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Management ch 14

A strategy for staying ahead in the workplace of tomorrow is to focus on developing very specialized skills.
Leadership is the ability to require employees to pursue organizational goals.
According to Kotter, leadership is about coping with change.
Leadership functions include planning, budgeting, organizing, and staffing.
Without good management, complex organizations tend to become chaotic.
One of the ways companies manage complexity is by aligning people.
Leaders try to achieve their vision by motivating and inspiring others.
Managers’ legitimate power allows them to hire, fire, reward, and punish.
One’s authority comes as part of one’s job.
Power that is directed at helping oneself is called self-serving power.
Many people at Duke Aficionados go to Ben rather than the IT department when they’re having computer problems; he is just so efficient and friendly about helping out and is extremely knowledgeable. Here, Ben has referent power.
Christine has a charismatic personality, which gives her personalized power.
Manager’s authority to punish their subordinates results in coercive power.
Referent power is more likely to be associated with leaders than with managers.
Studies among employees reveal that pressure tactics are most commonly used to influence others in the workplace.
Reminding someone of past favors or offering to trade favors as a method to influence him is known as using coalition tactics.
Inspirational appeals are considered a soft tactic among generic influence tactics.
Gaining commitment as a response to an influence tactic is most likely to occur when pressure tactics are used.
Physical fitness, one of the biophysical traits, is considered to be a key leadership trait.
Kouzes and Posner’s study found that honesty was a particularly important trait for a leader to be credible
According to a study, nearly twice as many men as women aspire to be CEO.
Studies show that female executives are better than male executives at motivating others.
A recent study shows that male executives are better than female executives at producing high-quality work.
Women executives believe that their exclusion from important informal networks is one of the biggest barriers to women’s promotion to senior leadership positions.
According to GLOBE research, a perfectionist leader is universally disliked.
The University of Michigan leadership model identified two leadership styles: job-centered and employee-centered.
According to the University of Michigan Leadership Model, a manager who pays more attention to making work groups cohesive than productivity numbers would be described as socially-centered.
In the Ohio State Leadership Model, consideration is leadership behavior that expresses concern for employees by establishing a warm, friendly, supportive climate.
Peter Drucker recommends using bold “I” language rather than “we” in the workplace to improve leadership effectiveness.
The path-goal leadership model is a contingency approach to leadership.
In the contingency leadership model, filling out the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire helps you to assess situational control.
In the contingency leadership model, the most important component of situational control is leader-member relations.
In the contingency leadership model, a person’s leadership orientation is measured on a questionnaire called the most preferred leader scale.
According to Fiedler’s model, a task orientation will be more effective than a relationship one in a high- or low-control situation, but the relationship orientation is best in a moderate-control situation
In the path-goal leadership model, the successful leader helps followers by tying meaningful rewards to goal accomplishment.
Leader behaviors are one of the contingency factors in the path-goal leadership model.
According to path-goal theory, effective leaders possess and use more than one style of leadership.
According to the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory, a manager should be flexible in choosing a leadership behavior style and sensitive to the readiness level of employees
According to situational leadership theory, readiness is the extent to which a manager possesses an ability to provide direction and support to followers.
According to situational leadership theory, managers should use the highest levels of supportive, relationship behaviors when the readiness of followers is very low.
The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model is not strongly supported by scientific research.
A leader who focuses on clarifying employees’ roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance is called a transformational leader.
The best type of leader for a rapidly changing situation is a transactional one.
Adaptive, flexible organizational cultures are more likely to foster transformational leadership than bureaucratic ones.
Providing individualized consideration to subordinates is one of the key kinds of behaviors exhibited by transformational leaders
Charisma is a form of interpersonal attraction that inspires acceptance and support.
Apple’s Steve Jobs is a transactional leader.
Employees at any level can be trained to be more transactional, but transformational leadership is possible only among top managers.
Lack of honesty and trust can hurt transformational leaders because they lose credibility
The leader-member exchange model presupposes stable and uniform relationships between leaders and followers.
In leader-member exchange, an out-group exchange is characterized by mutual trust, respect, and a sense of common fates.
Shared leadership is a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading.
A shared leader focuses on providing increased service to others rather than to him or herself.
An ability to foresee future outcomes is a noted characteristic of a servant leader.
Use of positional authority to influence others is a key characteristic of a servant leader.
Leadership which occurs through the use of information technology is known as e-leadership.
