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Management Exam Review

According to the expectancy theory, __________ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.
Value, expectancy, and instrumentality
On the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are:
Higher-order and lower-order needs
To use expectancy theory to motivate employees, managers can:
Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
__________ strengthen behavior (i.e., increase its frequency).
Positive and negative reinforcement
Which of the following statements about goal-setting theory is true?
Goals can energize behavior
According to the text, ____ is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.
According to some industrial psychologists, ____ is a function of motivation times ability times situational constraints.
Job performance
McClellend’s Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are the needs for ____.
Power, achievement, and affiliation
According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, the lowest-order need is ____.
According to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces ____.
Which of the following statements about needs is true?
Higher-order needs will generally not motivate people as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied
Extrinsic rewards are ____.
Exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques
Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?
A sense of achievement
According to ____, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly.
Equity theory
The two basic kinds of inequity are ____.
Underreward and overreward
In equity theory, ____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly.
According to the motivational model presented in the text, perceived inequity directly affects ____.
How do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
a. by changing the referent
b. by simply quitting their jobs
c. by doing any of these
d. by rationalizing inputs or outcomes
e. by reducing the level of energy and time they input into a project
By doing any of these
In equity theory, ____ refers to the fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions.
Procedural justice
Reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of ____.
Its consequences
____ is the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior.
The two parts of reinforcement are ____.
Reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement
Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?
Negative reinforcement
Because workplace injuries cost U.S. businesses $1 billion every week, increased safety compliance needs to become a practice, not just a theory. The goal of developing safety consciousness within the workforce requires continuous reinforcement at every organizational level. This means ____.
A consequence must be delivered following every instance of behavior
Which of the following is a category of reinforcement schedules?
Variable interval
For punishment to work (i.e., to weaken the frequency of undesirable behaviors without creating a backlash), the punishment must be strong enough to stop the undesired behavior and must be administered ____.
Consistently, contingently, and quickly
A ____ is a target, objective, or result.
Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ____.
Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
Feedback can lead to stronger motivation and effort if it _____
Encourages employees to set higher, more difficult goals after the initial goals are accomplished
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ______ and ______, are central to successful leadership.
Initiating structure; consideration
Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
a. country club management
b. authority-compliance
c. team management
d. none of these
e. middle of the road management
None of these
Fiedlers contingency theory assumes:
Leaders are affective when their workgroups perform well
The most important situational factor in Fieldler’s Contingency Theory is:
Leader-member relations
Which of the following approaches to implementing Fiedler’s contingency theory in the workplace has proven effective?
Accurately measuring and matching leaders to situations
Which of the following is NOT one of the four leadership styles identified in the path-goal theory of leadership?
a. supportive
b. achievement-oriented
c. charismatic
d. directive
e. participative
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, __________ means setting challenging goals, having high expectations of employees, and displaying confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.
Achievement-oriented leadership
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model is another name for the:
Normative decision theory
Transactional leaders:
Reward followers for good behavior and punish followers for poor behavior
____is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
Which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
Organizations need both leaders and managers
Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership.
Trait theory
Which one of the following traits refers to high levels of effort and is characterized by achievement, motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative?
Successful business leaders are not like other people. Successful business leaders ____.
a. have a desire to lead
b. have emotional stability
c. are accurately described by all of these
d. are self-confident
e. are knowledgeable about business
Are accurately described by all of these
Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
Employee-centered leadership
Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____.
Job performance; job satisfaction
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration
Which of the following is an example of a situational theory of leadership?
Fiedler’s contingency theory
Which of the following leadership theories assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change?
a. path-goal theory
b. the status quo theory of leadership
c. none of these
d. the Vroom theory
e. normative decision theory
None of these
In Fiedler’s contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers.
Position power
In Fiedler’s contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.
Situational favorableness
Which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency in path-goal theory?
Task structure
According to the path-goal theory, which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency?
The formal authority system
The normative decision theory ____.
Helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making
The two types of visionary leadership are ____.
Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership
____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers.
Charismatic leadership
Charismatic leaders generally ____.
