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Management Chapter 5

The career path that most resembles the traditional view of climbing the stairs in a corporate hierarchy is called the linear career
True
A steady-state career entails a slow-but-steady growth in level of responsibility and compensation
False

(The steady-state career is almost the opposite of a linear career: You discover early in life that you’re comfortable with a certain occupation and you stay with it. Or you accept a promotion for a while, decide you don’t like the responsibility, and take a step down)

A spiral career path depends on having jobs that, while fundamentally different, build on one another
True

(The spiral career is, like the linear career, upwardly mobile. However, on this career path, you would have a number of jobs that are fundamentally different yet still build on one another, giving you more general experience and the skills to advance in rank and status)

A transitory career path involves a series of alternating promotions and demotions
False

(If you favor the transitory career path, you’re the kind of person who doesn’t want the responsibility that comes with promotion. You’re a free spirit who likes the variety of experience that comes
with continually shifting sideways from job to job or place to place (or you’re afraid of making the commitment to doing any one thing)

Planning helps managers to cope with events that can be predicted but is not particularly helpful when conditions are uncertain
False

(Planning is coping with uncertainty by formulating future courses of action to achieve specified results)

Planning occurs only at the highest levels of an organization, being done by top managers
False

(Planning covers not only strategic planning done by top managers but also tactical planning done by middle managers and operational planning done by first-line managers)

Planning and strategic management derive from an organization’s mission and vision about itself
True
In this time of Internet connections and speedy-access computer databases, one typically has complete information for planning and decision making
False

(Despite modern technology, many occurrences prevent complete gathering of facts. Often you may have to “go with what you’ve got” and make a decision based on a plan that is perhaps only three- quarters complete)

Planning gives you expectations against which you can compare your performance
True
According to Miles and Snow’s basic strategy types, a defender protects its strong position in an industry by constantly seeking new opportunities for growth
False

(Defenders are expert at producing and selling narrowly defined products or services. They do not tend to seek opportunities outside their present markets. They devote most of their attention to making refinements in their existing operations, such as slashing prices)

Facebook strives to be on the cutting edge of social media and is experiencing phenomenal growth. It encourages what it calls a “hacker” mindset, always looking to break down the old in favor of something better. Of Miles and Snow’s basic strategy types, Facebook would be described as a prospector.
True

(Prospectors are aggressive companies focused on developing new products or services and in seeking out new markets, rather than waiting for things to happen)

Microsoft has been accused of adapting competitors’ products after those firms spent the resources and took the risks to develop them. Companies with this strategy are known as analyzers by Miles and Snow.
True

(Analyzers let other organizations take the risks of product development and marketing and then imitate what seems to work best. For years, Microsoft has been accused of taking this approach)

Blockbuster Video was slow to adapt to the latest trends in its industry, such as DVD-by-mail and movie downloads online. When it tried to incorporate the same into its business model, it was well behind competitors like Netflix. Blockbuster might be defined as a defender, according to Miles and Snow.
False

(The Reactor is passive and reactive, making adjustments only when finally forced to by environmental pressures. In the worst cases, they are so incapable of responding fast enough that they suffer massive sales losses and are even driven out of business)

Eastman Kodak, though it actually invented the digital camera, was slow to move into the production of this product as well as digital printers. Its continued reliance on traditional 35mm film production and processing, which resulted in its bankruptcy, makes it a reactor according to Miles and Snow.
True
The process of a business cycling through decisions first to select products and markets, then about producing and delivering the products, and finally to establish roles and processes is known as the discovery cycle
False

(The adaptive cycle portrays businesses as continuously cycling through decisions about three kinds of business problems: (1) entrepreneurial (selecting and making adjustments of products and markets), (2) engineering (producing and delivering the products), and (3) administrative (establishing roles, relationships, and organizational processes)

The administrative part of the adaptive cycle focuses on establishing roles and organizational processes.
True
In an organization’s approach to planning, its mission and vision statements should be created once the strategic planning process is complete
False

(An organization should express its mission and vision, and from these are derived the strategic plans)

Determining an organization’s mission is the responsibility of top management and the board of directors.
True
A vision has a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get there
True

(A vision is a long-term goal describing “what” an organization wants to become. It is a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get there)

A mission statement expresses what the organization should become and where it wants to go strategically
False

(An organization’s mission statement identifies the goods or services it provides and will provide. A vision statement expresses what the organization should become, where it wants to go strategically)