Harvard professor D. Quinn Mills predicts that management will move away from an emphasis on competition to a strategy based on knowledge sharing.
For e-leadership, it is essential to use latest communication technology like blogs and, web and videoconferencing.
Which of the following is NOT advice from career coach Richard Knowdell for staying ahead in the workplace of tomorrow?
A. Develop new and diverse capacities
B. Anticipate, adapt to and embrace change
C. Focus on workplace learning rather than the classroom
D. When considering a job or industry, don’t rely on reputation
E. Develop your communication skills
Leadership is the ability to ______ employees to pursue organizational goals.
A. force
B. reward
C. request
D. influence
E. compensate
_______ is about coping with complexity and ______ is about coping with change.
A. Middle management; top management
B. Management; leadership
C. Attitude; perception
D. Leadership; management
E. Perception; attitude
According to Kotter, management and leadership are considered to be
A. opposing forces.
B. causal; here, management causes leadership.
C. equivalent to one another.
D. almost entirely unrelated.
E. complementary to each other.
According to Kotter, companies manage complexity in which of the following ways?
A. Organizing resources
B. Motivating people
C. Lobbying the government
D. Innovating new products
E. Setting a direction
Of the following, which is the best way for leaders to cope with change?
A. Problem-solving
B. Lobbying the government
C. Aligning people
D. Virtual planning
E. Watching current trends
According to Frederick Smith, chairman and CEO of FedEx, the primary task of leadership is to
A. ensure progressive control and problem solving.
B. align resources within the organization.
C. inspire trust among all levels of employees.
D. communicate the vision and values of an organization.
E. oversee the success of an organization.
The power that managers have resulting from their formal positions within organizations is called ______ power.
A. referent
B. legitimate
C. reward
D. coercive
E. expert
April congratulated her staff when the team received an industry award for their project, and also sent a company-wide email announcing it. Here, April is using her ______ power.
A. personalized
B. referent
C. coercive
D. expert
E. reward
______ power results from one’s specialized information.
A. Legitimate
B. Referent
C. Expert
D. Reward
E. Coercive
Trey was put on probation for a string of customer complaints about his service and professionalism. His supervisor was using ______ power.
A. coercive
B. personalized
C. referent
D. reward
E. expert
Power deriving from one’s personal attraction is called ______ power.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. reward
D. coercive
E. personalized
Emily is outgoing, warm and truly inspirational when she talks about where she wants to lead her division. Her employees seem eager to do anything she asks. Emily has ______ power.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. reward
D. coercive
E. expert
In recent studies, the generic influence tactic that employees cite as most used in the workplace is
A. legitimating.
B. ingratiation.
C. coalition.
D. rational persuasion.
E. pressure.
The three least used influence tactics, according to a recent survey of employees, are
A. legitimating, coalition tactics, and pressure tactics.
B. inspirational appeals, rational persuasion, and consultation.
C. rational persuasion, pressure tactics, and exchange.
D. rational persuasion, coalition tactics, and upward appeals.
E. inspirational appeals, coalition tactics, and pressure tactics.
The influence tactic most likely to result in the enthusiastic commitment of employees is
A. legitimating tactics.
B. consultation.
C. ingratiating tactics.
D. coalition tactics.
E. personal appeals.
Acting humble or friendly or making someone feel good or important before making a request are influence tactics known as
A. coalition tactics.
B. inspirational appeals.
C. consultation.
D. ingratiating tactics.
E. personal appeals.
Brent brought his proposal to Allison even before the meeting saying, “I’m sure you have some ideas on this and we could try to get them incorporated upfront.” Brent is using which influence tactic?
A. Legitimating tactics.
B. Inspirational appeals.
C. Ingratiating tactics.
D. Personal appeals.
E. Consultation.
Using threats or intimidation to persuade someone is which influence tactic?
A. Legitimating
B. Ingratiating
C. Pressure
D. Exchange
E. Personal appeals
When Melinda saw Carrie stuffing her purse with expensive printer cartridges, Carrie was quick to say, “We’ve been friends since first grade, so I’m sure you won’t say anything about this.” This is an example of using a(n)
A. personal appeal.
B. legitimating tactic.
C. pressure tactic.
D. coalition tactic.
E. exchange tactic.
The ______ approach to leadership attempts to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders.
