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Management Chapters 1-4

Getting work done through others
Management
Getting work done with minimum effort, expense, or waste
Efficiency
Accomplishing tasks that help fulfil organizational objectives
Effectiveness
Four Functions of Management
Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling
Planning
determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them
Organizing
deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom in the company
Leading
inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals
Controlling
monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when progress isn’t being made
Top Managers
Executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization
Chief executive officer (CEO)
Chief operating officer (COO)
Chief financial officer (CFO)
Chief information officer (CIO)
Middle Manager
-Setting objectives consistent with top management’s goals

-Planning and implementing subunit strategies for achieving the objectives

First-Line Managers
Train and supervise the performance of nonmanagerial employees who are responsible for producing a company’s goods and services

Responsibilities – Monitoring, teaching, and short-term planning

Team Leaders
Managers responsible for facilitating team activities toward goal accomplishment

Help team members:
Plan and schedule work
Learn to solve problems
Work effectively with each other

Monitor
Managers scan their environment for information
Figurehead
Managers perform ceremonial duties
Leader
Managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives
Liaison
Managers deal with people outside their units
Disseminator
Managers share the collected information with their subordinates and others in the company
Spokesperson
Managers share information with people outside their departments or companies
Entrepreneur
Managers adapt themselves, their subordinates, and their units to change
Disturbance handler
Managers respond to pressures and problems that demand immediate attention and action
Resource allocator
Managers decide who gets what resources and in what amounts
Negotiator
Managers negotiate schedules, projects, resources, and employee raises
Stanford University professor contends that what separates top-performing companies from their competitors is the way they treat their work forces-in other words their management.
Managers in top-performing companies develop workforces that a smarter, better, trained, more motivated, and more committed than their competitor’s workforces.
Employment security
Employees can innovate and increase the profitability of an organization without the fear of losing their job
Selective hiring
Companies need to hire the best talent due to the presence of employment security
Self-managed teams
Produce high productivity through increased employee commitment and creativity
Decentralization
Allows employees closest to problems, production, and clients to make timely decisions
Kinds of managers are
top, middle, first-line, and team leaders
Roles played by managers include
interpersonal, informational, and decisional
_______ are essential for managers
Technical, human, and conceptual skills
External Environments
The forces and events outside a company that have the potential to influence or affect it.
Environmental change
Rate at which a company’s general and specific environments change
Stable environment
Rate of change is slow
Dynamic environment
Rate of change is fast
Punctuated equilibrium theory
Companies go through long periods of stability, followed by short periods of dynamic, fundamental change, and then a new equilibrium
Environmental complexity
Number and intensity of external factors in the environment that affect organizations
Simple environment
Includes few factors
Leaders must be able to manage:
Environmental change
Environmental complexity
Resource scarcity
Uncertainty
Complex environment
Includes many factors
Resource scarcity
Abundance or shortage of critical organizational resources in an external environment
The extent to which managers can predict which external changes and trends will affect their businesses
Environmental change+environmental complexity+resource scarcity=
environmental uncertainty
Growing economy have more money to spend
Shrinking economy have less money to spend
Business confidence indices
Show managers’ level of confidence about future business growth
Technology
Knowledge, tools, and techniques used to transform inputs into outputs
Sociocultural
Includes demographic characteristics, general behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of people in a particular society

Changes in demographic characteristics affect how companies staff their businesses

Changes in behavior, attitudes, and beliefs affect the demand for a business’s products and services

Women hold 14.7% of board seats at Fortune 500 companies; women of color hold 3.4%.
For each $1 earned by men, women earn 81 cents;

Hispanics are 14.9% of the workforce and hold 5% of managerial jobs.

Women are 52% of the U.S. workforce and hold 50.3% of managerial jobs.

African-Americans are 11.1% of the workforce and hold 5.4% of managerial jobs.

African-American women earn 64 cents; Hispanic women earn 52 cents.