Amazon’s statement in which it states its desire “to be the earth’s most customer-centric company; to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online” is a mission statement.
False

(Vision statements answer the question, “What do we want to become?” or “Where do we want to go?” Here is Amazon’s statement: “Our vision is to be earth’s most customer-centric company; to build a place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online)

Strategic planning determines goals for an organization for a period of 1-5 years
True

(Using their mission and vision statements, top managers do strategic planning. They determine what the organization’s long-term goals should be for the next 1-5 years with the resources they expect to have available)

Tactical planning is done by first-line managers, who look forward to the next 1-8 weeks
False

(Tactical planning is determining what contributions middle managers and their departments or similar work units can make with their given resources during the next 6-24 month)

Operational planning is normally performed by middle management
False

(Strategic priorities and policies are passed down to middle managers, who must do tactical planning. Operational planning is done by first-line managers)

Decisions that are predictable, following a well-defined set of procedures, are typical of operational planning
True

(operational planning helps to direct daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel, and decisions are often predictable, following a well-defined set of routine procedures)

As part of the planning process, businesses set what are known as targets, which are specific commitments to achieve measurable results within a stated period of time
False

(A goal, also known as an objective, is a specific commitment to achieve a measurable result within a stated period of time)

An organization’s goals arranged in a hierarchy from low level to high level can be termed a means-end chain.
True

(Goals are arranged in a hierarchy known as a means-end chain because, in the chain of management, the accomplishment of low-level goals is the means leading to the accomplishment of high-level goals or ends)

Strategic goals focus on objectives for the organization as a whole.
True
Operational goals are set by middle managers and focus on the actions needed to achieve strategic goals
False

(Tactical goals are set by and for middle managers and focus on the actions needed to achieve strategic goals)

The operating plan defines the course of action needed to achieve a stated goal
False

(The goal should be followed by an action plan, which defines the course of action needed to achieve the stated goal, such as a marketing plan or sales plan. The operating plan, which is typically designed for a 1-year period, defines how you will conduct your business based on the action plan; it identifies clear targets such as revenues, cash flow, and market share)

A marketing plan is an example of an action plan
True
(A goal should be followed by an action plan, which defines the course of action needed to achieve the stated goal, such as a marketing plan or sales plan)
The operating plan identifies clear targets such as revenues and cash flow.
True

(The operating plan, which is typically designed for a 1-year period, defines how you will conduct your business based on the action plan; it identifies clear targets such as revenues, cash flow, and market share)

Southwest Airlines’ goal of being highly profitable is a tactical goal.
False

(The strategic goal of top managers of Dallas-based Southwest Airlines is to ensure that the airline is highly profitable, following the general strategy of (a) keeping costs and fares down, (b) offering a superior on-time arrival record, and (c) keeping customers happy)

Southwest Airlines’ goal of making arrival times more reliable is a tactical goal
True
Policies, procedures, and rules are types of single-use plans
False

(Standing plans consist of policies, procedures, and rules)

A policy includes more specifics than does a rule
False

(A rule is a standing plan that designates specific required action. A policy is a standing plan that outlines the general response to a designated problem or situation with few specifics)

A procedure is a standing plan that outlines the response to particular problems or circumstances
True
In single-use plans, a program is another name for a project.
False

(Single-use plans can be programs or projects. A program is a single-use plan encompassing a range of projects or activities. A project is a single-use plan of less scope and complexity than a program)

The U.S. government space program is an example of a single-use plan
True

(A program is a single-use plan encompassing a range of projects or activities. Example: The U.S. government space program had several projects, including the space shuttle project and the Hubble Telescope project)

SMART is an acronym that represents characteristics necessary to motivate employees in their periodic reviews
False

(The five characteristics of a good goal are represented by the acronym SMART. A SMART goal is one that is Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-oriented, and has Target dates)

The “R” in a SMART goal stands for “reachable”
False

(The “R” in a SMART goal stands for results-oriented)

A bike messenger company that operates in the downtown area of a large city recently set the following goal: “All deliveries should be completed as quickly as possible.” This example meets the criteria for a SMART goal.
False

(this example is not measurable)

SMART goals that are challenging yet can be met within the available scope of time, equipment, and financial support are known as attainable, the “A” in SMART
True
Because it is unrealistic for SMART goals to be accomplished overnight, they should have target dates
True

