Management essay – Hawthorn studies Essay
It creates people a new realization bout why the variation of efficiency changes, and repudiates the incorrect concepts which existed before. The Hawthorne studies clearly showed that the increase of productivity is largely depends on the workers’ attitude and the internal relationship in an enterprise, the working environment and the wages are not the key factor to increase productivity. So satisfy the workers from both material and spiritual needs are the prerequisite to Improve their productivity.
This Is an Important milestone In management thinking, It creates inspiration for the after coming enterprises and managing systems, and provides the correct viewpoint for management. Before the Hawthorne studies came out, Frederick W. Taylor had created a way to getting a higher level of productivity. He set up a pig-iron experiment, which he put the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment, make the worker follow his instruction exactly, and encouraged the worker with an economic incentive of a significant higher daily wage (Robbins et al. 2009, p. 44-45). He had done that experiment successfully, so that he became known as the “father” of scientific management. That idea went to a lot of countries and had been used in company
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The researchers chose 14 male workers together to do the winding, welding and inspection work in a private room, and set a special payment system for them: promising them that who can achieve higher productivity, who will et higher salary for this. Unexpectedly, the outcome was weird. Every worker had done the similar quantity of work, because they didn’t report their actual productivity to the manager. After an in-depth survey, researchers found that the workers automatically became an informal organization, they reached a consensus that no one should damage the profit of others.
They ruled that no one could highlight himself, and no one could fall behind to encumber the whole group. And they also ruled that If someone who tells on the supervisor, that person will get “punishment” room all other members of this group, maybe sarcastic abuse and maybe get physical abuse. A further Investigation revealed that the reason they do so is to protect their organization’s benefit, they thought If someone who can do more work than the others, the manager may fire the ones who did less work. That’s why the individual united.
The failure of this experiment could clearly show that the payment shouldn’t be regard as an effective way to increase the efficiency. The internal relationship and the spirit of the organization could always affect much more than that. The Hawthorne studies also showed that the attitude of the workers is another important factor which affects the variation of efficiency. They display the importance of caring about the workers by a series of operations, including listening to the workers’ complaint and displeasure, doing detailed records without any exception or argument, and the interviewers must present the sympathy to their situations.
After the researchers had done this, the productivity increased substantially. Because the conversation with solicitude can ease the conflict between workers and managers, ND then formed a good internal relationship in the enterprise, and that is quite influential to the productivity. A welfare experiment was also held as a process for the Hawthorne studies, which could show the same result. The researchers tried to change the workers’ wages, incentive payments and their holiday time, but those actions didn’t make any reasonable effect on the productivity, the workers even can’t recognize if it is relevant to the change of their efficiency.
Later on, the further analysis found that the factor which resulting the increase of productivity is their ensue of being proud. Before the experiment started, six female workers were invited to a conversation by the manager, they felt great proudly for this because they thought the manager has been paying more attention on their work. This experiment coincident showed the same effect as the interview experiment. The original idea of this experiment was to get the workers’ views and suggestions to the company’s plans, policies and their work environment.
But the outcome surprised the researchers, workers would like to talk about something other than their outline of org and the company, they thought the most important and significant things are not the ones which the company was investigating. The interviewers saw their points and changed the plan to an open content interview, they also extended the interviewing time from 30 minutes to more than 1 hour. This interview program lasted for more than two years, accompanied a substantial increase in productivity.
Those outcomes of experiments could be strong evidences to show that how important is the feeling of workers, and the relationship between manager and workers affect a lot. People can see that the past researches about the efficiency are always depends on monetary attraction or working environment development, for example, the experiment did by Frederick W. Taylor. Later on, the researchers changed their direction for this, they started to put more attention on the inner feeling of workers, instead of thinking about those external factors.
Much of the research in this area had focused on group cohesiveness, and found that when a group don’t get a lot of internal disagreements or unlikeness between each other, they will put more attention on their Job, which could leads to a higher efficiency. Robbins et al. , 2009, p. 567). So, after the Hawthorne studies were developed, people had realized that workers belong to the society, the workplace is actually a social system, they can’t be regarded as economic men entirely, and their behavior is closely related to their emotions.
They seek not only financial income, but also friendship, sense of belonging and security. “These studies have been credited with anthropology, as well as helping to precipitate the emerging fields of social psychology, industrial relations, and organization behavior (Condescend J. 938). ” This series of experiment in the Hawthorne studies gave people an exact and useful result to the management thinking: the management of a company should be humanities, workers’ feeling weight the most in a company.
The workers’ attitude and the cohesiveness of a group affect a lot, the working environment and payment sometimes make effect, but they are absolutely not the key factor for the increase of efficiency. The insights gleaned from these experiments provide a basis for most current studies in human relations as well as for suburban such as participation, organizational development, leadership, motivation, and even organizational design (Richard H. Frank & James D. Gaul, 1978).