Articulate a vision based on strongly held values
Transformational leaders ____.
a. encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization
b. help followers see how their jobs fit with the organization’s vision
c. are able to make their followers feel they are a vital part of the organization
d. are accurately described by all of these
e. get employees to see beyond their own needs for the good of the group
Are accurately described by all of these
The steps of the basic perception process are:
Attention, organization, interpretation, retention
In the model of the communication process, __________ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.
Feedback to sender
The three formal communication channels in organizations are categorized as:
Downward, horizontal, and upward
In the __________ type of grapevine communication network, one “highly connected” individual shares information with many other managers and workers.
Gossip chain
__________ is the withholding of information about organizational problems or issues by employees.
Organizational silence
One of the best ways for top managers to hear what others feel and think is through:
Frequent informal meetings
The first thing that managers need to recognize when communicating feedback one-on-one to employees is that feedback can be:
Constructive or destructive
Which of the following statements about perception and perceptual filters is true?
People perceive according to personality-, psychology-, and experience-based filters
____ is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
Perceptual filters may occur as the result of ____.
Personality-based differences
____ is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don’t know is consistent with what we already know.
____ is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring, screening out, or not accepting inconsistent information.
Selective perception
According to attribution theory, ____ makes managers more likely to attribute workers’ problems or failures to internal rather than external causes.
The fundamental attribution error
According to attribution theory, we use two general reasons or attributions to explain people’s behavior. They are ____.
Internal and external attributions
The ____ states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior.
Attribution theory
Someone experiencing a(n) ____ would be likely to take any negative criticism of his or her department personally.
Self-serving bias
When things go wrong in the workplace, workers are more likely to attribute their problems to ____, while managers are more likely to attribute those same workers’ problems to ____.
External causes; internal causes
____ is the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).
A self-serving bias
Noise can occur when ____.
a. the receiver doesn’t have the time to understand the message
b. the message is not decoded properly
c. the message is not encoded properly
d. any of these occur
e. the sender isn’t sure of what message to communicate
Any of these occur
Which of the following statements about informal communication in organizations is true?
Information carried by informal communication channels is estimated to be 75 to 95 percent accurate
The two primary types of grapevine communications networks are ____.
Cluster and gossip
Coaching is ____.
A kind of one-on-one communication primarily used by managers to improve an employee’s on-the-job performance or behavior
Managers generally like and use____ but are less receptive to using ____.
Oral communication; written communication
Which of the following is one of the primary tasks faced by managers who want to improve organizational communication?
Managing organization-wide communication
Which of the following statements about hearing and listening are true?
Hearing is the act of perceiving sounds, while listening is the act of making a conscious effort to hear
____ is a technique of assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you’ve accurately heard what he or she said.
Active listening
In empathetic listening, ____ is important because it demonstrates that you understand the speaker’s emotions.
Reflecting feelings
The first thing that managers need to recognize when communicating feedback one-on-one to employees is that feedback can be ____.
Constructive or destructive
____ is a technique of understanding the speaker’s perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.
Empathetic listening
The basic control process begins with:
The establishment of clear standards of performance
In terms of the basic methods of control, __________ control is an improvement over __________ control because it attempts to eliminate or shorten the delay between performance and feedback about the performance.
Concurrent; feedback
__________ control regulates workers’ performances on the job, while __________ control measures the results of their efforts.
Behavior; output
The two types of objective controls managers use are:
Behavior and output
__________ is a control method that encourages managers to look beyond traditional measures to evaluate four different perspectives on company performance.
Balanced scorecard
Normative controls should be used when:
Organizational culture, values, and beliefs are strong
In the traditional control systems used at most companies, __________ measures are used to assess performance and influence behavior.
Objective control
Economic value added (EVA) is so important to workers and managers because it:
Shows whether a business or a subset of a business is really making a profit
____ is the regulatory process of establishing standards that will achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and then, if necessary, taking corrective action to restore performance to those standards.
____ are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
Companies may determine standards by ____.
Benchmarking other companies
Control is a(n) ____ process.
Continuous, dynamic, and cybernetic
The three basic control methods are ____.
Concurrent control, feedback control, and feedforward control
____ is the extent to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process.
Cybernetic feasibility
According to the text, which of the following factors can help managers to determine whether more control is possible?