(Goals should specify the target dates or deadline dates when they are to be attained. For example, it’s unrealistic to expect an airline to improve its on-time arrivals by 10% overnight. However, you could set a target date, say 3 to 6 months away, by which this goal is to be achieved)

MBO was developed by Frederick Taylor as part of scientific management
False

(First suggested by Peter Drucker in 1954, MBO has spread largely because of the appeal of its emphasis on converting general objectives into specific ones for all members of an organization)

The first step in an MBO program is for the manager to set objectives for her subordinate
False

(In the first step of MBO, you sit down with your manager and the two of you jointly set objectives for you to attain. It’s necessary to have back-and-forth negotiation to make the objectives practicable)

The purpose of MBO is to motivate subordinates
True

(The purpose of MBO is to motivate rather than control subordinates)

Perpetuation objectives are one type of objective used in MBO
False

(There are three types of objectives in MBO: improvement objectives, personal development objectives, and maintenance objectives)

In MBO, objectives that employees fail to meet should be put aside for the next period in favor of ones that they can achieve
False

(Failure to meet MBO objectives can be addressed by redefining the objectives for the next 6- or 12- month period, or even by taking stronger measures, such as demotion)

In order for MBO to be successful, it must be implemented throughout the entire organization
True
Organizationwide, the best structure for objectives in MBO is known as a diversity pattern
False

(MBO works by cascading objectives down through the organization; that is, objectives are structured in a unified hierarchy, becoming more specific at lower levels of the organization. Top managers set general organizational objectives, which are translated into divisional objectives, which are translated into departmental objectives. The hierarchy ends in individual objectives set by each employee)

Deadlines can help one concentrate the mind, in order to make decisions rather than put them off
True
In the planning/control cycle, part of the control process can be to improve future plans
True

(In the planning/control cycle, controlling the direction of planning can be accomplished by taking corrective action in two ways: by correcting deviations in the plan being carried out, or by improving future plans)

The planning/control cycle has three planning steps and three control steps
False

(The planning/control cycle has two planning steps and two control steps)

In the planning/control cycle, comparing the results with the plan is one of the control steps
True

(the two control steps are (1) control the direction by comparing the results with the plan; and (2) control the direction by correcting deviations or improving future plans)

In the planning/control cycle, carrying out the plan is one of the control steps
False

(the two planning steps are (1) make the plan, and (2) carry out the plan)

A career that is upwardly mobile, with a number of jobs that are fundamentally different yet still build on one another is known as a(n) ______ career.
A. steady-state
B. portfolio
C. spiral
D. inclining E. linear
C
If you are happiest being a “hands-on” professional rather than becoming a manager, you may prefer a(n) ______ career.
A. steady-state
B. portfolio
C. spiral
D. inclining
E. linear
A
Planning is defined as
A. formulating a method to allocate resources effectively.
B. motivating employees.
C. coping with obstacles to past performance.
D. setting goals and deciding how to achieve them.
E. implementing strategic goals.
D
During which managerial function do you make a blueprint for action that describes what you need to do to realize your goals?
A. Organizing
B. Leading
C. Controlling
D. Defining
E. Planning
E
Which of the following is one of the challenges of planning?
A. Assigning the right people to tasks.
B. Determining the correct budget.
C. Measuring results with accuracy.
D. Finding the time to plan.
E. Motivating employees.
D

(Planning requires you to set aside time to do it, and it will require your time and some of your subordinates)

If you do not have all of the information for a complete plan, you should
A. make decisions based on what you have, since perfect information is rare.
B. wait until you can get that information to take action you know will be appropriate.
C. implement two or more courses of action simultaneously.
D. shrink the plan to limit its scope to only areas where you have good information.
E. disregard the plan and go with your intuition.
A

(A plan need not be perfect to be executable. While you shouldn’t shoot from the hip in making decisions, often you may have to “go with what you’ve got” and make a decision based on a plan that is perhaps only three-quarters complete)

Which of the following is a benefit of planning?
A. Planning allows you to spend little time preparing for the future.
B. Planning allows you to make all decisions without consulting superiors.
C. Planning helps you compare your results to your competitors’.
D. Planning helps the company to be spontaneous.
E. Planning helps you cope with uncertainty.
E

(There are four benefits to planning: (1) planning helps you check on your progress. (2) Planning helps you coordinate activities. (3) Planning helps you think ahead. (4) Planning helps you cope with uncertainty)