A. attribute
B. trait
C. behavior
D. quality
E. contingency
Organizations may apply trait theory by
A. considering the relationships among employees.
B. using management development programs.
C. hiring only from top-ranked business schools.
D. doing a job audit.
E. empowering the HR department.
Which of the following is one of the traits of a credible leader identified by Kouzes and Posner?
A. Honest
B. Relationship-oriented
C. Competitive
D. Extroverted
E. Driven
According to a BusinessWeek summary of management studies, men score better than women do on
A. fostering communication.
B. producing high-quality work.
C. strategic planning.
D. motivating others.
E. listening to others.
______ studies reveal that visionary and inspirational charismatic leaders who are good team builders generally are most effective worldwide.
A. Servant leader
B. E-leadership
C. Contingency model
D. GLOBE project
E. Full-range approach
The ______ leadership approaches attempt to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders.
A. behavioral
B. servant
C. shared
D. trait
E. contingency
Which of the following is a behavioral leadership approach?
A. Servant leadership model
B. University of Michigan leadership model
C. Path-goal leadership model
D. Transformational leadership
E. Leader-member exchange model
In the University of Michigan studies, leadership style is identified as
A. job-centered or employee-centered.
B. transactional or transformational.
C. initiating structure or consideration.
D. task-oriented or relationship-oriented.
E. telling, selling, participating, or delegating
Erdem manages his employees through a careful monitoring of their production, comparing what they do to predicted schedules and desired budgets. Erdem can best be described as a(n) ______ leader.
A. production-oriented
B. charismatic
C. job-centered
D. transformational
E. employee-centered
The model that identifies leadership behavior as either “initiating structure” or “consideration” is the ______ model.
A. leader-member exchange
B. path-goal leadership
C. University of Michigan leadership
D. University of Ohio leadership
E. situational leadership
Bonita apologized to one of her subordinates for an email that upset him. She told him she may have chosen an unfortunate way of stating her idea, and that she’d be happy to talk it through with him. Bonita is
A. using a personal appeal.
B. initiating structure.
C. practicing shared leadership.
D. exercising personalized power.
E. expressing consideration behavior.
From the University of Michigan and Ohio State studies, one management expert concluded that effective leaders tend to do all of the following EXCEPT which?
A. Change leadership styles according to the situation
B. Have supportive relationships with employees
C. Use group rather than individual methods of supervision
D. Set high performance goals
E. Have an employee-centered leadership style
The approach to leadership that suggests that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand is the ______ approach.
A. trait
B. transformational
C. circumstantial
D. behavioral
E. contingency
Which of the following is a contingency approach to leadership?
A. Michigan model
B. Path-goal leadership model
C. Servant leadership model
D. Ohio State model
E. Leader-member exchange model
Fiedler’s contingency leadership model determines if a leader’s style is
A. transactional or transformational.
B. directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented.
C. task-oriented or relationship-oriented.
D. telling, selling, participating, or delegating.
E. charismatic or non-charismatic.
The amount of influence a leader has in his immediate work environment is called his
A. coercive power.
B. leadership style.
C. readiness.
D. situational control.
E. task structure.
The model that requires a manager to assess her own style and her situational control is
A. Fiedler’s contingency model.
B. shared leadership model.
C. Hersey-Blanchard’s situational leadership model.
D. House’s path-goal theory.
E. charismatic leadership theory.
The questionnaire used in Fiedler’s model to determine leadership orientation is called the
A. Myers-Briggs type inventory.
B. least preferred coworker scale.
C. tolerance of ambiguity questionnaire.
D. Type A behavior scale.
E. path-goal survey.
Jay’s peers were surprised when he received a promotion and suddenly became their supervisor. They thought he was rather unreliable and weren’t sure he was up to the task. According to the contingency model, Jay has
A. poor leader-member relations.
B. weak position power.
C. poor worker facilitation.
D. low task structure.
E. unsuccessful leadership adaptation.
One of three dimensions of situational control in the contingency leadership model, ______ is the extent to which tasks are routine, unambiguous, and easily understood.
A. job mastery
B. task identity
C. position power
D. job design
E. task structure
Liz is trying to lead a cross-functional team, but she is having some issues. Most members were other department managers at her level, and they saw no reason to do what she told them to. Here, Liz has
A. low tolerance for ambiguity.
B. high task structure.
C. weak referent power.
D. poor leader-member relations.
E. weak position power.
According to the contingency model, a relationship-oriented leadership style works best in ______ situations.
A. low control
B. high control
C. moderate control
D. uncontrolled
E. both high and low control

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