Cybernetic feasibility
____ control is top-down control in which managers try to influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures.
____ control regulates workers’ actions and routines on the job, while ____ control measures the results of their efforts.
Behavior; output
Ironically, ____ control may lead to even more pressure for workers to conform to expectations than ____ control.
Concertive and bureaucratic
Instead of individual sales people calling on its business customers, Cedartree Tech uses sales teams. The sales team is given complete responsibility for developing long-term partnering relationships with each customer. What kind of control would the company’s sales managers most likely approve?
Concertive control
____ is a control method that encourages managers to look beyond traditional measures to evaluate four different perspectives on company performance.
Balanced scorecard
Which of the following is NOT one of the four perspectives measured in the Balanced Scorecard approach to control?
Policies and procedures perspective
Which of the following statements about the Balanced Scorecard approach to control is true?
a. All of the perspectives examined by the Balanced Scorecard approach are of equal importance to a company’s success.
b. The company’s analysis of its controllable environment is most important to the company’s success.
c. The customer perspective is the most important in the control process.
d. The innovation and learning perspective is the most important in the control process.
e. The company’s analysis of its noncontrollable environment is most important to the company’s success.
All of the perspectives examined by the Balanced Scorecard approach are of equal importance to a company’s success
In the traditional control systems used at most companies, ____ measures are used to assess performance.
Quality is typically defined and measured in three ways. They are ____.
Excellence, value, and conformance to expectations
____ is a performance assessment in which companies identify which customers are leaving and the rate at which customers are leaving.
Customer defection
When a company emphasizes ____ as its quality goal, managers must simultaneously control excellence, price, durability, or other features of a product or service that customers strongly associate with it.
A company makes only one product. The company is carefully evaluating what it learned in becoming such a success to see if it could use the same strategy to expand internationally. Which perspective of the Balanced Scorecard is this manufacturer emphasizing?
Innovation and learning perspective
Which of the following statements about economic value added (EVA) is true?
EVA is the amount by which profits (after expenses) exceed the cost of capital in a given year
A large university library has decided to make it nearly impossible for all but the most renowned Civil War experts to access their Civil War collection. The librarian in charge of this collection feels that this new policy will adversely influence the use of the collection in research on the experiences of everyday people during the war. This is an example of the use of control creating ____.
One of the advantages the Balanced Scorecard has over traditional control processes that rely solely on financial measures is that it ____.
Minimizes the chances of suboptimization
Data mining is the:
Process of discovering unknown patterns and relationships in large amounts of data
Two critical steps are required to make sure that data can be accessed by authorized users and no one else. They are:
Authentication and authorization
The goal of an executive information system (EIS) is to:
Provide accurate, complete, relevant, and timely information to managers
To properly secure data and data networks, a manager should use:
a. authentication and authorization
b. firewalls
c. all of these
d. virtual private networks
e. Web-based SSL encryption
All of these
A(n) __________ is a private company network that allows employees to easily access, share, and publish information using Internet software.
__________ is the direct electronic transmission of purchase and ordering information from one company’s computer system to another company’s computer system.
Electronic data interchange
Which of the following statements about knowledge is true?
Knowledge is the understanding that one gains from information
According to ____, the cost of computing will drop by 50 percent as computer-processing power doubles every 18 months.
Moore’s law
The term ____ refers to facts and figures that are in an unusable form.
Raw data
The first company to use new information technology to substantially lower costs or differentiate products or services often gains ____.
First-mover advantage
Why is information strategically important for organizations?
Information can be used to obtain first-mover advantage
Which of the following is one of the critical issues companies need to address in order to sustain a competitive advantage through information technology?
Is the firm’s use of information technology difficult for another company to create or buy?
The key to sustaining competitive advantage is ____.
Using information technology to continuously improve and support the core functions of a business
According to the resource-based view of information technology, sustainable competitive advantage ____.
a. differs across firms
b. occurs when information technology adds value
c. is difficult to create or acquire
d. can be created by using information technology to continuously improve and support the core functions of a business
e. is accurately described by all of these
Is accurately described by all of these
The two basic methods of capturing information are ____.