Competitors
Companies in the same industry that sell similar products or services to customers
Suppliers
Companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies
Industry Regulation
Regulations and rules that govern the business practices and procedures
Advocacy Group
Concerned citizens that band together to try to influence business practices
Reactive customer monitoring
Identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur
Proactive customer monitoring
Identifying and addressing customer needs, trends, and issues before they occur
Competitors
companies in the same industry that sell similar products or services
Competitive analysis
a process of monitoring the competition that involves identifying competition, anticipating their moves, and determining their strengths and weaknesses
Suppliers
companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies
Regulations and rules that govern the practices and procedures of specific industries, businesses, and professions
Ex. CAFÉ standards
Advocacy Groups
Public communication
Media advocacy
Product boycott
Three-step process employed by managers
Environmental scanning:
Searching the environment for important events or issues that might affect an organization
Managers scan the environment to reduce uncertainty.
Organizational strategies affect environmental scanning.
Environmental scanning contributes to organizational performance.
Threat
managers typically take steps to protect the company from further harm
Opportunity
managers consider strategic alternatives for taking advantage of those events to improve performance
Organizational heroes
People admired for their qualities and achievements within an organization
Behavioral addition
is the process of having managers and employees perform a new behavior
Behavioral substitution
having managers and employees perform a new behavior in place of another behavior
Change visible artifacts
such as the office design and layout, company dress codes, etc.
General environment consists of
the economy, technological, sociocultural, and political/legal trends that indirectly affect all organizations
Components of specific environment are
customer, competitor, supplier, industry regulation, and advocacy groups
Economic Responsibility
To make a profit by producing a valued product or service
Legal Responsibility
To obey society’s laws and regulations
Ethical Responsibility
To abide by accepted principles of right and wrong when conducting business
Discretionary responsibilities
Social roles that a company fulfils beyond its economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities
Reactive Strategy
Company does less than society expects
Defensive strategy
Company admits responsibility for a problem but does the least required to meet societal expectations
Accommodative strategy
Company accepts responsibility for a problem and does all that society expects to solve that problem
Proactive strategy
Company anticipates a problem before it occurs and does more than society’s expectations
US Sentencing Commission Guidelines for Organizations give companies an incentive to cooperate and disclose illegal activities to federal authorities
Social responsibilities of organizations
Economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary
Responses to demands for social responsibility
Reactive, defensive, accommodative, and proactive strategies
No trade-off between being socially responsible and economic performance
Fruitlicious is a fruit juice manufacturing company. The company ensures that all the raw materials are used well and minimal waste is produced. The juice extraction and packaging units are designed in such way that quality is maintained with minimal costs. It can be said that Fruitlicious demonstrates _____.
Efficiency
Managers must strive for _____, which is accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives such as customer service and satisfaction
Effectiveness
_____ involves determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them.
Planning
Magnitude of consequences
total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision
Social Consensus
agreement on whether behavior is good or bad
Probability of effect
the chance that something will happen and then result in harm to others
Temporal Immediacy
the time between an act and the consequences
Proximity of effect
the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance of a decision maker from those affected by his decision
Concentration of Effect
how much an act affects the average person
The function of _____ typically involves deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom in the company.
Organizing
_____ refers to monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
Controlling
As the human resources manager at Hayden Engineering and Manufacturing Corp, Kim had to find effective ways to reward high performing employees and boost their morale during an economic downturn. Which management function did Kim have to engage in?
Leading
_____ are executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization.
Top Managers
It is typically the responsibility of _____ to develop employees’ commitment to and ownership of the company’s performance.
Top Managers
Middle managers typically:
plan and allocate resources to meet objectives.
First-line managers will most likely have to:
encourage, monitor, and reward the performances of their employees.
A ____ for a fast-food restaurant would be responsible for giving instructions to the staff and for setting up weekly work schedules.
First Line Manager
According to Mintzberg, which of the following is one of the three major roles managers fulfill while performing their jobs?
Interpersonal roles
Which of the following is an example of an interpersonal role?
figurehead
The informational role managers’ play when they share information they have collected with their subordinates and others in the company is called the ____ role.
disseminator
In the _____ managerial role, managers discuss and handle schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises.
negotiator
In the context of decisional roles, managers who assume the _____ role respond to pressures and problems so severe that they demand immediate attention and action.
disturbance handler
