and trust of the employee in the new organization, so that he comes a productive and an efficient employee of the organization and contributes to the organizational success. The nature of Orientation program varies with the organizational size, I. E. Smaller the organization the more informal is the Orientation and larger the organization more formalized is the Orientation programmer. Proper Placement of employees will lower the chances of employee’s absenteeism. The employees will be more satisfied and contended with their work. * Training of Employees process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular Job. Training process moulds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. It is continuous and never ending in nature. * Importance of Training Training is crucial for organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers and employees of an organization.

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