Manual and electronic
Because they are inexpensive and easy to use, ____, which convert printed text and pictures into digital images, have become an increasingly popular method for capturing data electronically.
Electronic scanners
____ is the process of discovering unknown patterns and relationships in large amounts of data.
Data mining
Using ____ data mining, the user simply tells the data mining software to uncover whatever patterns and relationships it can find in a data set.
Unsupervised data mining is particularly good at identifying ____.
a. sequence patterns
b. all of these
c. association or affinity patterns
d. data clusters
e. predictive patterns
All of these
____ occur in data mining when two or more database elements occur together in a significant pattern, with one of the elements preceding the other.
Sequence patterns
Unsupervised data mining can be used to recognize ____ patterns.
Affinity, sequence, and predictive
Which of the following statements about data mining is true?
Data mining typically uses data from a data warehouse
____ is the process of ensuring that data are reliably and consistently retrievable in a usable format for authorized users, but no one else.
Protecting information
Which of the following is NOT an example of a security problem that may threaten data and data networks?
a. password cracking
b. phishing
c. keystroke monitoring
d. mob flashing
e. email snooping
Mob flashing
A system that requires employees to scan their thumbprints as they start work is called a(n)___________.
Three kinds of information technology are used by executives, managers, and workers inside the company to access and share information. They are ____.
Executive information systems, portals, and intranets
A(n) ____ uses internal and external sources of data to provide managers and executives the information they need to monitor and analyze organizational performance.
Executive information system
Unlike an executive information system, a decision support system (DSS) ____.
Helps managers understand problems and potential solutions by acquiring and analyzing information with sophisticated models
A product’s quality is determined by its:
Durability, reliability, and serviceability
The three principles that characterize TQM are continuous improvement, teamwork, and:
Customer focus and satisfaction
__________ is a deviation in the form, condition, or appearance of a product from the quality standard for that product.
The term __________ refers to restoring customer satisfaction to strongly dissatisfied customers.
Service recovery
When a manufacturer makes a product continuously, it is using:
Continuous-flow production
The three basic measures of inventory are inventory turnover, average aggregate inventory, and:
Weeks of supply
Downtime and lost efficiency are both examples of:
Setup costs
____ is a measure of performance that indicates how many inputs it takes to produce or create an output.
Which of the following shows the correct relationship for productivity, outputs, and inputs?
Productivity = (outputs/inputs)
Why is productivity important to countries?
Productivity matters because it produces a higher standard of living
The American Society for Quality defines quality as ____.
A product free of deficiencies, or the characteristics of a product or service that satisfy customers’ needs
Which of the following is an important characteristic of a quality product?
The product quality characteristic of ____ is defined as the mean time before product failure.
Most companies define product ____ in terms of how easy or difficult it is to fix a product.
Which of the following statements about ISO 9000 is true?
ISO 9000 certification may be suspended or canceled if companies fail a periodic audit following their initial certification
In TQM terms, ____ is an organizational goal to provide products or deliver services that meet or exceed customers’ expectations.
Customer satisfaction
According to the TQM strategy, what should be a company’s primary goal?
Customer focus and satisfaction
____ is a deviation in the form, condition, or appearance of a product from the quality standard for that product.
The first step in the service-profit chain is the establishment of ____.
Internal service quality
One of the key assumptions in the service business is that success depends on how well employees deliver their services to customers. However, according to the service-profit chain, success depends on ____.
How well employees are treated
The lowest degree of processing occurs in ____ operations, where a company orders parts and assembles standardized products before receiving customer orders.
Classifying manufacturing operations in terms of the amount of assembly that occurs after an order is received from customers is the same as classifying those operations in terms of ____.
____ inventories include the basic inputs in a manufacturing process.
Raw materials
Which of the following is NOT a kind of inventory a manufacturer would keep in stock?
Nonrenewable materials
According to the textbook, what should a business owner do with excess inventory?
Cut prices on the product to increase its sales
Transaction costs and loss of customer goodwill are both examples of ____.
Stockout costs
Materials requirement planning (MRP) is ____.
Used with dependent demand systems
The three key parts of material requirement planning (MRP) are ____.
The master production schedule, the bill of materials, and inventory records
____ is a ticket-based system that indicates when to reorder inventory.

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