_____ skills can be summarized as the ability to work well with others.
human
An accountant with ____ has the ability to create a budget, compare the budget to the actual income statement, and determine unnecessary expenses.
technical skill
Which type of skills are the most important to the success of lower-level managers?
Technical skills
What type of skills are equally important at all levels of management?
Human Skills
Which skill is needed to get employees to participate in competitive situations?
Motivation to manage
Which of the following is a characteristic of derailers?
They are abrasive and intimidating.
According to Linda Hill’s study, which of the following is typically an expectation that managers have during the initial stages of management?
They believe that they need to “be the boss”
_____ is the ultimate form of commitment companies can make to their workers.
Employment security
According to ____, the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place.
the contingency approach
Nearly all organizations that interact with their environments and depend on them for survival are viewed as ____.
open systems
Which of the following statements about information management is true?
The first technologies to truly revolutionize the business use of information were paper and the printing press
A systems view of management allows managers to ____.
deal with the complex environment in which their companies operate
Which of the following management theorists believed that workers ultimately grant managers their authority?
Chester Barnard
_____ involves managing the daily production of goods and services.
Operations management
Which of the following management theories uses a quantitative approach to find ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or reduce costly inventories?
Operations management
Which of the following was demonstrated by the Hawthorne Studies?
Workers were not just extension of machines.
Which of the following management theorists provided managers with a better understanding of the effect group social interactions and employee satisfaction have on individual and group performance?
Elton Mayo
With integrative conflict resolution, _____.
both parties work together to create an alternative solution that includes shared preferences
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ means that each employee should report to and receive orders from just one boss.
unity of command
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ requires managers to develop a strong sense of morale and unity among workers that encourages coordination of efforts.
esprit de corps
Identify the three ways in which Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal with conflict.
Domination, compromise, and integration
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
controlling
_____ focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work.
Human relations management
According to human relations management _____.
success depends on treating workers well
Which of the following management theorists helped develop human relations management?
Mary Parker Follett
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom.
organizing
According to bureaucratic management, employees should be hired on the basis of _____.
educational background of an applicant
According to bureaucratic management, _____ should supervise the organization.
Managers
According to bureaucratic management, which of the following is a criterion on which employees should be promoted?
Experience or achievements
Which of the following does a Gantt chart visually indicate?
The time in which each task should be completed for a project
One of the objectives of the motion study conducted by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth was to:
improve productivity of workers.
Prior to the introduction of _____, five workers each given an identical task could use five different methods to perform the task with some methods being significantly more efficient than others.
scientific management
Which of the following is the goal of scientific management?
To find the one best way to perform each task.
Scientific Management
thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job
Soldiering
when workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work output
rate buster
a group member whose work pace is significantly faster than the normal pace in his or her group
Motion Study
breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive
Time study
timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs
Gantt chart
a graphical chart that shows which tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project or task
Bureaucracy
the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
Domination
an approach to dealing with conflict in which one party satisfies its desires and objectives at the expense of the other party’s desires and objectives
Compromise
an approach to dealing with conflict in which both parties give up some of what they want in order to reach agreement on a plan to reduce or settle the conflict
Integrative conflict resolution
an approach to dealing with conflict in which both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that meets the needs of both
Organization
a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces created by two or more people
System
a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole
Subsystems
smaller systems that operate within the context of a larger system
Synergy
when two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart
Closed Systems
systems that can sustain themselves without interacting with their environments
Open Systems
systems that can sustain themselves only by interacting with their environments, on which they depend for their survival
Contingency approach
holds that there are no universal management theories and that the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place
_____ refer to discernible symbols of an organization’s culture, such as the office design and layout, company dress code, and company benefits and perks, like stock options, personal parking spaces, or the private company dining room.
visible artifacts
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of successful organizational cultures?
Immutability