Which of the following is one of the organizational responses organizations make when confronted with uncertainty, as identified by Miles and Snow?
A. Aggressor
B. Investigator
C. Reactor
D. Planner
E. Leader
C
A company that is an expert at producing and selling narrowly defined products or services, and which does not tend to seek opportunities outside its present market is known by Miles and Snow as a(n)
A. defender.
B. analyzer.
C. adaptor.
D. prospector.
E. reactor.
A
When a firm responds to uncertainty in its environment as a(n) ________, its continual pursuit of product and market innovation may lead to a loss of efficiency, but is likely to make competitors nervous.
A. reactor
B. analyzer
C. defender
D. prospector
E. executor
D
In the current broadband environment, consumers are able to download products like music, movies, and books. Netflix was aggressive in taking advantage of this fact, offering web streaming and game console access to its customers before competitors. According to Miles and Snow, Netflix would be a(n)
A. reactor.
B. prospector.
C. analyzer.
D. defender.
E. executor.
B
A company producing cameras and video cameras prefers to focus its resources on a fast imitation program to reverse-engineer new features from competitors and add those, rather than implementing truly inventive features. Miles and Snow would call this company a(n)
A. reactor.
B. prospector.
C. analyzer.
D. defender.
E. imitator
C
The adaptive cycle portrays businesses as continuously cycling through three kinds of business decisions: entrepreneurial, ______, and administrative.
A. leadership
B. alignment
C. organization
D. production
E. engineering
E
If a business lacks insight or fails to use the adaptive cycle properly, it is likely to be which of the following?
A. A prospector
B. An analyzer
C. A defender
D. A reactor
E. An imitator
D
Which of the following is the correct order of planning steps within an organization?
A. Strategic planning, mission statement & vision statement, operational planning, tactical planning
B. Strategic planning, mission statement & vision statement, tactical planning, operational planning
C. Strategic planning, operational planning, mission statement & vision statement, tactical planning
D. Mission statement & vision statement, strategic planning, tactical planning, operational planning
E. Mission statement & vision statement, strategic planning, operational planning, tactical planning
D
Which of the following comes LAST when an organization makes a plan?
A. operational planning
B. mission statement
C. strategic planning
D. tactical planning
E. vision statement
A
The statement which expresses the purpose of an organization is called a(n)
A. goal statement.
B. rationale statement.
C. vision statement.
D. intention statement.
E. mission statement.
E

(A mission statement expresses the purpose of the organization. Whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit, the mission statement identifies the goods or services the organization provides and will provide. Sometimes it also gives the reasons for providing them)

Hilton Hotel’s statement expressing its purpose as “to fill the earth with the light and warmth of hospitality” is a(n)
A. vision statement.
B. intention statement.
C. goal statement.
D. mission statement.
E. rationale statement.
D

(A mission statement expresses the purpose of the organization. Whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit, the mission statement identifies the goods or services the organization provides and will provide. Sometimes it also gives the reasons for providing them)

McKesson Corp., a U.S. pharmaceutical distributor, has a(n) ________ statement, which is “to provide comprehensive pharmacy solutions that improve productivity, profitability and result in superior patient care and satisfaction.”
A. purpose
B. vision
C. intention
D. goal
E. mission
E

(A mission statement expresses the purpose of the organization. Whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit, the mission statement identifies the goods or services the organization provides and will provide. Sometimes it also gives the reasons for providing them)