_____ is defined as a firm’s purpose or reason for existing.
Company mission
____ is a primary source of organizational culture.
The Company’s Founder
_____ is defined as searching the industry for important events or issues that might affect an organization.
Environmental scanning
The term ____ refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture.
internal environment
____ is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by members of an organization.
Organizational culture
_____ refers to the protocols and guidelines that govern the business practices and procedures of specific businesses, and professions.
Industry regulation
_____ are groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businesses, and professions.
Advocacy groups
A high degree of buyer or seller dependence can lead to _____.
opportunistic behavior
Competitive analysis refers to:
identifying companies that sell similar products.
Which of the following helps managers accurately analyze competition?
Refraining from underestimating the potential of competitors
____ is used to refer to a company’s practice of identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur.
Reactive customer monitoring
_____refers to identifying and addressing customer needs, trends, and issues before they occur.
Proactive monitoring
A court ruling regarding the unfair firing of employees is a development in the _____ component of the general environment.
political/legal
Many people in Rhenasia are cutting down on their spending. This is because of a lack of well-paying jobs in the country. Many businesses in the country are getting affected as the buying power of customers has drastically reduced. The environmental characteristic that is affecting businesses in Rhenasia is _____.
the economy
Business confidence indices:
show how sure actual managers are about future business growth.
_____ refers to the knowledge, tools, and methods used to transform inputs (raw materials, information, and so on) into outputs (products and services).
Technology
Environmental uncertainty is most likely to be lowest when:
environmental resource scarcity is low.
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Technology trends and Political Trends
Which of the following is true about a company’s specific environment?
It is unique to a particular firm’s industry.
Which of the following statements is true about environmental uncertainty?
It is most likely to be high when environmental change is extensive.
_____ is the rate at which a company’s general and specific environments alter.
Environmental change
According to the ____, companies go through long, simple periods of environmental stability, followed by short, complex periods of dynamic, fundamental environmental change, finishing with a return to environmental stability.
punctuated equilibrium theory
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Political Trends
A company implementing a(n) ____ strategy would demonstrate the greatest willingness on the part of the company to meet or exceed society’s expectations.
proactive
A company using a(n) _____ social responsiveness strategy will do less than society expects.
reactive
A company using a(n) _____ strategy would admit responsibility for a problem but would do the least required to meet societal expectations.
defensive
_____ pertain to the social roles that businesses play in society beyond their economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities.
Discretionary responsibilities
_____ responsibility means making a profit by producing a product valued by society.
Economic
Secondary stakeholders are important to a company because _____.
they can affect public perceptions and opinions
Under the stakeholder model, ____ would be an example of a stakeholder group that most strongly affects public perceptions and opinions about the company’s socially responsible behavior.
the media
Groups such as shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and local communities are examples of _____ stakeholders.
primary
A primary stakeholder of an organization would be _____.
customers
According to the _____ model, the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profits.
shareholder
In the context of corporate social responsibility, which of the following statements would Milton Friedman agree to?
The time, money, and attention diverted to social causes undermine market efficiency.
Various persons or groups with a legitimate interest in a company’s actions are called _____.
stakeholders
The two general categories of stakeholders are _____ stakeholders.
primary and secondary
Which of the following statements best defines social responsibility?
It is a business’ obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society.
Which of the following is an important step in establishing an ethical climate in an organization?
The top managers behaving ethically
The last step in the basic model of ethical decision making is to _____.
act on the situation
All of the following are important factors in the creation of an ethical business climate EXCEPT ____.
official approval of a company’s ethics code by government regulators
During an ethical decision-making process, which of these questions must be asked in order to identify a problem?
“What are the factors that make this an ethical problem?”
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the _____ make decisions that conform to societal expectations.
conventional level
The three stages of moral development identified by Kohlberg are ____.
the preconventional level, the conventional level, and the postconventional level
People at the _____ of moral development use internalized ethical principles to solve ethical dilemmas.
postconventional level
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the _____ make decisions that are based on selfish reasons.
preconventional level
Ethical intensity depends on all of the following EXCEPT ____.
individual commitment
Which of the following terms describes the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue?
Ethical intensity
Which of the following statements about ethics is true?
When people believe their work environment is ethical, they are six times more likely to stay with that company.

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