Avon, the world’s leading direct seller of beauty products, has a(n) ________ statement, which is “to be the company that best understands and satisfies the product, service, and self-fulfillment needs of women globally.”
A. vision
B. intention
C. goal
D. mission
E. rationale
A
There are three levels of planning. Their order, from first to last, is
A. operational, tactical, and strategic.
B. strategic, operational, and tactical.
C. tactical, operational, and strategic.
D. tactical, strategic, and operational.
E. strategic, tactical, and operational.
E
At which level of planning must managers be paying attention to the environment outside the organization, be future oriented, and deal with uncertain and competitive conditions?
A. tactical
B. organizational
C. strategic
D. front-line
E. operational
C
Because of the frequency with which world competition and information technology alter marketplace conditions, a company’s ________ may have to be done closer to every 1 or 2 years than every 5.
A. management planning
B. strategic planning
C. tactical planning
D. operational planning
E. implementation planning
B
Which level of management is most often engaged in tactical planning?
A. Working-level employees
B. First-line managers
C. Middle managers
D. Top managers
E. Consultants
C
What is the time frame of an operational plan?
A. 2-10 years
B. 1-5 years
C. 6-24 months
D. 1-52 weeks
E. 1-90 days
D
Alita is participating with other division heads in a discussion about new international competition for the firm and what the organization’s goals should be for the next three years. She is participating in
A. tactical planning.
B. strategic planning.
C. operational planning.
D. controlling.
E. writing a mission statement.
B
Executive management has recently decided to acquire a small company with a complementary product line, so Craig, a marketing manager, is meeting with other managers to discuss how to implement policies to support the acquisition over the next year. He is participating in
A. mission development.
B. strategic planning.
C. controlling.
D. operational planning.
E. tactical planning.
E
Portia is meeting with her subordinates to determine which workers from her department need training in order to handle production increases expected during the next nine months. Portia is involved in
A. vision development.
B. operational planning.
C. controlling.
D. tactical planning.
E. developing an MBO.
B
Which of the following is associated with operational planning?
A. Determining the overall direction of the organization.
B. Examining the environment outside of the organization.
C. Implementing policies and plans of top management.
D. Directing daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel.
E. Making decisions under highly uncertain conditions.
D
Which of the following best represents the strategic planning time frame that Jeff Bezos of Amazon prefers?
A. Six months or less
B. One to two years
C. Three to five years
D. Five to seven years
E. Ten to twenty years
E
________ goals are set by and for middle managers and focus on the actions needed to achieve ________ goals.
A. Strategic; operational
B. Tactical; strategic
C. Strategic; tactical
D. Tactical; operational
E. Operational; tactical
B
Cimarron Saddlery expects to improve profitability of the organization by 15% over the next three years. This is an example of a(n)
A. supervision objective.
B. operational goal.
C. tactical goal.
D. maintenance objective.
E. strategic goal.
E
Managers at Cimarron Saddlery expect to meet profitability goals for the company by cutting costs through a 70% increase in global sourcing of leather and other materials over the next two years. This is an example of a(n)
A. supervision objective.
B. operational goal.
C. tactical goal.
D. maintenance objective.
E. strategic goal.
E
After setting goals, managers should next
A. prepare an action plan for accomplishing the goals.
B. propose changes to the goals of same-level managers to bring all into alignment.
C. supervise subordinates closely.
D. report failure to meet goals to superiors.
E. begin the planning process anew
A
Southwest Airlines acquisition of rival AirTran Airways may have been responsible for a sharp decline in on-time arrivals, which is one of Southwest’s ________ goals, supporting a larger goal of being highly profitable.
A. dependant
B. strategic
C. operational
D. facilities
E. tactical
E
One type of standing plan, the __________, outlines the general response to a designated problem or situation.
A. policy
B. project
C. rule
D. procedure
E. program
A

(A policy is a standing plan that outlines the general response to a designated problem or situation)

When White Castle specifies exactly how to dress a hamburger, including the order of the condiments, this is called a
A. program.
B. policy.
C. rule.
D. procedure.
E. project.
D

(A procedure (or standard operating procedure) is a standing plan that outlines the response to particular problems or circumstances. Example: White Castle specifies exactly how a hamburger should be dressed, including the order in which the mustard, ketchup, and pickles are applied)

Dayton Construction has a ________ for processing invoices, which includes coding them by job number and construction phase, and matching them with the correct purchase order.
A. program.
B. policy.
C. rule.
D. procedure.
E. project.
D
Management instituted a new ______ in Yichao’s workplace that “employees who are more than 15 minutes late to work without calling a supervisor will be given a written warning.”
A. policy
B. rule
C. procedure
D. project
E. program
B
A single-use plan encompassing a range of projects or activities is a(n)
A. program.
B. strategy.
C. series.
D. agenda.
E. mission.
A
NASA’s Curiosity Rover, employed to investigate a large crater on Mars, is an example of a
A. policy.
B. rule.
C. project.
D. procedure.
E. program.
C
A SMART goal is one that is
A. specific, maintainable, affordable, realistic, and timely.
B. specific, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and has target dates.
C. specific, maintainable, achievement-oriented, in real time, and timely.
D. specific, measurable, affordable, realistic, and has target dates.
E. specific, maintainable, aligned with other goals, realistic, and timely.
B
The goal to “improve the quality of customer service by instituting follow-up telephone calls this month” is not a SMART goal because it is
A. unlikely to align with higher level goals.
B. not measurable.
C. too simplistic.
D. not results oriented.
E. unlikely to result in improvement to customer service.
B
Kristi has been struggling with her weight, and one of her coworkers suggested that she make a SMART goal for herself. Which of the following is the best example of a SMART goal for Kristi?
A. I want to lose a lot of weight.
B. I want to look better in a swimsuit.
C. I want to lose 20 pounds over the course of one calendar year.
D. I want to start losing weight soon.
E. I want to lose 30% of my body mass by next month.
C
In terms of difficulty, the best goals are
A. just beyond what is achievable, to maximize motivation.
B. easy to attain, so failure will not hurt morale.
C. challenging but realistic.
D. impossible to really reach, because they are meant only to be idealistic and inspirational.
E. easy or hard, since both work equally well.
C
MBO stands for
A. Management by Observation.
B. Management by Objectives.
C. Management by Ownership.
D. Management by Obligation.
E. Management by Organization.
B
The first step in the MBO process is to
A. determine rewards for meeting goals.
B. give a performance appraisal.
C. develop an action plan.
D. periodically review performance.
E. jointly set objectives.
E

(Management by objectives (MBO) is a four-step process, the first of which is for managers and employees to jointly set objectives for the employee)

Sultan is a new manager, and he is using MBO for the first time with his subordinates. It is essential for Sultan to
A. decide on goals for employees and clearly inform them of these goals.
B. ask the employee to commit the goals to memory.
C. set goals that are just out of the subordinate’s reach.
D. reward employees when they meet objectives.
E. review an employee’s performance once, at the end of the performance period.
D

(Because the purpose of MBO is to motivate employees, performance that meets the objectives should
be rewarded with compliments, raises, bonuses, promotions, or other suitable benefits)

Which of the following would best describe MBO?
A. It works at the highest levels of an organization.
B. It works at the lowest levels of an organization.
C. Its purpose is to motivate employees.
D. Its purpose is to control employees.
E. It effectively benchmarks HR practices against competitors.
C
Which of the following is a type of objective for MBO?
A. Profitability
B. Personal development
C. Market share
D. Social responsibility
E. Ethics
B

(There are three types of objectives in MBO: improvement, personal development, and maintenance objectives)

Productivity gains from MBO are higher when an organization has
A. top-management commitment.
B. few budget problems.
C. team rather than individual performance reviews.
D. union support.
E. nonmanagerial employee support.
A
MBO works by cascading objectives down through the organization, and these objectives become more ______ at lower levels of the organization.
A. measurable
B. challenging
C. results-oriented
D. attainable
E. specific
E
_____ help you ignore extraneous matters in favor of focusing on what’s important, which is realizing the goals on time and on budget.
A. Deadlines
B. Relationships
C. Changes
D. Networks
E. Options
A
The constant feedback loop of the ______ is designed to ensure plans stay headed in the right direction.
A. means-end chain
B. planning/control cycle
C. control system
D. project management method
E. project planning sequence
B
Improving future plans is part of which step in the planning/control cycle?
A. Making the plan.
B. Carrying out the plan.
C. Benchmarking against competitors.
D. Controlling the direction.
E. Updating the plan.
D
Jordan, a sales manager, met with his staff to discuss that they were only a third of the way to their sales goal, but halfway through the sales period. He was looking for suggestions to improve second-half performance. Which part of the planning/control cycle is Jordan doing?
A. Benchmarking against competitors.
B. Controlling the direction.
C. Making the plan.
D. Carrying out the plan.
E. Updating the plan.
B
Megan met with her supervisor for a formal review of her job performance over the past year. Though Megan had agreed to complete five training modules during the course of the year, she only did two. At this stage, which part of the planning/control cycle would be applicable to her manager going forward?
A. Carry out the plan.
B. Improve feedback.
C. Correct deviations in the plan.
D. Benchmark against other employees.
E. Improve future plans.
E
Apple has a plan to generate buzz for its new products by maintaining secrecy about them. Apple has learned that strong measures are required to protect such mysteries, so it has enhanced its security and even fired and sued employees for leaking news about the products. These efforts would be considered which part of the planning/control cycle?
A. Making the plan.
B. Carrying out the plan.
C. Comparing results.
D. Taking corrective action.
E. Benchmarking competitors.
D

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